Sabiston and Spencer Surgery of the Chest

Sabiston and Spencer Surgery of the Chest

2-Volume Set

9th Edition - August 3, 2015

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  • Authors: Frank Sellke, Pedro del Nido, Scott Swanson
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323241267
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323393775

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Description

For complete, authoritative coverage of every aspect of thoracic and cardiac surgery, turn to the unparalleled guidance found in Sabiston and Spencer Surgery of the Chest, 9th Edition. Now in full-color for the first time, Drs. Frank W. Sellke, Pedro J. del Nido, and Scott J. Swanson’s standard-setting two-volume set is meticulously organized so that you can quickly find expert information on open and endoscopic surgical techniques performed in the operating room. With its comprehensive coverage of thoracic as well as adult and pediatric cardiac surgery, this 9th Edition is an essential resource not only for all thoracic surgeons, but also for physicians, residents, and students concerned with diseases of the chest.

Key Features

  • Find what you need quickly with short, focused chapters divided into three major sections: Adult Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, and Thoracic Surgery.
  • Benefit from the knowledge and expertise of global experts who provide a comprehensive view of the entire specialty.
  • Master all of the most important current knowledge and techniques in cardiac and thoracic surgery—whether for specialty board review or day-to-day surgical practice.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Video Contents
  • Volume One
  • Section 1 Thoracic Surgery
  • Part A Evaluation and Care
  • 1 Anatomy of the Thorax
  • Thoracic Cage
  • Muscles of the Thorax
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Mediastinum
  • Tracheobronchial Tree
  • Lungs
  • Esophagus
  • Vessels of the Thorax
  • Nerves of the Thorax
  • Suggested Readings
  • 2 Radiologic Imaging of Thoracic Abnormalities
  • Mediastinal Abnormalities
  • Lung Abnormalities
  • Pleural and Chest Wall Abnormalities
  • Postoperative Imaging
  • Summary
  • References
  • 3 Preoperative Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgery
  • Physiologic Effects of Thoracic Surgery
  • Patient Population Undergoing Thoracic Surgery
  • Common Complications after Thoracic Surgery
  • Effect of Surgical Approach on Perioperative Complications
  • Goals of the Preoperative Evaluation
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Imaging Studies
  • Pulmonary Function Testing
  • Prediction of Postoperative Lung Function
  • Cardiac Assessment of Patients Under Consideration for Thoracic Surgical Procedures
  • Assessment of Functional Capacity
  • Evaluation and Risk Stratification
  • References
  • 4 Perioperative Care of the Thoracic Surgical Patient
  • Preoperative Preparation
  • Prophylaxis
  • Intraoperative Care
  • Postoperative Care
  • Management of Complications
  • Discharge Planning
  • References
  • Part B Endoscopy
  • 5 Endoscopic Diagnosis of Thoracic Disease
  • Esophagoscopy
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound
  • Tracheobronchoscopy
  • References
  • 6 Endoscopic Therapies for Thoracic Diseases
  • Photodynamic Therapy
  • Laser Ablation of Endoluminal Tumors
  • Brachytherapy
  • Stents
  • Comparison of Palliative Endoscopic Therapies
  • Evolving Endoscopic Treatment Modalities for Benign Esophageal Diseases
  • References
  • Part C Trauma
  • 7 Thoracic Trauma
  • Primary Survey
  • Diagnostic Tests
  • Emergency Department Thoracotomy
  • Blunt Trauma
  • Penetrating Trauma
  • Complications of Thoracic Trauma
  • References
  • Part D Trachea
  • 8 Tracheal Lesions
  • Historical Perspective
  • Anatomy
  • Tracheal Pathology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Radiographic Imaging
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Anesthesia
  • Tracheal Resection
  • Laryngotracheal Resection
  • Release Procedures
  • Repair of Tracheoinnominate and Tracheoesophageal Fistulas
  • Airway Replacement
  • Perioperative Management
  • Results
  • Complications
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part E Benign Lung Disease
  • 9 Congenital Lung Diseases
  • History
  • Embryology
  • Tracheal Abnormalities
  • Bronchial Branching Abnormalities
  • Lung Bud Anomalies
  • Vascular Abnormalities
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 10 Benign Lesions of the Lung
  • Definition and Incidence
  • Evaluation for an Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodule
  • Hamartoma
  • Mucous Gland Adenoma
  • Infectious Granulomatosis
  • Intrapulmonary Fibrous Tumor
  • Benign Endobronchial Fibrous Histiocytoma
  • Granular Cell Tumor
  • Inflammatory Pseudotumor
  • Papillomas
  • Nodular Amyloid Lesion
  • Chondroma
  • Myoepithelioma
  • Mucinous Cystadenoma
  • Alveolar Adenoma
  • Leiomyoma
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Clear Cell Tumor (Sugar Tumor)
  • Primary Pulmonary Thymoma
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 11 Interstitial Lung Diseases
  • Granulomatous Patterns of Interstitial Lung Disease
  • Alveolitic Patterns of Interstitial Lung Disease
  • Patient Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • References
  • 12 Infectious Lung Diseases
  • Bacterial Lung Infections
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Lung Abscess
  • Pulmonary Mycobacterial Disease
  • Major Pulmonary Mycotic Infections
  • References
  • 13 Surgery for Emphysema
  • Pathophysiology
