Principles of Translational Science in Medicine - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128006870, 9780128007211

Principles of Translational Science in Medicine

2nd Edition

From Bench to Bedside

Editors: Martin Wehling
eBook ISBN: 9780128007211
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128006870
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th April 2015
Page Count: 364
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Description

Principles of Translational Science in Medicine: From Bench to Bedside, Second Edition, provides an update on major achievements in the translation of research into medically relevant results and therapeutics.

The book presents a thorough discussion of biomarkers, early human trials, and networking models, and includes institutional and industrial support systems. It also covers algorithms that have influenced all major areas of biomedical research in recent years, resulting in an increasing numbers of new chemical/biological entities (NCEs or NBEs) as shown in FDA statistics.

The book is ideal for use as a guide for biomedical scientists to establish a systematic approach to translational medicine.

Key Features

  • Provides an in-depth description of novel tools for the assessment of translatability of trials to balance risk and improve projects at any given stage of product development
  • New chapters deal with translational issues in the fastest growing population (the elderly), case studies, translatability assessment tools, and advances in nanotherapies
  • Details IPR issues of translation, especially for public-private-partnerships
  • Contains contributions from world leaders in translational medicine, including the former NIH director and authorities from various European regulatory institutions

Readership

Biomedical researchers working on preclinical and clinical studies

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Introduction and Definitions
    • What is Translational Medicine?
    • Primary Translation versus Secondary Translation
    • The History of Translational Medicine, Obstacles, and Remits
    • What Translational Medicine Can and Cannot Do
    • The Present Status of Translational Medicine (Initiatives and Deficiencies)
    • Translational Science in Medicine: The Current Challenge
  • Chapter 2. Target Identification and Validation
    • Chapter 2.1.1. “Omics” Translation: A Challenge for Laboratory Medicine
      • Introduction
      • “Omics”: What does it mean?
      • Proteomics as a Paradigm of Problems in Translational Medicine
      • Development of Biomarkers: From Discovery to Clinical Application
      • Discovery
      • Identification/Characterization
      • Validation
      • Standardization/Harmonization
      • Clinical Association and Clinical Benefit
      • Translating Omics into Clinical Practice
      • Continuum of Translation Research and Omics
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2.1.2. “Omics” Technologies: Promises and Benefits for Molecular Medicine
      • Introduction
      • Genomics
      • Metabolomics
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 2.1.3. Potency Analysis of Cellular Therapies: The Role of Molecular Assays
      • Potency Testing
      • Complexities Associated with Potency Testing of Cellular Therapies
      • Factors Affecting the Potency of Cellular Therapies
      • Measuring Potency of Cellular Therapies
      • Gene Expression Arrays for Potency Testing
      • Potential Applications of Gene Expression Profiling for Potency Testing
      • MicroRNAs as Potency Assays
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2.1.4. Translational Pharmacogenetics to Support Pharmacogenetically Driven Clinical Decision Making
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacogenetics as a Tool for Improving Individual Drug Therapy
      • Types of Drug Therapies that Might Profit from Pharmacogenetic Diagnostics
      • The Status of Translational Pharmacogenetics in Various Drug Therapy Fields
      • Translational Pharmacogenetics and the Need for Clinical Studies to Support Pharmacogenetically Driven Prescribing
    • Chapter 2.1.5. Tissue Biobanks
      • Introduction
      • Principles and Types of Tissue Biobanks: Pros and Cons
      • Developments in Vascular Biobanking Research and Clinical Relevance
      • Challenges for Future Biobanks
      • Summary
    • Chapter 2.1.6. Animal Models: Value and Translational Potency
      • What is the Value of Animal Models? Pathophysiological Concepts
      • What is a Good Animal Model for Translational Research?
      • What is the Translational Value of Animal Models?
      • Remedies for Failed Translation: Improving Preclinical Research
      • Summary
    • Chapter 2.1.7. Localization Technologies and Immunoassays: Promises and Benefits for Molecular Medicine
      • Introduction
      • Localization Technologies
      • Immunoassays
      • Case Study: Screening of a Biomarker for Kidney Injury Using Localization and Immunoassays
    • Chapter 2.1.8. Biomarkers in the Context of Health Authorities and Consortia
      • The Critical Path Initiative
      • New Technologies, Health Authorities, and Regulatory Decision Making
      • Private–Public Partnerships (Cooperative R&D Agreements)
      • Consortia
    • Chapter 2.1.9. Human Studies as a Source of Target Information
      • Using Old Drugs for New Purposes: Baclofen
      • Serendipity: Sildenafil
      • Reverse Pharmacology
    • Chapter 2.2. Target Profiling in Terms of Translatability and Early Translation Planning
