Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128021897, 9780128023716

Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics

1st Edition

Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson Victor Preedy
eBook ISBN: 9780128023716
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128021897
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 8th October 2015
Page Count: 938
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Description

Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion reviews and presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics to prevent disease and improve the health of various populations. Experts define and support the actions of bacteria; bacteria modified bioflavonoids and prebiotic fibrous materials and vegetable compounds. A major emphasis is placed on the health-promoting activities and bioactive components of probiotic bacteria.

Key Features

  • Offers a novel focus on synbiotics, carefully designed prebiotics probiotics combinations to help design functional food and nutraceutical products
  • Discusses how prebiotics and probiotics are complementary and can be incorporated into food products and used as alternative medicines
  • Defines the variety of applications of probiotics in health and disease resistance and provides key insights into how gut flora are modified by specific food materials
  • Includes valuable information on how prebiotics are important sources of micro-and macronutrients that modify body functions

Readership

Food scientists/ technologists, nutraceutical/supplement product developers. Libraries for researchers, graduate students and fellows in Food Science, Microbiology, Dairy Science, Health, and Nutrition

Table of Contents

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  • Preface
    • Prebiotics in Health Promotion
    • Probiotics in Foods
    • Synbiotics: Production, Application, and Health Promotion
    • Probiotics in Health
    • Probiotics and Chronic Diseases
  • Acknowledgments
  • Biographies
  • Part I: Prebiotics in Health Promotion
    • Chapter 1: Prebiotics and Probiotics: An Assessment of Their Safety and Health Benefits
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Prebiotic Concept
      • 3 Use of Prebiotics
      • 4 Evaluation of Prebiotic
      • 5 Probiotics Used in Food
      • 6 Synbiotic
      • 7 Safety Aspect of Probiotics
      • 8 Prebiotic and Probiotic Efficacy Evidence
      • 9 Prebiotic and Probiotic Claims
      • 10 Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) Concept of MicroOrganisms Used in Food
      • 11 Conclusion
    • Chapter 2: Pre- and Probiotic Supplementation in Ruminant Livestock Production
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 The Ruminant
      • 3 Prebiotics
      • 4 Probiotics
      • 5 Discussion and Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Prebiotic Addition in Dairy Products: Processing and Health Benefits
      • Abstract
      • 1 Functional Foods
      • 2 Prebiotic Ingredients
      • 3 β-Glucan
      • 4 Resistant Starch
      • 5 Inulin-Type Fructans
      • 6 THE ROLE OF FRUCTANS in Plants
      • 7 Chemical Structure of Fructans
      • 8 Physicochemical Properties of Inulin
      • 9 Structural and Rheological Aspects
      • 10 Inulin as a Fat Replacer
      • 11 Effects of Process and Process Conditions
      • 12 Oligofructose
      • 13 Functional Effects of Prebiotics on the Health
      • 14 Sensory Aspects
      • 15 Prebiotics in Dairy Products
      • 16 Perspectives
    • Chapter 4: Low-Lactose, Prebiotic-Enriched Milk
      • Abstract
      • 1 Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 2 Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS) and Fructo-Oligosaccharides (FOS) in Dairy Products
      • 3 Enzymatic Synthesis of GOS
      • 4 In Situ Formation of GOS in Milk
      • 5 GOS Formation in Milk with β-Galactosidase from B. circulans
      • 6 GOS Formation in Milk with β-Galactosidase from K. lactis
      • 7 Effect of Temperature on GOS Formation in Milk
      • 8 Proposed Method to Obtain Low-Lactose, Milk-Enriched in GOS
    • Chapter 5: Intestinal Microbiota in Breast-Fed Infants: Insights into Infant-Associated Bifidobacteria and Human Milk Glycans
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Intestinal Microbiota in Breast-Fed Infants
      • 3 Human Milk Composition and Complexity
      • 4 Antimicrobial Activities in Human Milk
      • 5 Human Milk Glycans
      • 6 HMO Structures and Properties
      • 7 Structure-Function Relationships of HMOs
      • 8 Bifidobacterial Strategies of HMO Consumption
      • 9 Human Milk Glycoproteins and Glycolipids
      • 10 Consumption of Human Milk Glycoconjugates by Bifidobacteria
      • 11 Bifidobacteria and Health Benefits to the Infant
      • 12 Infant Formula
      • 13 Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Probiotics and Prebiotics for Promoting Health: Through Gut Microbiota
