Modern Physical Metallurgy - 8th Edition - ISBN: 9780080982045, 9780080982236

Modern Physical Metallurgy

8th Edition

Authors: R. E. Smallman A.H.W. Ngan
eBook ISBN: 9780080982236
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080982045
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 25th September 2013
Page Count: 720
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Modern Physical Metallurgy describes, in a very readable form, the fundamental principles of physical metallurgy and the basic techniques for assessing microstructure. This book enables you to understand the properties and applications of metals and alloys at a deeper level than that provided in an introductory materials course.

The eighth edition of this classic text has been updated to provide a balanced coverage of properties, characterization, phase transformations, crystal structure, and corrosion not available in other texts, and includes updated illustrations along with extensive new real-world examples and homework problems.

Key Features

  • Renowned coverage of metals and alloys from one of the world's leading metallurgy educators
  • Covers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation
  • Provides the most thorough coverage of characterization, mechanical properties, surface engineering and corrosion of any textbook in its field
  • Includes new worked examples with real-world applications, case studies, extensive homework exercises, and a full online solutions manual and image bank


Mid/senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in metallurgy, materials science, physical metallurgy, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, physics, manufacturing engineering and related courses

Table of Contents



About the authors

Chapter 1. Atoms and Atomic Arrangements

1.1 The free atom

1.2 The periodic table

1.3 Interatomic bonding in materials

1.4 Bonding and energy levels

1.5 Crystal lattices and structures

1.6 Crystal directions and planes

1.7 Stereographic projection

1.8 Selected crystal structures

1.9 Imperfections in crystals

Further reading

Chapter 2. Phase Diagrams and Alloy Theory

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The concept of a phase

2.3 The Phase Rule

2.4 Stability of phases

2.5 The mechanism of phase changes

2.6 Two-phase equilibria

2.7 Three-phase equilibria and reactions

2.8 Intermediate phases

2.9 Limitations of phase diagrams

2.10 Some key phase diagrams

2.11 Ternary phase diagrams

2.12 Principles of alloy theory

Further reading

Chapter 3. Solidification

3.1 Crystallization from the melt

3.2 Continuous growth

3.3 Lateral growth

3.4 Dendritic growth

3.5 Forms of cast structure

3.6 Gas porosity

3.7 Segregation

3.8 Directional solidification

3.9 Production of metallic single crystals for research

3.10 Coring

3.11 Cellular microsegregation

3.12 Zone refining

3.13 Eutectic solidification

3.14 Continuous casting

3.15 Fusion welding

3.16 Metallic glasses

3.17 Rapid solidification processing

Further reading

Chapter 4. Introduction to Dislocations

4.1 Concept of a dislocation

4.2 Strain energy associated with dislocations

4.3 Dislocations in ionic structures

4.4 Extended dislocations and stacking faults in close-packed crystals

4.5 Sessile dislocations

4.6 Dislocation vector diagrams

4.7 Dislocations and stacking faults in cph structures

4.8 Dislocations and stacking faults in bcc structures

4.9 Dislocations and stacking faults in ordered structures

Further reading

Chapter 5. Characterization and Analysis

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Light microscopy

5.3 X-ray diffraction analysis

5.4 Analytical electron microscopy

5.5 Observation of defects

5.6 Specialized bombardment techniques

5.7 Scanning probe microscopy

5.8 Thermal analysis

Further reading

Chapter 6. Point Defect Behaviour

6.1 Point defects in metals (vacancies and interstitials)

6.2 Interstitial formation and nuclear irradiation

6.3 Point defects in non-metallic crystals

6.4 Point defect concentration and annealing

6.5 Clustered vacancy defects (dislocation loops, tetrahedra, voids)

6.6 Irradiation and voiding

6.7 Stability of defects

6.8 Nuclear irradiation effects

Further reading

Chapter 7. Diffusion

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Diffusion laws

7.3 Temperature dependence of diffusion

7.4 Other diffusion situations

7.5 Microscopic aspects of diffusion

7.6 Rapid diffusion paths

7.7 Anelasticity and internal friction

Further reading

Chapter 8. Physical Properties

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Density

8.3 Thermal properties

8.4 Order–disorder and properties

8.5 Electrical properties

8.6 Magnetic properties

Further reading

Chapter 9. Plastic Deformation and Dislocation Behaviour

9.1 Mechanical testing procedures

9.2 Elastic deformation

9.3 Plastic deformation

9.4 Dislocation behaviour during plastic deformation

9.5 Mechanical twinning

