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Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124046122, 9780124046870

Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands

1st Edition

Eco-engineering Systems for Wastewater and Sludge Treatment

Authors: Alexandros Stefanakis Christos Akratos Vassilios Tsihrintzis
eBook ISBN: 9780124046870
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124046122
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 26th June 2014
Page Count: 392
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Vertical flow constructed wetlands for wastewater and sludge treatment represent a relatively new and still growing technology. Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands is the first book to present the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding vertical flow constructed wetlands theory and applications. In this book, you will learn about vertical flow systems with information about application and performance. Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands also includes information on how different countries are applying the technology, with design guidelines to illustrate best practices worldwide. A focus on water conservation through reuse of treated water showcases the benefit of vertical flow construction, which has greatly increased the attractiveness of the technology in recent years.

Key Features

  • All state-of-the-art knowledge regarding vertical flow constructed wetlands gathered in one book
  • A review of various constructed wetland approaches, including information about applications and performance, helps clarify what is currently known about constructed wetland principles and design
  • Discussion of how to manage the treated wastewater leaving the vertical flow for increasing biodiversity, providing food and habitat for birds, and producing harvestable biomass or crops
  • Includes case studies of constructed wetlands in developing countries


Environmental scientists and engineers, researchers in wastewater treatment, Wastewater/Water Treatment Plant Operators and Contractors, Sustainable wastewater/water managers, NGOs

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Author Biography
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Natural V. Constructed Wetlands
    • 1.2 Development of Constructed Wetland Technology
    • 1.3 Conventional V. Constructed Wetlands Systems
    • 1.4 Scope of This Book
  • Chapter 2: Constructed Wetlands Classification
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Free Water Surface constructed wetlands
    • 2.2 Horizontal Subsurface Flow constructed wetlands (HSF CWs)
    • 2.3 Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands
    • 2.4 Hybrid Constructed Wetlands
    • 2.5 Floating Treatment Wetlands
  • Chapter 3: VFCW Types
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Hydraulic Mode of Operation
    • 3.2 The Problem of Bed Clogging
  • Chapter 4: VFCW Components
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Vegetation
    • 4.2 Substrate Material
  • Chapter 5: Treatment Processes in VFCWs
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 General Pollutant Removal Mechanisms
    • 5.2 Organic Matter
    • 5.3 Suspended Solids
    • 5.4 Nitrogen
    • 5.5 Phosphorus
    • 5.6 Heavy Metals
    • 5.7 Pathogen Removal
    • 5.8 Organic Micropollutants
  • Chapter 6: Domestic/Municipal Wastewater Treatment with VFCWs
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Basic Design Considerations
    • 6.2 Facility Layout, Design, and Operation
    • 6.3 Performance
  • Chapter 7: Treatment of Special Wastewaters in VFCWs
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Treatment of Special Wastewaters
    • 7.2 Groundwater Remediation
  • Chapter 8: Modeling of Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Regression Equation Models
    • 8.3 Mechanistic Models for VFCWs
    • 8.4 Clogging Model
    • 8.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter 9: General Aspects of Sludge Management
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Municipal Sludge Characteristics
    • 9.2 Sludge Handling and Management—The Problem
    • 9.3 Legislation
  • Chapter 10: Sludge Treatment Wetlands—Basic Design Considerations
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Basic Design Considerations
    • 10.3 Facility Layout
    • 10.4 Operation and Feeding Strategy
    • 10.5 Common Operational Problems
    • 10.6 Vegetation
  • Chapter 11: Processes and Mechanisms in Sludge Treatment Wetlands
    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Sludge Dewatering
    • 11.2 Sludge Mineralization
  • Chapter 12: Performance of Sludge Treatment Wetlands
    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Dewatering Efficiency
    • 12.2 Organic Matter (Volatile Solids)
    • 12.3 Nutrients (N, P), pH, and EC
    • 12.4 Heavy Metals
    • 12.5 Pathogens
    • 12.6 Specific Microcompounds
    • 12.7 Drained Water
    • 12.8 Stability and Maturity of Residual Sludge
    • 12.9 Effects of Vegetation
    • 12.10 Effects of Porous Media
  • Chapter 13: Techno-Economic Aspects of Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands
    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Costing
    • 13.2 Economic and Environmental Evaluation
  • References
  • Nomenclature
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2014
26th June 2014
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Authors

Alexandros Stefanakis

Alexandros Stefanakis

Dr Stefanakis is an Environmental Engineer, with Diploma and Doctoral degrees from the Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece. He also holds a MSc degree in the field of “Hydraulic Engineering” from the Department of Civil Engineering of the same university. His Diploma His M.Sc. and Ph.D. theses focused on the ecological treatment of wastewater and sludge using natural systems, mainly on Constructed Wetlands. He has published 13 papers in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, several papers in international and national conference proceedings, technical reports, lecture notes and book chapters. His work includes numerous experiments with Constructed Wetland systems of different types and applications. He has participated in many national and EU research projects in Greece, Portugal and Germany. He has taught at the undergraduate level on the topic of environmental protection, delivered seminars in postgraduate studies programs and has been involved in international conference organizing. He has also supervised and trained various undergraduate students. He has been awarded twice during his career for his research work. Finally, Dr Stefanakis is also a practicing environmental engineer in Greece, dealing with the design of Constructed Wetlands facilities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), Leipzig, Germany; Ecosafe SA Environmental Applications, Athens, Greece

Christos Akratos

Dr. Christos Akratos received his diploma and doctoral degrees from the Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, and now is a Lecturer at the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece. Dr. Akratos has a great experience in constructed wetlands starting from his doctoral dissertation, and the majority of his publications deal with wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands. He has published 21 refereed journal papers, and has participated as a research team member in 14 research programs, most of them in the area of wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Western Greece

Vassilios Tsihrintzis

Dr. Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis is a Professor of Ecological Engineering and Technology and Director of the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of the Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece. He is a civil engineer and has M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Environmental Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Tsihrintzis’ research interests concentrate, among others, in the fields of natural systems for wastewater treatment with emphasis on constructed wetlands and water resources engineering and management. His published research work includes more than 100 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals and over 250 papers in conferences. He has also authored or co-authored books/book chapters on operations research, urban hydrology and runoff quality management, and constructed wetlands for wastewater and runoff treatment, among others. He has participated as a PI or team member in various research projects in the USA, the EU and Greece. Dr. Tsihrintzis has supervised more than 60 graduate and post-graduate student theses and 12 doctoral dissertations. He regularly teaches, among others, the course Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems, which is directly related to the proposed book. He has also served as the Head of the Department of Environmental Engineering for several years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Democritus University of Thrace

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