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Human Gut Microbiota: Complexities, Diversities, Functionalities
      • 3 Gut Microbiota Balance in the Triangle of Nutrition, Health, and Disease
      • 4 Factors Influencing the Gut Microbiota
      • 5 Modulation of Gut Microbiota Composition
      • 6 Probiotics: Foundation and Definition
      • 7 Health Benefits of Probiotics
      • 8 Probiotics’ Effects on Intestinal Microbiota and Environment
      • 9 Prebiotics
      • 10 Future Prospects and Expectations
    • Chapter 7: Prebiotics in Human Milk and in Infant Formulas
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Development of the Immune System in Infants
      • 3 Breast Milk and Defense Against Infections and Allergic Manifestations
      • 4 What Are Prebiotics?
      • 5 Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 6 Prebiotics in Infant Formulas
      • 7 Side Effects
      • 8 Regulation of the Addition of Prebiotics to Infant Formulas
      • 9 Conclusions
    • Chapter 8: Prebiotics and Probiotics in Infant Nutrition
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Development and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Ecosystem
      • 3 Prebiotics
      • 4 Human Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 5 Nonhuman Milk Oligosaccharides
      • 6 Probiotics
      • 7 Symbiotics
      • 8 Use of Prebiotics in Pediatrics
      • 9 Use of Probiotics in Pediatrics
      • 10 Acute Diarrhea
      • 11 Other Pediatric Uses
      • 12 Conclusion
    • Chapter 9: Synthesis of Prebiotic Galacto-Oligosaccharides: Science and Technology
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS): Chemical Synthesis vs. Biocatalysis
      • 3 Synthesis of GOS Using Galactosyltransferases
      • 4 Synthesis of GOS Using β-Galactosidases
      • 5 Types of Biocatalysts Used in GOS Synthesis
      • 6 Improving the GOS Synthesis Process
      • 7 Future Developments
    • Chapter 10: Prebiotics as Protectants of Lactic Acid Bacteria
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Physical Chemistry of the Preservation of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Probiotics
      • 3 Use of Prebiotics as Protectants of Starters
      • 4 Prebiotics as Probiotic Protectants in Food Matrices
      • 5 Prebiotics as Probiotic Protectants in the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • 6 Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Prebiotic Agave Fructans and Immune Aspects
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Chapter Points
      • 2 Introduction
      • 3 Agave Plant: Origin and the Role of Fructans
      • 4 Chemical Structures of Agave Fructans
      • 5 Overview of the Immune System
      • 6 Mechanism of Prebiotics
      • 7 Health Implication of Agave Fructans: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies
      • 8 Discussion of Immune Aspects of Agave Fructans
      • 9 Conclusions
    • Chapter 12: Prebiotics Use in Children
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Prebiotics and Short-Chain Fatty Acids
      • 3 Clinical Effects in Children
    • Chapter 13: Structural Characteristics and Prebiotic Effects of Lotus Seed Resistant Starch
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Structural Characteristics of LRS3
      • 3 Prebiotic Effects of LRS3
      • 4 Mechanisms Underlying the Prebiotic Effects of LRS3
      • 5 Future Trends
      • 6 Conclusions
  • Part II: Probiotics in Food
    • Chapter 14: Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains from Traditional Iranian Cheeses
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Isolation and Identification of Candidate Probiotic Strains from Traditional Iranian Cheeses
      • 3 Acid and Bile Resistance
      • 4 Autoaggregation and Coaggregation
      • 5 Cell Surface Hydrophobicity and Epithelial Cell Adhesion
      • 6 Antimicrobial Activity
      • 7 Antibiotic Susceptibility
      • 8 Cholesterol Removal and Effect on the Fatty Acid Profiles
      • 9 Carbon Source Utilization
      • 10 Antioxidant Activity
      • 11 Encapsulation
      • 12 Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Safety of Probiotic Bacteria
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Pharmacology of Probiotics
      • 3 Uses of Probiotics
      • 4 Pathogenicity and Infectivity of Probiotic Bacteria
      • 5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 16: Stressors and Food Environment: Toward Strategies to Improve Robustness and Stress Tolerance in Probiotics
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Food Manufacturing Process and Associated Stress
      • 3 Stress Response in Probiotic Bacteria
      • 4 Strategies to Improve Robustness and Stress Tolerance in Probiotic
      • 5 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 17: Effect of Food Composition on Probiotic Bacteria Viability
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Effect of Food Processing on Probiotic Bacteria and Prebiotic Ingredients