  • Selection of Patients for Surgical Treatment of Emphysema
  • Bullectomy
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Volume Reduction
  • Combinations of Lung Transplantation and Lung Volume Reduction
  • Bronchoscopic Treatment of Emphysema
  • Summary
  • References
  • 14 Lung Transplantation
  • Historical Aspects
  • Selection
  • Donor Operation
  • Recipient Operation
  • Postoperative Management
  • Immunosuppression
  • Infection Prophylaxis
  • Complications
  • Results
  • Pediatric Lung Transplantation
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part F Lung Cancer
  • 15 Screening for Lung Cancer
  • History of Lung Cancer Screening
  • Modeling Approaches to Estimate Mortality Benefit
  • Other Approaches to Screening
  • Current Recommendations
  • Management of the Screen-Detected Nodule
  • Summary
  • References
  • 16 Lung Cancer Workup and Staging
  • The Staging System
  • Diagnosis and Staging
  • Noninvasive Modalities
  • Invasive Modalities
  • Metastatic Workup
  • Summary
  • References
  • 17 Lung Cancer
  • Historical Note
  • Pulmonary Surgical Operations: Indications and Techniques
  • Surgical Treatment of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Special Considerations
  • Surgical Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Summary
  • References
  • 18 Lung Cancer
  • Definition
  • Brief History
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Strategy for Thoracoscopic Lobectomy
  • Specific Technical Considerations
  • Results
  • Locally Advanced Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • 19 Lung Cancer
  • Adjuvant Therapy
  • Induction Therapy
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • 20 Lung Cancer
  • Introduction and History
  • Demographics and Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Staging
  • Treatment
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Operative Techniques
  • Reconstruction
  • Postoperative Care
  • Complications
  • Pathology
  • Results
  • Summary
  • References
  • 21 Anterior Approach to Superior Sulcus Lesions
  • Historical Note
  • Presentation
  • Preoperative Studies
  • Treatment
  • Anterior Transcervical Technique
  • Surgical Morbidity and Mortality
  • Results and Prognosis
  • References
  • Part G Other Lung Malignancy
  • 22 Other Primary Tumors of the Lung
  • Bronchopulmonary Carcinoids
  • Carcinoid Tumorlets
  • Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland–Type Neoplasms
  • Primary Pulmonary Sarcomas
  • Primary Solitary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma
  • Primary Pulmonary Lymphoma
  • Primary Pulmonary Melanoma
  • Primary Pulmonary Carcinosarcoma
  • References
  • 23 Secondary Lung Tumors
  • History of Metastasectomy
  • Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Metastases
  • Evaluation of the Patient with Secondary Pulmonary Tumors
  • Indications for Surgery
  • Surgical Approach
  • Lymph Node Dissection
  • Results of Pulmonary Metastasectomy
  • Specific Secondary Lung Tumors
  • Alternative Treatment Options
  • Palliative Therapy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Part H Chest Wall
  • 24 Congenital Chest Wall Deformities
  • Pectus Excavatum
  • Pectus Carinatum
  • Poland Syndrome
  • Sternal Defects
  • Thoracic Deformities in Diffuse Skeletal Disorders
  • References
  • 25 Chest Wall Tumors
  • Presentation and Evaluation
  • Surgical Management
  • Specific Lesions
  • Summary
  • References
  • 26 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and Dorsal Sympathectomy
  • Historical Aspects
  • Surgical Anatomy
  • Functional Anatomy
  • Compression Factors
  • Symptoms and Signs
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Therapy
  • Effort Thrombosis: Paget-Schroetter Syndrome
  • Dorsal Sympathectomy for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Management with Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery
  • Reoperation for Recurrent Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
  • Operative Technique for Redo Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Surgery
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part I Pleura
  • 27 Spontaneous Pneumothorax
  • Epidemiology
  • Causes
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Imaging
  • Management
  • Special Considerations
  • References
  • 28 Empyema
  • Epidemiology
  • Historical Review
  • Bacteriology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis: Clinical Signs and Symptoms, Fluid Analysis, and Radiologic Appearance
  • Treatment
  • Special Considerations: Postpneumonectomy Empyema and Bronchopleural Fistula
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 29 Chylothorax
  • Definition
  • Classification and Cause
  • Anatomic Considerations
  • Pathophysiology
  • Symptoms and Diagnosis
  • Principles of Management (Table 29-1)
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 30 Malignant Pleural and Pericardial Effusions
  • Malignant Pleural Effusions
  • Malignant Pericardial Effusions
  • References
  • 31 Pleural Tumors
  • Pleural Embryology and Anatomy
  • Asbestos-Associated Pleural Pathology
  • Clinical Aspects of Pleural Tumors
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part J Diaphragm
  • 32 Surgery of the Diaphragm
  • Embryology
  • Structure and Function
  • Pleural and Peritoneal Attachments
  • Arterial and Venous Anatomy
  • Lymphatics
  • Diaphragmatic Innervation
  • Diaphragmatic Incisions
  • Traumatic Diaphragmatic Injury
  • Diaphragmatic Elevation
  • Diaphragmatic Hernias
  • Diaphragmatic Pacing
  • Oncology of the Diaphragm
  • Diaphragmatic Resection and Repair with Prosthetic Patch
  • Summary