      • Essential Dimensions of Early Translational Assessment
      • A Novel Translatability Scoring Instrument: Risk Balancing of Portfolios and Project Improvement
      • Case Studies: Applying the Novel Translatability Scoring Instrument to Real-Life Experiences
  • Chapter 3. Biomarkers
    • Chapter 3.1. Defining Biomarkers as Very Important Contributors to Translational Science
    • Chapter 3.2. Classes of Biomarkers
    • Chapter 3.3. Development of Biomarkers
    • Chapter 3.4. Predictivity Classification of Biomarkers and Scores
    • Chapter 3.5. Case Studies
    • Chapter 3.6. Biomarker Panels and Multiple Readouts
      • Introduction
      • Source of Errors in Proteomics Studies
      • Statistical and Computational Methods in Clinical Proteomics
      • Multiparameter Approach
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3.7.1. Cardiovascular Biomarkers: Translational Aspects of Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, and Heart Failure in Drug Development
      • Hypertension
      • Atherosclerosis
      • Heart Failure
    • Chapter 3.7.2. Biomarkers in Oncology
      • Other Pathways That May Be Suitable for Biomarker-Assisted Development
      • Tissue Biopsies
    • Chapter 3.7.3. Translational Imaging Research
      • Why Imaging?
      • Differences between Translational Imaging and Conventional Imaging
      • Validation of Imaging and Back-Translation
      • Imaging Modalities
      • Characteristics of Various Imaging Modalities
      • Examples of Translational Imaging in Various Disease Areas
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3.7.4. Translational Medicine in Psychiatry: Challenges and Imaging Biomarkers
      • Biological Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
      • Specific Challenges of Translation in Psychiatry
      • New Biomarkers for Translation in Psychiatry
      • Imaging Biomarkers in Schizophrenia
      • Imaging of Genetic Susceptibility Factors
      • Characterization of Antipsychotic Drug Effects
      • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Chapter 4. Early Clinical Trial Design
    • Chapter 4.1. Methodological Studies
      • Conventional Phase I Trial Methodology
      • Measuring Endpoints
      • Mechanism-Oriented Trial Design
      • Can We Make Go-or-No-Go Decisions at the End of Phase I?
      • Phase II Trials
      • Personalized Medicine
      • Open Access Clinical Trials
    • Chapter 4.2. The Pharmaceutical R&D Productivity Crisis: Can Exploratory Clinical Studies Be of Any Help?
      • Traditional Drug Development
      • IND Application
      • Opportunities for Earlier Decision Making
    • Chapter 4.3. Exploratory Clinical Studies (“Phase 0 Trials”)
      • Types of Studies
      • Microdosing
      • Repeated Dosing
      • Should Exploratory Clinical Studies Be Performed in All Projects?
      • Practical Applications
    • Chapter 4.4. Adaptive Trial Design
    • Chapter 4.5. Combining Regulatory and Exploratory Trials
    • Chapter 4.6. Accelerating Proof-of-Concept by Smart Early Clinical Trials
  • Chapter 5. Pharmaceutical Toxicology
    • Introduction
    • Basic Principles of Toxicology
    • Regulatory Toxicology
    • Biomarkers
    • Links
    • The Practice of Discovery Safety Assessment
    • Summary
    • Preclinical Safety from a Translational Perspective
  • Chapter 6. Translational Science Biostatistics
    • Statistical Problems in Translational Science
    • Statistical Models and Statistical Inference
    • Design and Interpretation of an Experiment
    • Multiplicity
    • Biomarkers
    • Biological Modeling
    • Statistical Models
  • Chapter 7. Intellectual Property and Innovation in Translational Medicine
    • Introduction
    • Context
    • Trends in Translational Intellectual Property
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. Translational Research in the Fastest-Growing Population: Older Adults
    • Introduction
    • Gerontology Versus Geriatrics
    • Animal Models of Aging
    • Human Approaches to Translational Aging Research
    • Testing Treatments to Extend Health- and Lifespan
    • Limitations for Both Animal and Human Models
    • Example of Translational Research in Aging: Calorie Restriction
    • Translational Aging Resources
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 9. Translational Medicine: The Changing Role of Big Pharma
    • Introduction
    • History: How Did We Get Here?
    • Translational Solutions
    • Public–Private Partnerships: The New Mantra
    • Precompetitive Consortia: The Road Ahead
    • Summary
  • Chapter 10. Translational Science in Medicine: Putting the Pieces Together
  • Chapter 11. Learning by Experience
    • Example of a Smart, Successful Translational Process
    • Example of a Failed Translational Process
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
364
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128007211
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128006870

About the Editor

Martin Wehling

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Director, Clinical Pharmacology, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Mannheim University of Heidelberg, Mannheim,Germany

Reviews

"This is an easy to read resource for biomedical scientists interested in the current and evolving approach to integrating various scientific approaches to answer questions important for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Score: 86 - 3 Stars" --Doody's