Space Safety and Human Performance

Space Safety and Human Performance

1st Edition - November 10, 2017

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Tommaso Sgobba
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081018699
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081018705

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Space Safety and Human Performance provides a comprehensive reference for engineers and technical managers within aerospace and high technology companies, space agencies, operators, and consulting firms. The book draws upon the expertise of the world’s leading experts in the field and focuses primarily on humans in spaceflight, but also covers operators of control centers on the ground and behavior aspects of complex organizations, thus addressing the entire spectrum of space actors. During spaceflight, human performance can be deeply affected by physical, psychological and psychosocial stressors. Strict selection, intensive training and adequate operational rules are used to fight performance degradation and prepare individuals and teams to effectively manage systems failures and challenging emergencies. The book is endorsed by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS).

Key Features

  • Provides information on critical aspects of human performance in space missions
  • Addresses the issue of human performance, from physical and psychosocial stressors that can degrade performance, to selection and training principles and techniques to enhance performance
  • Brings together essential material on: cognition and human error; advanced analysis methods such as human reliability analysis; environmental challenges and human performance in space missions; critical human factors and man/machine interfaces in space systems design; crew selection and training; and organizational behavior and safety culture
  • Includes an endorsement by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS)


Aerospace engineers, systems engineering and safety managers working in space agencies, commercial space industry and consulting firms. Also suitable for use as a reference for senior and graduate level courses covering design and operations of space system

Table of Contents

  • CHAPTER 1 Introduction
    Tommaso Sgobba, Barbara Kanki
    1.1 Unsafe Acts and Latent Failures
    1.2 Spaceflight Incidents and Close Calls Due to Human Error
    Giovanni Canepa, Mario Ferrante, Tommaso Sgobba
    1.3 Human Error Prevention
    1.4 Beyond Earth Orbits
    1.5 Book Structure

    CHAPTER 2 Cognitive Functions and Human Error
    Barbara G. Kanki
    2.1 Crewmember Cognitive Function During Spaceflight
    Bettina L. Beard
    2.2 Human Error
    Cynthia Null

    CHAPTER 3 Workload and Fatigue
    Brian F. Gore
    3.1 Workload Measurement and Management in System Development
    Brian F. Gore, Stephen M. Casner, Christopher D. Wickens
    3.2 Workload and Fatigue
    Ståle Pallesen, Bjørn Bjorvatn

    CHAPTER 4 Spaceflight Environment
    4.1 Accelerations
    Claudio Moratto
    4.2 Acoustics
    Christopher S. Allen, Jerry R. Goodman, W. Ferdinand, D.E. Grosveld
    4.3 Radiation
    Martina Giraudo, Cesare Lobascio, Roberto Battiston
    4.4 Microbial Contamination
    Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Michael Roberts, Sarah Castro, Cherie Oubre, Koichi Makimura, Natalie Leys, Elisabeth Grohmann, Takashi Sugita, Tomoaki Ichijo, Masao Nasu

    CHAPTER 5 Physiological Performance and Capabilities
    Bettina L. Beard
    5.1 Launch and Ascent
    Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
    5.2 On Orbit
    Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
    5.3 Re-Entry and Landing
    Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
    5.4 Return to Earth’s 1 G
    Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
    5.5 Cardiovascular Physiology in Different Microgravity Environments
    Ries Simons
    5.6 Conclusion
    Bettina L. Beard

    CHAPTER 6 Psychological Resilience
    Gro M. Sandal
    6.1 Mission Factors
    Dietrich Manzey
    6.2 Individual State Factors
    Dietrich Manzey
    6.3 Individual Resilience
    Gro M. Sandal, Nathan Smith
    6.4 Team Resilience
    Lauren B. Landon, Jamie D. Barrett
    6.5 Team Emergent States and Outcomes
    Lauren B. Landon, Jamie D. Barrett

    CHAPTER 7 Human Factors Research Methods and Tools
    Barbara G. Kanki
    7.1 Task Analysis Techniques
    Lee T. Ostrom, Cheryl Wilhelmsen
    7.2 Critical Incident Technique and Process Mapping
    Lee T. Ostrom, Cheryl Wilhelmsen
    7.3 Digital Human Modeling
    H.C. Dischinger, Jr.
    7.4 Bed Rest
    Oliver Angerer
    7.5 Voice Stress Analysis
    Bernd Johannes
    7.6 Analog Mission Research
    Gro M. Sandal, Nathan Smith, Gloria R. Leon

    CHAPTER 8 System Safety and Accidents Prevention
    8.1 System Safety
    Nancy Leveson
    8.2 Safety Design and Human Rating
    Tommaso Sgobba
    8.3 Risk Management and Acceptance
    Tommaso Sgobba
    8.4 Accident Model Based on System Theory
    Nancy Leveson
    8.5 Certification of Commercial Space Systems
    Tommaso Sgobba
    8.6 Organizing Space Operations’ Safety
    Tommaso Sgobba, Paul Wilde
    8.7 Lessons Learned Process
    Stephanie Barr