  • References
  • 33 Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Definition
  • History
  • Epidemiology
  • Embriology of the Diaphragm
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Associated Anomalies
  • Prognostic Factors
  • Treatment
  • Results
  • Long-Term Follow-Up
  • Future Perspectives
  • Other Diaphragmatic Anomalies
  • References
  • Part K Esophagus—Benign Disease
  • 34 Esophageal Anatomy and Function
  • Embryology
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Evaluation of Esophageal Function
  • References
  • 35 Surgery for Congenital Lesions of the Esophagus
  • Embryology
  • Esophageal Atresia
  • Esophageal Duplications
  • Congenital Esophageal Stenosis
  • Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft
  • References
  • 36 Surgical Treatment of Benign Esophageal Diseases
  • The Esophagus and Its Surroundings
  • Esophageal Function
  • Evaluation of the Esophagus
  • Benign Esophageal Diseases and Their Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part L Esophagus—Cancer
  • 37 Staging Techniques for Carcinoma of the Esophagus
  • Esophageal Cancer Tnm Staging
  • Endoscopic Ultrasonography
  • Endoscopic Mucosal Resection
  • Computed Tomography
  • Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography
  • Surgical Staging
  • Brain Imaging
  • Molecular Staging: Prognostic Biomarkers
  • Summary
  • References
  • 38 Esophageal Resection and Replacement
  • History of Esophageal Resection
  • Techniques of Esophageal Resection
  • Considerations in Esophageal Resection
  • Summary
  • References
  • 39 Multimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer
  • Overview: Principles of Multimodality Therapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemoradiation
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part M Mediastinum
  • 40 Mediastinal Anatomy and Mediastinoscopy
  • Mediastinal Anatomy
  • Potential Spaces in the Mediastinum
  • Mediastinal Lymph Node Anatomy
  • Indications for Mediastinal Lymph Node Assessment
  • Efficacy and Utility of Mediastinoscopy
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Potential Complications of Mediastinoscopy
  • Surgical Technique
  • High Paratracheal Dissection
  • Lower Paratracheal Dissection
  • Carinal Dissection
  • Node Biopsy Technique and Closure of the Incision
  • Management of Major Bleeding
  • Extended Mediastinoscopy
  • Endoscopic Techniques for Mediastinal Lymph Node Assessment
  • References
  • 41 Anterior Mediastinal Masses
  • Thymic Tumors
  • Germ Cell Tumors
  • Lymphomas
  • Substernal Thyroid
  • Hyperfunctioning Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma
  • Surgical Approaches to Biopsy
  • Therapeutic Surgical Procedures: Techniques of Thymectomy
  • Summary
  • References
  • 42 The Middle Mediastinum
  • Anatomy
  • Diagnostic Modalities
  • Diseases of the Middle Mediastinum
  • References
  • 43 The Posterior Mediastinum
  • Anatomy
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Surgical Approaches to the Posterior Mediastinum
  • Lesions of the Mediastinum
  • Infections of the Mediastinum
  • Summary
  • References
  • 44 Surgical Treatment of Hyperhidrosis
  • Nomenclature for Sympathetic Surgery
  • Patient Selection for VATS Sympathectomy
  • Location of Interruption of Sympathetic Chain
  • Type of Interruption
  • Surgical Technique (see Video 44-1)
  • Complications and Treatment
  • Other Surgical Treatments for Hyperhidrosis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part N The Future
  • 45 The Molecular Biology of Thoracic Malignancies
  • Mechanisms of Oncogenesis and Metastasis
  • Epigenetics
  • Proteomics
  • Metabolomics
  • Clinical Application of Nucleic Acid and Protein Biomarkers
  • Next-Generation DNA Sequencing in Clinical Care
  • Personalized Oncology
  • Summary
  • References
  • 46 Innovative Therapy and Technology
  • Radiofrequency Ablation
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Microwave Ablation
  • Cryoablation
  • Chemoperfusion of the Pleural Cavity
  • Modalities Currently Under Investigation
  • Implications for Thoracic Surgical Oncologists
  • Summary
  • References
  • Section 2 Adult Cardiac Surgery
  • Part A Basic Science
  • 47 Surgical Anatomy of the Heart
  • Location of the Heart
  • Morphologically Right Atrium
  • Morphologically Left Atrium
  • Morphologically Right Ventricle
  • Morphologically Left Ventricle
  • Aorta
  • Pulmonary Trunk and Branch Pulmonary Arteries
  • Coronary Arteries and Veins
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 48 Vascular Physiology
  • Vascular Resistance
  • Regulation of Vascular Tone
  • Endothelial Factors in Vascular Growth and Response to Injury
  • Effect of Disease States on Coronary Circulation
  • Pulmonary Vascular Physiology
  • Improving Myocardial Perfusion
  • Summary
  • References
  • 49 Physiology of the Myocardium
  • Integrative Biology of the Myocardium
  • Cardiac Dynamics in Exercise
  • Molecular Cellular Biology
  • Sarcomere Mechanics
  • Excitation–Contraction Coupling
  • Modulation of Excitation–Contraction Coupling by Phosphorylation
  • Cross-Bridges and Stroke Volume
  • Cellular Biology of Contractility
  • Cellular Biology of Afterload
  • Cellular Biology of Cell Length
  • Cardiac Function Curves
  • References
  • 50 Ventricular Mechanics
  • Structure of Ventricular Tissue
  • The Cardiac Cycle
  • Determinants of Left Ventricular Filling
  • Systolic Function and End-Systolic Elastance
  • Pump Function
  • Non-Starling Regulation of Blood Pressure and Cardiac Output
  • Myocardial Energy Expenditure and Efficiency
  • Afterload and Ventriculoarterial Coupling
