The Lymphatic System in Colorectal Cancer

The Lymphatic System in Colorectal Cancer

Basic Concepts, Pathology, Imaging, and Treatment Perspectives

1st Edition - February 11, 2022

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  • Editor: Wim Ceelen
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128242971
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128242988

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Description

The Lymphatic System in Colorectal Cancer: Basic Concepts, Pathology, Imaging, and Treatment Perspectives provides an in-depth overview on the role of the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis and treatment of colorectal cancer. This is the first book to provide a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to the lymphatic system in colorectal cancer, with topics ranging from cancer biology and mathematical modeling to surgical approaches and novel imaging techniques. This book is valuable for cancer researchers, oncologists and anyone interested in the biology and treatment of colorectal cancer. Bringing together internationally renowned experts, the book's chapters encompass relevant content to help readers understand complex subjects. Lymphatic spread is one of the hallmarks of locally advanced colorectal cancer that adversely affects prognosis. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis, dynamics and prognostic significance of lymphatic spread remain poorly understood. At the same time, novel surgical approaches such as complete mesocolic excision and sentinel node identification are being introduced, but their value remains uncertain.

Key Features

  • Presents a multidisciplinary approach, allowing readers to identify relevant fields of collaboration and inspire novel research endeavors in the field
  • Discusses novel imaging techniques such as near-infrared that is being introduced in clinical practice as a tool for identifying sentinel nodes and lymphatic pathways
  • Brings together international experts who shed light on the most relevant aspects of lymphatic spread in cancer of the bowel, underlying mechanisms, and the best method to avoid or treat it