    CHAPTER 9 Human-System Interfaces Design
    Tommaso Sgobba
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Spacecraft Cockpit Design
    Michael C. Dorneich, Christopher Hamblin, Olu Olofinboba
    9.3 Visual-Aural Alert Design
    Anikó Sándor, Durand R. Begault
    9.4 Seating Considerations for Spaceflight
    Dustin Gohmert
    9.5 Contact Hazards
    Tommaso Sgobba

    CHAPTER 10 Human Automation Interaction
    10.1 Human Use of Automation
    Victor Riley
    10.2 Human-Machine Interaction
    Paul C. Schutte
    10.3 Unique Considerations for Human-Robotic Interaction in Human Spaceflight
    Jessica J. Marquez

    CHAPTER 11 Human Factors and Safety in EVA
    Sudhakar Rajulu
    11.1 Anthropometry and Sizing
    Karen Young, Han Kim
    11.2 Strength and Performance: EVA Suits Restrict Performance
    Scott England, Elizabeth Benson
    11.3 EVA Physiology
    Jason Norcross
    11.4 EVA Lighting and Visual Performance
    James C. Maida
    11.5 EVA Interfaces/mobility Aids
    Elizabeth Benson
    11.6 Spacesuit Acoustic Requirements
    Christopher Allen

    CHAPTER 12 Human Reliability Analysis Methods and Tools
    Mónica Philippart
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Overview of the HRA Methodology
    12.3 Factors that Influence Human Performance
    12.4 HRA Methods for Space Systems
    12.5 Improving Human Reliability and Mitigating Risk

    CHAPTER 13 Human Factors in Mission Control Center
    Tommaso Sgobba
    13.1 Human Spaceflight Mission Control Center
    J. Watts-Englert, D.D. Woods, E.S. Patterson
    13.2 Resilient Anomaly Response in Mission Control Center
    J. Watts-Englert, D.D. Woods, E.S. Patterson
    13.3 Training of Human Spaceflight Controllers
    Gary Dittemore, Christie Bertels
    13.4 Human Factors in Launch Flight Safety
    H. Poussin, L. Rochas, T. Vallée, R. Bertrand, J. Haber
    13.5 Hazardous Commands’ Identification and Control
    Tommaso Sgobba

    CHAPTER 14 Organizational Factors and Safety Culture
    Barbara G. Kanki, Alan Hobbs
    Scope of the Chapter
    Structure of the Chapter
    14.1 Organizational Factors
    Barbara G. Kanki, Alan Hobbs, Timothy S. Barth
    14.2 Safety Culture
    Barbara G. Kanki, Alan Hobbs, Tracy Dillinger
    14.3 Safety Culture Guide
    Tracey Dillinger, David King, Gregory Alston

    CHAPTER 15 Habitability and Habitat Design
    T. Sgobba, I. Schlacht
    15.1 Habitability
    Irene Schlacht
    15.2 General Habitat Design
    Irene Schlacht, Tommaso Sgobba
    15.3 Habitat Design—Special Topic: Noise Control
    Jerry R. Goodman, Ferdinand W. Grosveld, Christopher S. Allen
    15.4 Habitat Design—Special Topic: Radiation Shielding
    Riccardo Musenich, Martina Giraudo, Valerio Calvelli, Roberto Battiston

    CHAPTER 16 Selection and Training
    Tommaso Sgobba, Jean-Bruno Marciacq
    16.1 Selection
    16.2 Training
    Jean-Bruno Marciacq

    CHAPTER 17 Medical and Psychological Mission Support
    Alejandro Garbino, Richard T. Jennings
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Preflight Preparation (Post Selection)
    17.3 Training Risks
    17.4 Launch/Landing
    17.5 Orbital Phase
    17.6 Rehabilitation
    17.7 Beyond Earth Orbit
    17.8 Conclusion

    CHAPTER 18 Human Factors’ Mishap Investigation
    Katherine A. Wilson
    18.1 Why Human Factors in Mishap Investigations?
    18.2 What Is a Mishap?
    18.3 The Mishap Investigative Process
    18.4 The Human Factors’ Investigation
    18.5 Human Factors’ Investigative Frameworks
    18.6 Data Collection
    18.7 Challenges of the Human Factors’ Investigation
    18.8 Conclusion

    Appendix A: Habitat Volumetric Dimensions Allocation
    Appendix B: NASA Human Capability Limits
    Appendix C: Appendix C for Chapter 14
    Appendix D: Quiet Fan Acoustic Benefits in the ISS Russian Segment
    Appendix E: Human Factors in the SpaceShipTwo Investigation

Product details

  • No. of pages: 944
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
  • Published: November 10, 2017
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081018699
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081018705