  • Regional Strain
  • Regional Stress and the Finite Element Method
  • Ventricular Interaction and Pericardium
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 51 Blood Coagulation, Transfusion, and Conservation
  • Normal Hemostatic Mechanisms
  • Inhibiting Hemostasis: Anticoagulation
  • Acquired Platelet Dysfunction
  • Hemostatic Testing
  • Transfusion Therapy and Transfusion Guidelines
  • Adverse Effects of Transfusions
  • Prohemostatic Agents Used in Surgery
  • Surgical Approach
  • Blood Conservation Programs
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part B Diagnostic Procedures
  • 52 Coronary Angiography
  • Diagnostic Catheterization Techniques
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Lesion Structural and Functional Assessment
  • Hemodynamic Evaluation
  • Shunts
  • Vascular Resistance
  • Valvular Heart Disease
  • Pericardial Disease
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 53 Applications of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography in Cardiovascular Diagnosis
  • Imaging Principles and Approaches
  • Challenges of Cardiac Imaging
  • Imaging Comparisons
  • Imaging Precautions
  • Clinical Applications
  • The Future Role of CMR and CCT
  • References
  • 54 Nuclear Cardiology and Positron Emission Tomography in the Assessment of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease
  • Introduction to Nuclear Cardiology
  • Stable Coronary Artery Disease (Diagnosis and Risk Stratification)
  • Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Assessment of Myocardial Viability
  • Evaluation of Patients after Revascularization
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 55 Diagnostic Echocardiography (Ultrasound Imaging in Cardiovascular Diagnosis)
  • Basic Principles
  • Ultrasound Imaging Modalities
  • Doppler Echocardiography
  • Ventricular Function
  • Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Cardiac Masses
  • Cardiomyopathies
  • Pericardial and Constrictive Heart Disease
  • Valvular Heart Disease
  • Aortic Disease
  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • References
  • Part C Medical- and Catheter-Based Treatment Of Cardiovascular Disease
  • 56 Interventional Cardiology
  • Historical Perspective
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedures
  • Complications of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Advanced Technology in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Pharmacology
  • Noncoronary Interventional Cardiac Procedures
  • References
  • 57 Medical Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Management of Non–ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • ST-Element Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • Additional Considerations in Acute Coronary Syndrome Management
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 58 The Pharmacologic Management of Heart Failure
  • Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
  • Pharmacologic Agents Used in the Treatment of Heart Failure
  • Approach to the Management of Heart Failure
  • Suggested Readings
  • Part D Perioperative and Intraoperative Care of the Cardiac Surgical Patient
  • 59 Anesthesia and Intraoperative Care of the Adult Cardiac Patient
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Intraoperative Management
  • Special Considerations
  • References
  • 60 Critical Care for the Adult Cardiac Patient
  • Immediate Postoperative Care
  • Cardiac Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery
  • Postoperative Bleeding
  • Neurologic Complications
  • Infection
  • References
  • 61 Critical Care for War-Related Thoracic Injuries
  • A Brief History of War-Related Chest Wounds
  • Modern Principles of Combat Casualty Care
  • Damage Control Resuscitation and Surgery
  • ICU Management and Evacuation
  • Specific Thoracic Injuries
  • Long-Term Outcomes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 62 Neuropsychologic Deficits and Stroke
  • Assessment
  • Populations at Risk
  • Mechanisms of Injury
  • Strategies for Reducing Injury
  • Neuroprotective Strategies
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 63 Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Introduction and History
  • Technical Aspects
  • Pathophysiology
  • Heparin-Protamine Axis
  • Pharmacologic and Hematologic Adjuncts to Minimize Consequences
  • Biomaterial-Dependent Strategies to Minimize Blood Activation
  • Related Organ Derangements
  • Extracorporeal Temporary Cardiopulmonary Support
  • The Future of Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • References
  • 64 Deep Sternal Wound Infection
  • Definition
  • Incidence and Causes
  • Risk Factors
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Surgical Management
  • References
  • 65 Myocardial Protection
  • Historical Development
  • Biology of Surgically Induced Myocardial Ischemia
  • Cardioplegia: Basic Principles
  • Alternative Arresting Agents and Additives
  • Crystalloid (Acellular) and Blood Cardioplegia
  • Pre-, Post-, and Remote Conditioning
  • Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers
  • Molecular Manipulation
  • References
  • 66 Clinical Quality and Safety in Adult Cardiac Surgery
  • National Landscape for Quality and Safety
  • Evolving Landscape of Quality and Safety in Cardiac Surgery
  • Cardiac Surgery Teamwork and Communication
  • Perioperative Care
  • Postoperative Morbidity
  • Measurement of Care
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Volume Two
  • Section 2 Adult Cardiac Surgery
  • Part E Surgical Management of Aortic Disease
  • 67 Surgery of the Aortic Root and Ascending Aorta