Readership

Cancer researchers, oncologists, clinicians, medical scientists

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Section 1: Basic concepts
  • Chapter 1. Hypoxic signaling in lymphatic colorectal cancer metastasis
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Hypoxic signaling in the tumor microenvironment
  • 1.3 Hypoxia and metastatic dissemination
  • 1.4 Therapeutic perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflicts of interest
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Biomechanical aspects of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Biomechanics of the normal lymphatic system
  • 2.3 Biomechanics of lymphatic metastasis
  • 2.4 Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Mechanisms of lymphatic spread in colon cancer: insights from molecular and genetic studies
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Mechanisms of the lymphatic system
  • 3.3 Tumor microenvironment
  • 3.4 Colorectal cancer staging and treatment
  • 3.5 Evolutionary mechanisms of lymph node metastasis
  • 3.6 Molecular markers of colorectal cancer spread
  • 3.7 Molecular markers of metastases
  • 3.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of interest
  • References
  • Chapter 4. Anatomy and embryology of the lymphatic system of the colon and rectum
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Embryology of the lymphatic system
  • 4.3 Anatomy of the lymphatic system
  • 4.4 Anatomy of the lymphatic system of the colon and rectum
  • 4.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 2: Pathology and imaging
  • Chapter 5. Imaging of colorectal nodal disease
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Staging, segmentation, and endoscopic detection
  • 5.3 Metastasis classification and prediction
  • 5.4 Treatment response, recurrence, and survival
  • 5.5 Summary and future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 6. Tumor deposits in colorectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Definition of tumor deposits
  • 6.3 The origins and biology of tumor deposits
  • 6.4 Staging of tumor deposits
  • 6.5 Prognostic value of tumor deposits
  • 6.6 Tumor deposits and neoadjuvant therapies
  • 6.7 Pathological assessment of tumor deposits: interobserver variation
  • 6.8 Radiological assessment of tumor deposits: advances and challenges
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Lymph node classification in colorectal cancer: tumor node metastasis versus the Japanese system
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Japanese D3 lymphadenectomy
  • 7.2 Tumor node metastasis versus Japanese lymph node classification
  • 7.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8. Detection and significance of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in lymph nodes of colorectal cancer resections
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Definition of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells
  • 8.2 Micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in colorectal cancer
  • 8.3 Micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph-node biopsy in colorectal cancer
  • 8.4 Micrometastases and isolated tumor cells after neoadjuvant therapy
  • 8.5 Differential diagnosis of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells
  • 8.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 9. Anatomical and temporal patterns of lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Mechanisms of lymphatic spread in colon cancer
  • 9.3 Temporal patterns of metastasis in colon cancer
  • 9.4 Anatomical patterns of lymph node metastasis in colon cancer
  • 9.5 Conclusion and implications for research
  • References
  • Section 3: Treatment
  • Chapter 10. Neoadjuvant treatment and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Importance of lymph node yield
  • 10.3 Lymph node yield
  • 10.4 Neoadjuvant therapy and lymph node yield
  • 10.5 Lymph node ratio
  • 10.6 Impact of nodal involvement with complete clinical response after neoadjuvant therapy
  • 10.7 Effects of total neoadjuvant therapy
  • 10.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 11. Complete mesocolic excision in colon cancer
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Outline of the key anatomy
  • 11.3 Principles of CME surgery
  • 11.4 Oncological benefits of CME
  • 11.5 Potential limitations of CME and associated controversies
  • 11.6 Importance of pathological quality control in CME surgery
  • 11.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12. Japanese D3 dissection in cancer of the colon: technique and results
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 History of lymphadenectomy for colon cancer in Japan
  • 12.3 Basic principles of lymph node dissection in Japan
  • 12.4 Changes in the recommended area of lymph node dissection in Japan
  • 12.5 Current classifications of lymph node metastasis (N) and lymph node dissection (D) in Japan
  • 12.6 Lymph node groups and station numbers
  • 12.7 Classification of lymph node metastases (N)
  • 12.8 Classification of lymph node dissection (D)
  • 12.9 Technique of Japanese D3 dissection for colon cancer
  • 12.10 Cecum cancer
  • 12.11 Ascending colon cancer
  • 12.12 Transverse colon cancer
  • 12.13 Descending colon cancer
  • 12.14 Sigmoid colon cancer
  • 12.15 Preservation of the LCA for left-sided colon cancer
  • 12.16 Outcomes of Japanese D3 dissection for colon cancer
  • 12.17 Current recommendations of the Japanese guidelines, 2019
  • 12.18 Comparison of Japanese D3 dissection with European CME with CVL
  • 12.19 Future perspective
  • 12.20 Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • Disclosure
  • References
  • Chapter 13. Management of para-aortic nodal disease in colon cancer
  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Imaging and implications for prognosis
  • 13.3 Differences between right-sided and left-sided para-aortic node involvement
  • 13.4 Metachronous isolated lymph node metastasis
  • 13.5 Synchronous metastases
  • 13.6 Morbidity of surgery
  • 13.7 The role of chemotherapy
  • 13.8 Conclusion and future perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 14. Lateral lymph node dissection in rectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 East versus West
  • 14.3 Defining lateral nodal disease
  • 14.4 The future
  • 14.5 The lateral lymph node dissection
  • 14.6 Risks
  • 14.7 Procedural variation
  • 14.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 15. Fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node detection in colorectal cancer surgery
  • Abstract
  • 15.1 Concept of sentinel lymph node mapping
  • 15.2 Fluorescence-guided surgery
  • 15.3 Fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node detection in colorectal cancer
  • 15.4 Future perspectives
  • 15.5 Conclusions
  • Disclosure
  • References
  • Chapter 16. Systemic treatment of localized colorectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Relapse risk assessment in stage II disease
  • 16.3 Adjuvant treatment in stage II disease
  • 16.4 Time to treat
  • 16.5 Adjuvant treatment in stage III disease
  • 16.6 Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced colon cancer
  • 16.7 Nutrition and lifestyle modification reduce relapse risk
  • 16.8 Adjuvant treatment in elderly
  • 16.9 Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase-deficient patients
  • 16.10 Future perspectives for (neo)adjuvant therapy in stage III colon cancer
  • 16.11 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17. Radiotherapy for metastatic nodal disease in colorectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 17.1 Introduction to radiation
  • 17.2 Rationale for local treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer
  • 17.3 Experience with radiation
  • 17.4 Practical considerations in radiation and radiation techniques
  • 17.5 Case examples
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 322
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: February 11, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128242971
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128242988

About the Editor

Wim Ceelen

Wim P CEELEN, MD, PhD, FACS, is an academic surgical oncologist who is active in clinical, translational, and preclinical research. He has an active interest in the role and pathophysiology of lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer and has published in this field intensively. Dr Ceelen has previously edited two volumes on peritoneal metastasis and intraperitoneal drug delivery. He has coauthored over 200 scientific publications to date.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Surgical Oncology, Staff Surgeon, Department of GI Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium

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