The Principles of Ion-Selective Electrodes and of Membrane Transport

The Principles of Ion-Selective Electrodes and of Membrane Transport

1st Edition - November 1, 1981

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  • Author: W.E. Morf
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444597557

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The Principles of Ion Selective Electrodes and of Membrane Transport is a collection of research works on the theory, principles, and fundamentals of ion-selective electrodes and of membrane transport. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters that highlight the application of the membrane model. Part A is a general discussion of membrane potentials and membrane transport. This part describes the formulations of the interfacial potential contribution due to phase boundaries. This part also explores the diffusion potential, the nonideality of diffusion layers or membrane phases, the liquid-junction potential arising in conventional potentiometric measuring cells. Other topics covered in this part include the practical solution for the membrane potential; the ion-transport and the electrical properties of bulk membranes; and the characteristics of lipid bilayer membranes. Part B considers the fundamentals of ion-selective electrodes. This part begins with discussions of the principles, response behavior, ion selectivity, and detection limits of solid-state membrane electrodes. This part also examines several important extensions and modifications of the Sandblom-Eisenman-Walker theory; the characteristics of neutral carrier membrane electrodes; and the theory of glass electrodes.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction and Preliminary Aspects

    1.1. Organization and EMF Response of Membrane Electrode Cells

    1.2. Membrane Materials and their Selectivity-Determining Principles

    1.3. Single-Ion Activities


    Part A - Theory of Membrane Potentials and Membrane Transport

    2. Description of the Basic Membrane Model


    3. The Phase-Boundary Potential (Donnan Potential)


    4. The Diffusion Potential

    4.1. General Formulation

    4.2. Practical Solutions


    5. Calculation of Liquid-Junction Potentials


    6. Solutions for the Membrane Potential


    7. Classical Concepts of Membrane Transport

    7.1. The Nernst - Planck Flux Equation

    7.2. The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Approximation

    7.3. Simple Model for Symmetrical Membrane Cells

    7.4. Schlögl's General Theory and its Applications

    7.5. Electrical Properties and Ion-Transport Selectivity of Bulk Membranes


    8. Free and Carrier-Mediated Ion Transport Across Bilayer Membranes

    8.1. Description of the Ion Flux Across the Membrane Interior

    8.2. Description of the Ion Flux Across the Interfaces

    8.3. Consequences of a Closed-Circuit Flux of Carriers

    8.4. Derivation of the General Result

    8.5. Bilayer Model by Läuger and Stark

    8.6. Bilayer Model by Ciani, Eisenmann, and Krasne

    8.7. Comparison with the Bulk Membrane Model by Morf, Wuhrmann, and Simon


    9. Summary of Fundamental Relationships

    Part B - Ion- Selective Electrodes

    10. Solid-State Membrane Electrodes

    10.1. Characterization of Membrane Materials

    10.2. Basic Theoretical Aspects of Solid-State Membrane Electrodes

    10.3. Potential Response and Detection Limit of Silver Compound Membranes Unbuffed Solutions of the Primary Ions

    10.4. Potential Response of Silver Halide Membranes to Different Cations

    10.5. Selectivity of Silver Halide Membranes Towards Different Anions

    10.6. Potential Reponse and Selectivity of Silver Halide Membranes Towards Different Ligands


    11. Liquid-Membrane Electrodes Based on Liquid Ion-Exchangers

    11.1. Membrane Materials and Observed Ion Selectivities

    11.2. Implications of the General Membrane Theory

    11.3. Theory of Sandblom, Eisenman, and Walker, and its Extensions

    11.4. Interpretation of the Apparent Selectivity Behavior of Liquid Membranes


    12. Liquid-Membrane Electrodes Based on Neutral Carriers

    12.1. Characteristics of Neutral Carriers and Reported Selectivities for Membrane Electrodes

    12.2. Mechanism of Cation Specificity (Permselectivity) of Neutral Carrier Membranes

    12.3. Cation SelectiVity of Carrier Membrane Electrodes

    12.4. Anion Effects in Carrier Membrane Electrodes

    12.5. Molecular Aspects of Cation-Selective Carriers


    13. Glass Electrodes

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Ion-Exchange Theories and n-Type Descriptions of Glass Membrane Potentials

    13.3. Potential Responses of Na2 O-Al2 O3 SiO2 Glasses

    13.4. Alternative Approaches to Heterogeneous-Site Glasses

    13.5. Further Development of Glass Electrode Theory (Liquid-Membrane Concepts)


    14. Dynamic Response Behavior of Ion-Selective Electrodes

    14.1. Electrical Relaxation Processes

    14.2. Kinetics of Interfacial Reactions

    14.3. Diffusion Through a Stagnant Layer

    14.4. Diffusion within the Ion-Sensing Membrane


    15. Special Arrangements: Gas-Sensing Electrodes and Enzyme Electrodes

    15.1. Gas-Sensing Electrodes

    15.2. Enzyme Electrodes


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1981
  • Published: November 1, 1981
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444597557

About the Author

W.E. Morf

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