  • Functional Anatomy of the Aortic Root
  • Pathology of the Aortic Root and Ascending Aorta
  • Surgical Treatment of Ascending Aortic Aneurysm
  • Surgical Treatment of Aortic Root Aneurysms
  • Ross Procedure
  • References
  • 68 Surgery of the Aortic Arch
  • Definitions and Classification
  • Causative and Predisposing Factors
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Cardiopulmonary Perfusion Aspects
  • Brain Protection
  • Operative Techniques
  • Outcomes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 69 Descending Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Surgery
  • Introduction
  • Classification by Extent of Repair
  • Causes and Predisposing Factors
  • Indications for Repair
  • Strategy for Repair
  • Operative Technique
  • Postoperative Management
  • Outcomes
  • Acknowledgments
  • Disclosure
  • Funding
  • References
  • 70 Type A Aortic Dissection
  • Historical Note
  • Classification
  • Epidemiology
  • Natural History
  • Predisposing Factors
  • Pathophysiology and Pathologic Findings
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Modalities
  • Diagnostic Strategy at Stanford University and Special Diagnostic Considerations
  • Management
  • Results
  • Follow-up
  • References
  • 71 Type B Aortic Dissection
  • Historical Note
  • Nomenclature
  • Epidemiology and Natural History
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Modalities
  • Management
  • Operative Approach
  • Results
  • Follow-Up
  • References
  • 72 Endovascular Therapy for the Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Pathologies
  • Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms
  • Aortic Dissections
  • Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer, Intramural Hematoma, and Blunt Thoracic Aortic InJury
  • Aortic Arch/Ascending Aortic Pathologies
  • Summary
  • References
  • 73 Occlusive Disease of the Brachiocephalic Vessels and Managementof Simultaneous Surgical Carotid and Coronary Disease
  • Occlusive Disease Involving the Brachiocephalic Arteries
  • Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome
  • Concurrent Carotid and Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 74 Percutaneous Intervention on Abdominal Aortic and Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Peripheral Angiography
  • Specific Anatomic Imaging
  • Percutaneous Intervention
  • References
  • 75 Injury to the Heart and Great Vessels
  • Blunt Cardiac Injury
  • Penetrating Cardiac Injury
  • Thoracic Aorta and Arch Vessel Injuries
  • References
  • Part F Surgical Management of Valvular Heart Disease
  • 76 Valve Replacement Therapy
  • The Ideal Valve
  • History
  • Morbidity and Mortality Guidelines for Valve Operations
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • Choice of Valve Replacement
  • References
  • 77 Surgical Treatment of Aortic Valve Disease
  • Functional Anatomy of the Aortic Valve
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Aortic Regurgitation
  • Aortic Valve Replacement
  • Special Considerations of Postoperative Care
  • Outcomes
  • References
  • 78 Aortic Valve Repair
  • Aortic Regurgitation
  • Aortic Valve Anatomy and Function
  • Classification of Aortic Insufficiency
  • Surgical Techniques
  • Intraoperative Echocardiography
  • Outcomes
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 79 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
  • Introduction
  • Indications
  • Preoperative Evaluation and Planning
  • Operative Techniques
  • Results
  • Specific Patient Comorbidities
  • Complications
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 80 Surgical Treatment of the Mitral Valve
  • Anatomy
  • Mitral Stenosis
  • Mitral Regurgitation
  • Surgery
  • Results
  • References
  • 81 Surgical Treatment of Tricuspid Valve Diseases
  • Surgical Anatomy
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Indications for Surgery
  • Tricuspid Valve Surgery
  • Results
  • Knowledge and Evidence
  • The Future
  • References
  • 82 Native and Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
  • Native Valve Endocarditis
  • Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
  • Summary
  • References
  • 83 Anticoagulation, Thrombosis, and Thromboembolism of Prosthetic Cardiac Valves
  • Artificial Surfaces, Coagulation Cascades, Thrombosis, and Lysis
  • Anticoagulation Therapy
  • Complications of Anticoagulation
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • References
  • 84 Robotic and Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery
  • Robotic Systems
  • Evolution of Robotic Cardiac Surgery
  • Clinical Applications and Patient Selection
  • Surgical Techniques
  • Clinical Outcomes
  • Limitations
  • Other Minimally Invasive Approaches
  • Future Systems and Novel Visualization Techniques
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part G Management of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • 85 Cardiac Devices for the Treatment of Bradyarrhythmias and Tachyarrhythmias
  • Historical Perspective and Overview
  • Indications for Implantation of Cardiac Devices
  • Basic Concepts of Pacing and Antitachycardia Therapy
  • Preoperative Evaluation Before Implantation of Cardiac Devices
  • Standard Transvenous Techniques for Implantation of Cardiac Devices
  • Postimplantation Care of Transvenous Cardiac Devices
  • Complications of Implantable Cardiac Devices
  • Extraction of Chronic Leads Used in Transvenous Cardiac Devices
  • Management of Cardiac Devices During and After Surgery
  • References
  • 86 Catheter Ablation of Arrhythmias
  • Procedural Technique and the Electrophysiology Study