9.6 Atomistic modelling of mechanical behaviour

Further reading

Chapter 10. Surfaces, Grain Boundaries and Interfaces

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Coherency and incoherency

10.3 Surface energy

10.4 Measurement of surface energy

10.5 Anisotropy of surface energy

10.6 Grain boundaries and interfaces

10.7 Development of preferred orientation

10.8 Deformation textures

10.9 Texture hardening

10.10 Influence of grain boundaries on plasticity

10.11 Superplasticity

10.12 Very small grain size

Further reading

Chapter 11. Work Hardening and Annealing

11.1 Theoretical treatment – Taylor model

11.2 Work hardening of single crystals

11.3 Work hardening in polycrystals

11.4 Dispersion-hardened alloys

11.5 Work hardening in ordered alloys

11.6 Annealing

11.7 Recrystallization textures

Further reading

Chapter 12. Steel Transformations

12.1 Iron–carbon system

12.2 Basic heat treatment operations

12.3 Time–temperature transformation diagrams

12.4 Austenite–pearlite transformation

12.5 Austenite–martensite transformation

12.6 Austenite–bainite transformation

12.7 Tempering of martensite

12.8 Secondary hardening

12.9 Continuous cooling transformation diagrams

12.10 Thermo-mechanical treatments

12.11 Thermoelastic martensite

Further reading

Chapter 13. Precipitation Hardening

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Precipitation from supersaturated solid solution

13.3 Precipitation hardening of Al–Ag alloys

13.4 Mechanisms of precipitation hardening

13.5 Hardening mechanisms in Al–Cu alloys

13.6 Vacancies and precipitation

13.7 Duplex ageing

13.8 Particle coarsening

13.9 Spinodal decomposition

Further reading

Chapter 14. Selected Alloys

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Commercial steels

14.3 Cast irons

14.4 Superalloys

14.5 Titanium alloys

14.6 Structural intermetallic compounds

14.7 Aluminium alloys

14.8 Copper and copper alloys

Further reading

Chapter 15. Creep, Fatigue and Fracture

15.1 Creep

15.2 Metallic fatigue

15.3 Voiding and fracture

15.4 Fracture and toughness

15.5 Ductile–brittle transition

15.6 Factors affecting brittleness of steels

15.7 Hydrogen embrittlement of steels

15.8 Intergranular fracture

15.9 Fracture mechanism maps

15.10 Crack growth under fatigue conditions

Further reading

Chapter 16. Oxidation, Corrosion and Surface Engineering

16.1 Surfaces and environment

16.2 Oxidation

16.3 Aqueous corrosion

16.4 Surface engineering

16.5 Thermal barrier coatings

16.6 Diamond-like carbon

16.7 Duplex surface engineering

Further reading

Numerical Answers to Problems

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Appendix 1

SI units

Appendix 2

Conversion factors, constants and physical data

Appendix 3

Electron quantum numbers

Appendix 4

Appendix 5

Appendix 6

Appendix 7

Electron tunnelling



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About the Author

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

A.H.W. Ngan

Professor Ngan obtained his PhD on electron microscopy of intermetallics in 1992 at the University

of Birmingham, under the supervision of Professor Ray Smallman and Professor Ian Jones. He then

carried out postdoctoral research at Oxford University on materials simulations under the supervision

of Professor David Pettifor. In 1993, he returned to the University of Hong Kong as a Lecturer in

Materials Science and Solid Mechanics, at the Department of Mechanical Engineering. In 2003,

he became Senior Lecturer and in 2006 Professor. His research interests include dislocation theory,

electron microscopy of materials and, more recently, nanomechanics. He has published over 120

refereed papers, mostly in international journals. He received a number of awards, including the

Williamson Prize (for being the top Engineering student in his undergraduate studies at the University

of Hong Kong), Thomas Turner Research Prize (for the quality of his PhD thesis at the University of

Birmingham), Outstanding Young Researcher Award at the University of Hong Kong, and in 2007

was awarded the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. He also held

visiting professorship appointments at Nanjing University and the Central Iron and Steel Research

Institute in Beijing, and in 2003, he was also awarded the Universitas 21 Fellowship to visit the

University of Auckland. He is active in conference organization and journal editorial work.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong


"…this edition of the textbook has dropped the coverage of such materials as polymers, ceramics, biomaterials, sports materials, and nano-materials that appeared in earlier edition. The focus returns to the original physical metallurgy, and the material has been rearranged so that separate chapter deal with solidification, point defect behavior, interfaces and grain boundaries, precipitation hardening, and other matters.", January 2014