      • 3 Sensory Aspects of Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Symbiotic Foods
      • 4 Food Formulation Effects on Probiotic Viability
      • 5 Conclusions and Future Prospect
    • Chapter 18: Probiotics and Antibiotic Use
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Probiotics and Microbiota Maintenance
      • 3 Probiotics and Reduction of Antibiotic Side Effects
      • 4 Future of Probiotics in AAD: Claiming the Effect
      • 5 Health Economics of Probiotics in AAD
      • 6 Conclusions
    • Chapter 19: Multistrain Probiotics: The Present Forward the Future
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Definition
      • 3 Pharmacokinetics
      • 4 Mechanisms of Action
      • 5 Single- and Multistrain Probiotics
      • 6 Probiotics and Microbiota
      • 7 Safety
      • 8 Use of Multistrain Probiotics in Clinical Practice
      • 9 Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Production of Probiotic Cultures and Their Incorporation into Foods
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Production of Probiotic Cultures for Foods or Food Supplements
      • 3 Ensuring Delivery of Viable Cultures in Foods and Supplements
      • 4 Addition of Probiotics to Foods Ensuring Efficacy
      • 5 Concept of Probioactive
      • 6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 21: Probiotics and Other Microbial Manipulations in Fish Feeds: Prospective Update of Health Benefits
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Intestinal Microbiome in Fish
      • 3 Probiotics in Fish
      • 4 Prebiotics and Other Dietary Manipulations
      • 5 Relevance of Fish as Model Species
      • 6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 22: Current and Future Applications of Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Classification of EPS
      • 3 Current Applications of EPS in the Food Industry
      • 4 Bacterial EPS and Human Health
      • 5 Bacterial EPS and Animal Health
      • 6 Conclusions and Perspectives
    • Chapter 23: Probiotic and Prebiotic Dairy Desserts
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Points to be Considered When Developing Probiotic and/or Prebiotic Dairy Desserts
      • 3 Probiotic Desserts
      • 4 Probiotic and Prebiotic Dairy Desserts
      • 5 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 24: Lactobacillus paracasei-Enriched Vegetables Containing Health Promoting Molecules
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 L. paracasei-Enriched Cabbage as Source of Health-Promoting Phytochemicals and Carrier of Probiotic Cells
      • 3 L. paracasei-Enriched Artichokes as a Symbiotic
    • Chapter 25: Probiotics from the Olive Microbiota
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Assessment of the Probiotic Potential of Microorganisms from Olive Microbiota
      • 3 Use of Probiotic Strains in the Production of Probiotic Table Olives
    • Chapter 26: Kimchi (Korean Fermented Vegetables) as a Probiotic Food
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Preparation and Fermentation of Kimchi
      • 3 Various Health Benefits of Kimchi
      • 4 Salt and NO3 Content in Kimchi
      • 5 Probiotic and Functional Properties of Kimchi LAB
      • 6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 27: Probiotics as Potential Adsorbent of Aflatoxin
      • Abstract
      • 1 Probiotics
      • 2 Binding of Probiotics to Food Carcinogens and Mutagens
      • 3 Aflatoxin and Historical Background
      • 4 Aflatoxin Metabolites
      • 5 Physical Binding of Aflatoxin to the Bacterial Cell Wall
      • 6 In Vitro Experiments and Animal Studies of Probiotics as Potential Aflatoxin Adsorbent
      • 7 Human Clinical Trials: A Way Forward to Study the Efficacy of Probiotic Bacteria as Potential Adsorbent of Aflatoxin
      • 8 Conclusion
  • Part III: Synbiotics: Production, Application, and Health Promotion
    • Chapter 28: β-Glucans and Synbiotic Foods
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 β-Glucans: Chemistry and Sources
      • 2 Beneficial Influence of β-Glucans on Human Health
      • 3 Network of Human Health Promoting
      • 4 Microbial β-Glucans Fermentation: A Metabolic Overview
      • 5 β-Glucans for Synbiotic Foods Production
      • 6 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 29: Probiotics and Synbiotics in Lactating Mothers
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Effects of Probiotic or Synbiotic Supplementation on Breast Milk Immune Factors
      • 3 Effects of Probiotic or Synbiotic Supplementation on Total Antioxidant Capacity of Human Breast Milk
      • 4 The Effect of Probiotic or Synbiotic Supplementation on the Breast Milk Microbiological Composition
      • 5 The Traditional Hypothesis: “A Contamination”
      • 6 The Revolutionary Hypothesis: “Active Migration”
      • 7 The Effect of Probiotic or Synbiotic Supplementation on Maternal Nutritional Status and Infants’ Health
    • Chapter 30: Synbiotics and the Immune System