  • Cardiac Mapping Techniques
  • Catheter Ablation
  • Specific Arrhythmias
  • References
  • 87 Surgical Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia
  • Ventricular Tachycardia
  • References
  • Part H Surgical Management of Coronary Artery Disease and Its Complications
  • 88 Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
  • Background
  • Indications for Operation
  • Surgical Technique
  • Special Features of Postoperative Care
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 89 Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Multivessel Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Limited-Access Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 90 Robotic and Alternative Approaches to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
  • Robotic and Alternative Approaches to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Coronary Revascularization
  • Multivessel Minimally Invasive Procedures
  • Hybrid Coronary Revascularization
  • References
  • 91 Re-Do Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
  • Indications for Coronary Reoperations
  • Summary of Current Indications for Treatment of Patients with Previous Bypass Surgery
  • Technical Aspects of Coronary Reoperations
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Median Sternotomy, Conduit Preparation, and Cannulation
  • Stenotic Vein Grafts and Grafting Patterns
  • Differently Invasive Strategies for Reoperative Coronary Surgery
  • Results of Coronary Reoperations
  • Multiple Coronary Reoperations
  • Complementary End-Stage Revascularization Procedures
  • The Future of Coronary Reoperations
  • References
  • 92 Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation
  • Definition
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Pathophysiology
  • Therapeutic Targets in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation
  • Preoperative Decision Making
  • Outcomes
  • Surgical Principles
  • Type II Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation
  • References
  • 93 Postinfarction Ventricular Septal Defect and Ventricular Rupture
  • Historical Perspective
  • Incidence and Demographics
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Natural History
  • Clinical Presentation, Preoperative Management, and Risk Stratification
  • Operative Management
  • Outcomes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 94 Nonatherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease
  • Coronary Artery Anomalies
  • Mechanical Injury to the Coronary Artery
  • Progressive Nonatherosclerotic Coronary Occlusive Disease
  • Substance Abuse
  • References
  • Part I Surgical Management of Heart Failure
  • 95 Pericardium and Constrictive Pericarditis
  • The Pericardium
  • Nonconstrictive Pericarditis
  • Cardiac Tamponade
  • Constrictive Pericarditis
  • Pericardial Cysts and Diverticula
  • Pericardial Tumors
  • Pericardial Defects
  • Pericardial Surgical Procedures
  • References
  • 96 Surgical Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Definition
  • Historical Note
  • Classification
  • Genetics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Criteria
  • Natural History
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Outcomes
  • Survival
  • Comparison to Septal Artery Ablation
  • Special Subgroups
  • References
  • 97 Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Total Artificial Heart
  • Historical Perspective
  • Implant Strategies for Mechanical Circulatory Support
  • Patient Selection
  • Types of Devices
  • Device Selection
  • Indications for Mechanical Circulatory Support
  • Surgical Technique Used for Durable Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation
  • Postoperative Management after Durable Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation
  • Complications
  • Summary
  • References
  • 98 Heart Transplantation
  • Historical Background
  • Indications and Evaluation for Heart Transplantation
  • Organ Procurement and Preservation
  • Recipient Operative Technique
  • Recipient Postoperative Management
  • Complications
  • Long-Term Results in Heart Transplantation
  • Summary
  • References
  • 99 Heart–Lung Transplantation
  • Indications for Heart–Lung Transplantation
  • Treatment of Patients Awaiting Transplantation
  • Selection and Management of Donors
  • Heart–Lung Preservation
  • Operative Technique for Donor Heart–Lung Removal
  • Operative Procedure
  • Postoperative Management
  • Complications
  • Physiology of the Transplanted Lung
  • Late Results
  • Future Developments
  • References
  • 100 Left Ventricular Restoration
  • Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
  • Diagnosis and Patient Selection for Surgery
  • Surgical Ventricular Restoration for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
  • Outcomes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 101 Regenerative Cell-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Cardiac Disease
  • Delivery Methods for Cell Transplantation
  • Adult STEM or Progenitor Cells for Cardiac Cell Therapy
  • Potential Mechanisms of Action for Cell-Based Regenerative Therapies
  • Current Challenges and Future Directions for Cardiac Regenerative Medicine
  • Summary
  • References
  • 102 Surgery for Pulmonary Embolism
  • Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease
  • Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • 103 Tumors of the Heart
  • Historical Background
  • Primary Benign Tumors
  • Primary Malignant Tumors
  • Secondary Metastatic Tumors
  • References
  • Section 3 Congenital Heart Surgery
  • 104 Cardiac Embryology and Genetics
  • Cardiac Specification