About the Editor in Chief

Tommaso Sgobba

Tommaso Sgobba is Executive Director and Board Secretary of IAASS (International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety). Tommaso Sgobba has been IAASS first President in the period 2005-2013. Until June 2013 Tommaso Sgobba has been responsible for flight safety at the European Space Agency (ESA), including human-rated systems, spacecraft re-entries, space debris, use of nuclear power sources, and planetary protection. He joined the European Space Agency in 1989, after 13 years in the aeronautical industry. Initially he supported the developments of the Ariane 5 launcher, several earth observation and meteorological satellites, and the early phase of the European Hermes spaceplane. Later he became _Product Assurance and Safety Manager for all European manned missions on Shuttle, MIR station, and for the European research facilities of the International Space Station. He chaired for 10 years the ESA ISS Payload Safety Review Panel. He was also instrumental in setting up the ESA Re-entry Safety Review Panel. Tommaso Sgobba holds an M.S. in Aeronautical Engineering from the Polytechnic of Turin (Italy), where he was also professor of space system safety (1999-2001). He has published several articles and papers on space safety, and co-edited the text book “Safety Design for Space Systems”, published in 2009 by Elsevier, that was also published later in Chinese. He was the Editor-in-Chief of the books “Safety Design for Space Operations” (2013) and “Space Safety and Human Performance” (2017) also published by Elsevier. He is Managing Editor of the Journal of Space Safety Engineering and member of the editorial board of the Space Safety Magazine. Tommaso Sgobba is the inventor (patent pending) of the R-DBAS (Re-entry, Direct Broadcasting Alert System), to alert the air traffic of falling fragments from uncontrolled space system re-entry. Tommaso Sgobba received the NASA recognition for outstanding contribution to the International Space Station in 2004, and the prestigious NASA Space Flight Awareness (SFA) Award in 2007.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS) and former Head of the Independent Safety Office, European Space Agency (ESA), Noordwijk, The Netherlands

About the Editors

Barbara Kanki

Dr. Barbara Kanki served as a Research Scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center (Moffett Field, California) in the Human Systems Integration Division. Over her tenure of more than 25 years, she conducted human performance research in support of NASA Aviation Safety Programs, Human Factors and Performance for Space Safety, and a variety of Human Factors programs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In a consulting role she worked with other high risk industries such as the medical and nuclear power fields. Dr. Kanki’s research activities have ranged across human factors topics such as crew communication and coordination, organizational factors, information and workload management for aviation operations including flight crews, ground control, and technical operations. Her research interests include human-centered procedure and document design, integration and training for new technologies as well as safety topics such as voluntary reporting and event investigation. She has supported the space side of NASA in human and socio-technical risk factors, team training, and procedure design primarily for the space shuttle program at Kennedy Space Center and has participated on NASA mishap boards, safety assessments and National Transportation Safety Board human performance investigations. After retiring from NASA in 2014, Dr. Kanki continues to contribute to NASA projects and FAA/industry groups, and is the current chair of the Human Performance working group of the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety. Dr. Kanki received her doctorate in Behavioral Sciences from the University of Chicago, where she specialized in the areas of communication and group dynamics. She continues to author, edit, and review books, journals, and papers on human factors topics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired, NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA

Jean-Francois Clervoy

Jean –Francois Clervoy, is an ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut from France and brigadier general from DGA (French Defense Procurement Agency), served as a mission specialist twice aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-66 to study the atmosphere, and on mission STS-84 to re-supply the Russian space station Mir, and as a flight engineer aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 to repair the Hubble Space Telescope. He has logged 28 days and 3 hours in 439 earth orbits. Since 2001 he has worked as a senior advisor astronaut for the ESA human space flight programs including the ATV Jules Verne project to re-supply the International Space Station. Still active in the European astronaut corps, he works also as Chairman of Novespace, a company which organizes parabolic flights with its Airbus ZERO-G for microgravity research and for public weightlessness discovery flights.

Gro Sandal

Dr. Sandal is a professor of psychology at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen in Norway where she is a leader of a unit, the Society and Workplace Diversity Research Group. Her fields of expertise are work and organizational psychology, stress and coping, and cross-cultural psychology. Since the early 1990s, Gro Mjeldheim Sandal has been the Principal Investigator of large scales research projects funded by the European Space Agency focusing on psychological reactions during human spaceflights. The projects have included a number of simulation studies of multicultural crews isolated in hyperbaric chambers and personnel operating in other extreme environments (Antarctic research stations, polar expeditions, military settings, oil and gas-platforms). She is currently leading a psychological experiment on the ISS in collaboration with colleagues working for the Russian Space Agency. Her recent research has focused on the implications of individual and cultural differences in values for efficient co-working among crews in space as well as among ground-based personnel. A major aim of her research in space and analogue environments is to gain knowledge that can be applied for selection, training, and in-flight support.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of psychology, University of Bergen, Norway

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  • IlariaCinelli Fri Aug 23 2019

    Nice reading!

    Nice reading!