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Interaction of Microbiota with Host Immunity
      • 3 Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics
      • 4 Synbiotics and Immune Response
      • 5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 31: Synbiotics and Immunization Against H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus
      • Abstract
      • 1 Avian Immune System
      • 2 Avian Influenza
      • 3 Association of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics With Immunity
      • 4 Immunity Against AIVs
      • 5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 32: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, and Foodborne Illness
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Inhibitory Mechanisms of Probiotics Against Pathogenic Bacteria
      • 4 Inhibition of Pathogens in Food Products Prior to Consumption
      • 5 Pathogen Inactivation in the Gut
      • 6 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 33: In Vitro Screening and Evaluation of Synbiotics
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Screening of Synbiotic Combinations
      • 3 Models of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract
      • 4 Cell Assays
      • 5 Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 34: Synbiotics and Infantile Acute Gastroenteritis
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Intestinal Microfloria and Mucosal Barrier
      • 3 Treatment and Synbiotics
      • 4 Conclusions
    • Chapter 35: Symbiotics, Probiotics, and Fiber Diet in Diverticular Disease
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Diverticular Disease—Definition and Epidemiology
      • 3 Which Options to Treat Diverticular Disease?
      • 4 Diverticular Disease and Probiotics-Symbiotics
      • 5 Diverticular Disease and Dietary Fiber/Prebiotics
      • 6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 36: Gut Microbiota: Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, Pharmabiotics, and Postbiotics on Human Health
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Gut Microbiota
      • 3 Evolving Field of Probiotics
      • 4 Conclusions
    • Chapter 37: Potential Benefits of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on the Intestinal Microbiota of the Elderly
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Elderly Population
      • 3 The Gut Microbiota
      • 4 The Gut Microbiota and Aging
      • 5 Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics During Aging and Their Potential Beneficial Effects on Intestinal Microbiota
      • 6 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 38: Synbiotics in Gastrointestinal Surgery
      • Abstract
      • 1 Prevention of Infectious Complications After GI Cancer Surgery
      • 2 Prevention of Colonic Carcinogenesis in Postcolectomy and Postpolypectomy
      • 3 Prevention of Adjuvant Therapy-Related Toxicity
      • 4 Conclusions
    • Chapter 39: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, and Other Strategies to Modulate the Gut Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Novel Concept: Alterations in the Microbiota and Inflammation in the Pathophysiology of IBS
      • 3 Treatment Strategies in IBS
      • 4 Conclusion
    • Chapter 40: Gut Microbiota and IBS
      • Abstract
      • 1 The Normal Microbiota: An Essential Factor for a Healthy Gut
      • 2 Gut Microbiota in IBS: Harmful or Beneficial?
      • 3 Is the Alteration of Gut Microflora Harmful?
      • 4 Is the Alteration of Gut Microbiota Beneficial?
    • Chapter 41: Synbiotics: A New Strategy to Improve the Immune System from the Gut to Peripheral Sites
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Conclusions
    • Chapter 42: Probiotics and Prebiotics for Prevention of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Mechanisms of Action
      • 3 Clinical Trials
      • 4 Summary
    • Chapter 43: Synbiotics in the Intensive Care Unit
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 The Rationale for Synbiotic Therapy in the ICU
      • 3 Commonly Studied Synbiotic Preparations
      • 4 Synbiotics in Severe Acute Pancreatitis
      • 5 Positive SAP Trials
      • 6 Negative SAP trials
      • 7 Synbiotics in Elective Surgery
      • 8 Synbiotics in Liver Transplantation
      • 9 Synbiotics in Esophageal Surgery
      • 10 Synbiotics in Critically Ill Trauma Victims
      • 11 Synbiotics to Prevent VAP
      • 12 Positive VAP Trials
      • 13 Negative VAP Studies
      • 14 Synbiotics in Hepatic Disease
      • 15 Synbiotics in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy
      • 16 Synbiotics and Diarrheal Disorders
      • 17 Conclusions
    • Chapter 44: Properties of Probiotic Bacteria: A Proteomic Approach
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Identification of Unknown Microorganisms According to Reference Proteome Map
      • 3 Evaluation of Virulence Factors
      • 4 Identification of Pathogenic from Nonpathogenic Microorganisms
      • 5 Detection of Surface Proteins in Microbiota