  • Body-Plan Laterality and Cardiac Looping
  • Chamber Specification and the Cardiogenic Transcriptional Program
  • Cardiac Septation of the Atria, Ventricles, Atrioventricular Junction, and Outflow Tract
  • Outflow Tract Development: Anterior Heart Field and Cardiac Neural Crest
  • The Causes of Congenital Heart Disease: Additional Factors
  • Genetic Abnormalities Associated with Congenital Heart Disease
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 105 Segmental Anatomy
  • Visceral Situs
  • Location of the Heart
  • Segmental Analysis
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 106 Diagnostic Imaging
  • Echocardiography and Doppler Ultrasound
  • Special Echocardiographic Procedures
  • Quantitative Analysis
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Summary
  • References
  • 107 Cardiac Catheterization and Fetal Intervention
  • Introduction and Overview
  • Role of Diagnostic Catheterization
  • Hemodynamic Assessment
  • Sedation and Anesthesia
  • Vascular Access
  • Interventions
  • Complications
  • Surgical Collaboration
  • Fetal Intervention
  • References
  • 108 Surgical Approaches and Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
  • Approaches to Cardiac Structures and Great Vessels for Transthoracic Cannulation for Bypass
  • Approaches to Extracardiac Structures in Infants and Children
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children
  • References
  • 109 Surgical Approaches, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, and Mechanical Circulatory Support in Children
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Technical Aspects of ECMO Cannulation
  • Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation
  • Ventricular Assist Devices
  • Expanding VAD Support to Challenging Pediatric Populations
  • Longer-Term Outcomes From Mechanical Support in Children
  • References
  • 110 Pediatric Anesthesia and Critical Care
  • Pathophysiology
  • Physiologic Approach to Congenital Heart Disease
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Monitoring
  • Anesthesia
  • Discontinuation of Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Postoperative Management
  • References
  • 111 Neuromonitoring and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Congenital Heart Surgery
  • History of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes
  • Intraoperative Neuromonitoring
  • Current Data
  • References
  • 112 Congenital Tracheal Disease
  • History of Pediatric Tracheal Surgery
  • Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Techniques
  • Surgical Techniques
  • Pediatric Tracheal Anomalies
  • Summary
  • References
  • 113 Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Coarctation of the Aorta, and Vascular Rings
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus
  • Coarctation of the Aorta
  • Vascular Rings
  • References
  • 114 Atrial Septal Defect and Cor Triatriatum
  • Historical Considerations
  • Embryology and Genetics
  • Incidence and Natural History
  • Associated Features
  • Hemodynamics and Pathophysiology
  • Management of Atrial Septal Defect and Patent Foramen Ovale
  • Outcome
  • Cor Triatriatum
  • References
  • 115 Surgical Considerations in Pulmonary Vein Anomalies
  • Etiology
  • Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage
  • Scimitar Syndrome
  • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage
  • Special Considerations
  • References
  • 116 Atrioventricular Canal Defects
  • Anatomy
  • Pathophysiology
  • Timing of Surgery
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Surgical Technique
  • Associated Cardiac Lesions
  • Postoperative Care
  • Outcomes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 117 Ventricular Septal Defect and Double-Outlet Right Ventricle
  • Ventricular Septal Defect
  • Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Normally Related Great Arteries
  • References
  • 118 Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum
  • Anatomy
  • Pathophysiology
  • Initial Clinical Presentation and Management
  • Surgical Management
  • Results
  • Trends and Controversies
  • References
  • 119 Tetralogy of Fallot with Pulmonary Stenosis
  • History
  • Prevalence
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Physical Examination
  • Medical Managment
  • Diagnostic Studies
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Special Topics in Surgical Management
  • Controversies in Surgical Management
  • Postoperative Management
  • Long-Term Follow-up
  • Atrioventricular Canal and Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 120 Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Right Ventricle–to–Pulmonary Artery Conduits
  • Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect
  • Right Ventricle–to–Pulmonary Artery Conduits
  • References
  • 121 Truncus Arteriosus and Aortopulmonary Window
  • Truncus Arteriosus
  • Aortopulmonary Window
  • References
  • 122 Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • Historical Notes
  • Anatomy and Nomenclature
  • Presentation and Preoperative Management
  • Surgical Management
  • Results: Survival, Complications, and Late Events
  • Summary
  • References
  • 123 Surgery for Congenital Anomalies of the Aortic Valve and Aortic Root
  • Surgical Anatomy of the Aortic Valve and Root
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis
  • Aortic Regurgitation
  • Aortic Valve Reconstructive Techniques
  • Aortic Valve Replacement
  • Prosthetic Mechanical Valves, Anticoagulation, and Pregnancy
  • Summary
  • References
  • 124 Surgery for Congenital Anomalies of the Coronary Arteries
  • Anomalous Origin of a Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery
  • Anomalous Coronary Artery Course between Aorta and Pulmonary Artery
  • Coronary Artery Fistula
  • Congenital Ostial Atresia of the Left Main Coronary Artery
  • Outcomes
  • References
  • 125 Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • History
  • Epidemiology
  • Classification and Embryology
  • Anatomy
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
  • Preoperative Medical Management
  • Surgical Management
  • Complex Transposition
  • Summary
  • References
  • 126 Surgery for Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • General Description and Morphology
  • Clinical Presentation of Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries
  • Problem of the Tricuspid Valve and the Morphologic Right Ventricle in the Systemic Circulation
  • Investigations and Evaluation
  • Surgical Options
  • Results
  • Summary
  • References
  • 127 Congenital Anomalies of the Mitral Valve
  • Embryology of the Mitral Valve
  • Pathologic Features
  • Functional Classification of Mitral Valve Anomalies
  • Diagnosis
  • Medical Treatment
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Results
  • References
  • 128 Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • Demographics and Incidence
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Causes
  • Surgical Triage
  • Management
  • Operative Procedure Stage I
  • Stage II
  • Fontan
  • Transplantation
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes
  • Hybrid Procedures
  • Emerging Therapies
  • References
  • 129 Management of Single Ventricle and Cavopulmonary Connections
  • Terminology and Anatomy
  • Natural History
  • Clinical Presentation and Preoperative Evaluation
  • Surgical Preparation for the Fontan Circulation
  • Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis
  • One and One-Half Ventricle Repair
  • Selection Criteria for the Fontan Procedure
  • Surgical Evolution of the Fontan Procedure
  • Outcome after the Fontan Procedure
  • Management of the Failing Fontan
  • Computer Modeling to Optimize Fontan Energetics
  • References
  • 130 Ebstein Malformation
  • Historical Aspects
  • Pathologic Anatomy
  • Classifications of Ebstein Malformation
  • Genetic Factors
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentations
  • Diagnostic Work-Up
  • Natural History
  • Management
  • Postoperative Care
  • Outcomes
  • References
  • 131 Adult Congenital Cardiac Surgery
  • Epidemiology
  • Structured ACHD Programs
  • Surgical Indications in ACHD Patients
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Perioperative Management
  • Postoperative Management
  • Specific Lesions
  • Summary
  • References
  • 132 Arrhythmia and Pacemaker Surgery in Congenital Heart Disease
  • Indications and Techniques for Electrophysiologic Device Therapy in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease
  • Arrhythmia Therapy in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • 133 Quality Improvement for the Treatment of Patients with Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Disease
  • Nomenclature
  • Database
  • Complexity Stratification
  • Data Verification
  • Subspecialty Collaboration
  • Longitudinal Follow-Up
  • Quality Assessment and Quality Improvement
  • Summary: Bridging the Gap From Analysis of Outcomes to Improvement of Quality
  • References
  • 134 Quality Improvement
  • Background
  • Development of the Technical Performance Score
  • Piloting the Technical Performance Score
  • Standardization of Methodology
  • Validation of Technical Performance Score
  • Future Direction
  • Appendix 134-1: Boston Children's Hospital Technical Performance Score
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2496
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: August 3, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323241267
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323393775

About the Authors

Frank Sellke

Dr Frank Sellke is the Karl Karlson & Gloria Karlson Professor and Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Director of the Cardiovascular Institute at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Lifespan Hospitals. He previously served as the Johnson & Johnson Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School and Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, having been a successful clinician, educator and researcher in the cardiovascular field. Dr Sellke has published over 585 papers with 115,000 citations. Dr Sellke is the 2021 recipient of the Brown University Distinguished Research Award in Medicine or Biology, the Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Heart Association and the Distinguished Alumni Award from his alma mater, Indiana University School of Medicine. He is the Associate Editor of the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and is a member of several other editorial boards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Karl Karlson & Gloria Karlson Professor and Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Director of the Cardiovascular Institute at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Lifespan Hospitals, Providence, Rhode Island

Pedro del Nido

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery; William E. Ladd Professor of Child Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Scott Swanson

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Associate Chief of Surgery, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center; Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

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