      • 6 Analysis of Secretome
      • 7 Evaluation of Environmental Effects on the Growth and Functions of Microorganisms
      • 8 Evaluation of Probiotic Bacteria
      • 9 Conclusion
    • Chapter 45: Symbiotic Bacteria and Gut Epithelial Homeostasis
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Sensing the Microbiota by the Intestinal Epithelium
      • 3 Deliberate Generation of Physiological Levels of ROS Within Cells
      • 4 ROS Signaling and Reactive Cysteines
      • 5 Bacterial-Induced ROS Generation in the Intestinal Epithelium
      • 6 Cell Signaling Pathways Activated by Bacterial-Induced ROS Generation
      • 7 Bacterial-Induced Generation of ROS and Cell Motility
      • 8 Lactobacilli-Induced ROS Generation and Epithelial Growth
      • 9 Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Signaling and Bacterial-Induced Cytoprotection
      • 10 Microbiota-Induced Cell Proliferation and Colorectal Cancer
      • 11 Future Perspectives
      • 12 Conclusions
    • Chapter 46: Nonprebiotic Actions of Prebiotics
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 The Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Function
      • 3 Innate Immune Response and Pattern Recognition Receptors as Regulators of MBF
      • 4 Oligosaccharides in Human Milk
      • 5 Nonprebiotic Effects of Prebiotics
      • 6 Conclusions
  • Part IV: Probiotics in Health
    • Chapter 47: Probiotics and Physical Strength
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Bone Strength
      • 3 Protein
      • 4 Muscle Wasting
    • Chapter 48: Probiotics in Invasive Candidiasis
      • Abstract
      • 1 Candida
      • 2 Pathogenesis of ICs
      • 3 Prevention of ICs
      • 4 Probiotics and ICs
      • 5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 49: Probiotics and Usage in Bacterial Vaginosis
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 1 Bacterial Vaginosis
      • 2 Probiotic and BV
      • 3 Conclusion
    • Chapter 50: Evidence and Rationale for Probiotics to Prevent Infections in the Elderly
      • Abstract
      • 1 Background
      • 2 Gastrointestinal Infections
      • 3 Common Cold and Airways Infections
      • 4 Genitourinary Infections
      • 5 Final Considerations
    • Chapter 51: Probiotics Usage in Childhood Helicobacter pylori Infection
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics on H. pylori
      • 3 Probiotics for the Treatment of H. pylori Infection
      • 4 Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Gastrointestinal Side Effects During H. pylori Eradication Therapy
      • 5 Conclusions
    • Chapter 52: Lipoic Acid Function and Its Safety in Multiple Sclerosis
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 De Novo Synthesis of LA
      • 3 α-LA and Functions
      • 4 α-LA as a Cofactor
      • 5 Antioxidant Effect
      • 6 Antiinflammatory Effect
      • 7 Metal Chelating
      • 8 Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Safety of α-LA
      • 9 Multiple Sclerosis
      • 10 Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Safety of α-LA in Experimental and Clinical MS
      • 11 Lipoic Acid and Multiple Sclerosis
    • Chapter 53: Probiotics and Health: What Publication Rate on Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics Implies?
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Materials and Methods
      • 3 Results
      • 4 Discussion
    • Chapter 54: The Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotic Bacteria on Lipid Metabolism
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Cholesterol Metabolism
      • 3 Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis
      • 4 The Relationship of the Composition of Intestinal Microbial Flora with Lipid Metabolism
      • 5 Cholesterol-Lowering Mechanisms of Probiotics
      • 6 In Vivo Studies
      • 7 Obesity and Probiotics
      • 8 Conclusions
    • Chapter 55: The Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics in the Critically Ill
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Immunology of Probiotics in the Critically Ill
      • 3 Type of Probiotic Therapy Matters in the ICU
      • 4 The Amount of Probiotic Supplied
      • 5 The Method of Administration
      • 6 Time Probiotic is Administered and Duration of Therapy
      • 7 ICU Patients
      • 8 Diarrhea
      • 9 Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
      • 10 Severe Acute Pancreatitis
      • 11 Abdominal Surgery Patients
      • 12 Liver Transplantation Patients
      • 13 Trauma Patients
      • 14 Critically Ill Children and Probiotics
    • Chapter 56: Gynecological Health and Probiotics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Vaginal Microbiota
      • 3 Urogenital Infections
      • 4 Antibiotic as Therapeutic of Urogenital Infections
      • 5 Probiotics as Alternatives or Complements to Conventional Treatments
      • 6 Antagonistic Properties of Probiotics
      • 7 Probiotics and Prebiotics
      • 8 Vaginal Probiotic Administration
      • 9 Oral versus Vaginal Administration of Probiotics
      • 10 Conclusion
  • Part V: Probiotics and Chronic Diseases
    • Chapter 57: Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Cancer Prevention
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Probiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
      • 3 Probiotics in Cancer Prevention
      • 4 Conclusions
    • Chapter 58: Resistant Starch as a Bioactive Compound in Colorectal Cancer Prevention
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Resistant Starch
      • 3 Epidemiological Studies
      • 4 Conclusion
    • Chapter 59: Probiotics in Cancer Prevention, Updating the Evidence
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Probiotics
      • 3 Cancer
      • 4 Probiotic and Cancer
      • 5 Appropriate Probiotic Strains for Use in Cancer Therapy
      • 6 Effective Dosage of Probiotics for Cancer Therapy
      • 7 Duration of Probiotic Therapy in Patients With Cancer
      • 8 Mechanisms by Which Probiotic Bacteria May Inhibit Cancer
      • 9 Conclusion
    • Chapter 60: Cardiovascular Health and Disease Prevention: Association with Foodborne Pathogens and Potential Benefits of Probiotics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Direct Affects
      • 3 Indirect Affects
      • 4 Emerging Issues
      • 5 Conclusions
    • Chapter 61: Probiotics Usage in Heart Disease and Psychiatry
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Probiotics
      • 3 Psychobiotics
      • 4 Mechanisms of Action
      • 5 Conclusions and Future Trends
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 62: Intestinal Microbiota and Susceptibility to Viral Infections: Role of Probiotics
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Gastrointestinal Viruses
      • 3 Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Virus Susceptibility
      • 4 Suggested Antagonistic Mechanisms of Probiotics Against Intestinal Viral Pathogens
      • 5 Rotaviruses, Noroviruses, and the Intestinal Microbiota
      • 6 Efficacy of Probiotics Against Enteric Viruses in In Vitro Models, Animal, and Clinical Trials
      • 7 Conclusions
    • Chapter 63: Probiotics and Usage in Urinary Tract Infection
      • Abstract
      • 1 Urinary Tract Infection
      • 2 Probiotics
      • 3 Probiotic and Urinary Tract Infection
      • 4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 64: Probiotics: Immunomodulatory Properties in Allergy and Eczema
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Probiotics: An Innovative Therapeutic Strategy
    • Chapter 65: Prebiotics and Probiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Food Allergy
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics
      • 3 Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Animal Models of Food Allergy
      • 4 Prevention of Food Allergy
      • 5 Treatment of Food Allergy
      • 6 Implications for Future Research
      • 7 Conclusion
    • Chapter 66: Probiotics and Prebiotics for the Prevention or Treatment of Allergic Asthma
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Probiotics: Mechanisms of Action
      • 3 Clinical Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Treatment of Allergic Asthma
      • 4 Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Preventing Allergic Asthma
      • 5 Final Remarks
      • 6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 67: Amelioration of Helicobacter pylori-Induced PUD by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria
      • Abstract
      • 1 Peptic Ulcer Disease
      • 2 H. pylori Infection and its Association with Gastric Mucosa
      • 3 Association of H. pylori with PUD
      • 4 Disease Prevalence
      • 5 Genome Organization of H. Pylori
      • 6 Role of Host Cell Factors in H. Pylori Infection and Progression of PUD
      • 7 Role of Virulence Factors in H. Pylori Pathogenesis
      • 8 Role of Host Tumor Suppressors: p53 and RUNX3
      • 9 Genetic Predisposition to PUD
      • 10 Mode of Transmission of H. pylori Infection
      • 11 Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection
      • 12 Treatment and Preventive Measures
      • 13 Drug Resistance Phenotype of H. pylori
      • 14 Bioactive Compounds Showing Anti-H. pylori Activity
      • 15 Mechanism of H. pylori Inhibition by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria
      • 16 Conclusions
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
938
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128023716
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128021897

About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK

Reviews

"An immediately identified strength of the book is the logical flow of the order of parts, which results in a highly readable book…presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics to prevent diseases and improve the health of various groups of the population." --Acta Alimentaria, Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics