Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs

Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs

Theories, Operations, and Economic Analysis

1st Edition - November 10, 2016

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  • Authors: Hoss Belyadi, Ebrahim Fathi, Fatemeh Belyadi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128498620

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Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs: Theories, Operations, and Economic Analysis introduces the basic characteristics and theories surrounding hydraulic fracturing and the main process of fracturing in shale, including the main workflow, the details in case analysis, and the fundamental differences between theory, study, and practical operation. The book takes the complex nature of the hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs and applies a practical approach that can be useds as a workflow for designing fracture treatments in various shale basins across the world. Providing the audience with theories, best practices, operation and execution, and economic analysis of hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs, this reference guides the engineer and manager through broad topics including an introduction to unconventional reservoirs, advanced shale reservoir characterization, and shale gas in place calculation as well as expanding to basic theories of hydraulic fracturing and advanced topics in shale reservoir stimulation. Rounding out with coverage on the environmental aspects and practice problems on design and economic analysis, the book delivers the critical link needed between academia and industry for all aspects of hydraulic fracturing operations.

Key Features

  • Presents basic characteristics of unconventional reservoirs and introductory theories and practices on hydraulic fracturing, including post-fracturing analysis
  • Includes an explanation of company assets and financial responsibility, with coverage on economic evaluation and how to predict decline curves
  • Provides tactics on how to strengthen real-world skills with the inclusion of practice examples at the end of the book


Production engineers, field engineers, well service personnel, completion engineers, reservoir engineers, petroleum engineering students-undergrad and graduate level

Table of Contents

    • List of Figures
    • List of Tables
    • List of Equations
    • Biography
    • Preface
    • Chapter One. Introduction to Unconventional Reservoirs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Different Types of Natural Gas
      • Natural Gas Transport
      • Unconventional Reservoirs
    • Chapter Two. Advanced Shale Reservoir Characterization
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pore-Size Distribution Measurement of Shale
      • Shale Sorption Measurement Techniques
      • Shale Porosity Measurements
      • Pore Compressibility Measurements of Shale
      • Shale Permeability Measurement Techniques
    • Chapter Three. Shale Initial Gas-in-Place Calculation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Total Gas-in-Place Calculation
      • Density of Adsorbed Gas
      • Recovery Factor
    • Chapter Four. Multiscale Fluid Flow and Transport in Organic-Rich Shale
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Multicontinuum Modeling of Shale Reservoirs
      • Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure
      • Wettability Effects on Shale Recovery
    • Chapter Five. Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Slick Water Fluid System
      • Cross-Linked Gel Fluid System
      • Hybrid Fluid System
      • Foam Fracturing
      • Foam Quality
      • Foam Stability
      • Tortuosity
      • Typical Slick Water Frac Steps
      • Acidization Stage
      • Pad Stage
      • Proppant Stage
      • Flush Stage
      • Frac Fluid Selection Summary
    • Chapter Six. Proppant Characteristics and Application Design
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sand
      • Precured Resin-Coated Sand
      • Curable Resin-Coated Sand
      • Intermediate-Strength Ceramic Proppant
      • Lightweight Ceramic Proppant
      • High-Strength Proppant
      • Proppant Size
      • Proppant Characteristics
      • Proppant Particle-Size Distributions
      • Proppant Transport and Distribution in Hydraulic Fracture
      • Fracture Conductivity
      • Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity
      • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Conductivity Test
      • Non-Darcy Flow
      • Multiphase Flow
      • Reduced Proppant Concentration
      • Gel Damage
      • Cyclic Stress
      • Fines Migration
      • Time Degradation
      • Finite vs Infinite Conductivity
    • Chapter Seven. Unconventional Reservoir Development Footprints
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Casing Selection
      • Conductor Casing
      • Surface Casing
      • Intermediate Casing
      • Production Casing
      • Hydraulic Fracturing and Aquifer Interaction
      • Hydraulic Fracturing and Fault Reactivation
      • Hydraulic Fracturing and Low-Magnitude Earthquakes
    • Chapter Eight. Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Selection and Design
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Friction Reducer
      • FR Flow Loop Test
      • Pipe Friction Pressure
      • Reynolds Number
      • Relative Roughness of Pipe
      • FR Breaker
      • Biocide
      • Scale Inhibitor
      • Linear Gel
      • Gel Breaker
      • Buffer
      • Cross-Linker
      • Surfactant
      • Iron Control
    • Chapter Nine. Fracture Pressure Analysis and Perforation Design
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pressure (psi)
      • Hydrostatic Pressure (psi)
      • Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient (psi/ft)
      • Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure (ISIP, psi)
      • Fracture Gradient (FG, psi/ft)
      • Bottom-Hole Treating Pressure (psi)
      • Total Friction Pressure (psi)
      • Pipe Friction Pressure (psi)
      • Perforation Friction Pressure (psi)
      • Open Perforations
      • Perforation Efficiency
      • Perforation Design
      • Numbers of Holes (perfs) and Limited Entry Technique
      • Perforation Diameter and Penetration
      • Perforation Erosion
      • Near-Wellbore Friction Pressure (NWBFP)
      • Fracture Extension Pressure
      • Closure Pressure
      • Net Pressure
      • Surface-Treating Pressure (STP, psi)
    • Chapter Ten. Fracture Treatment Design
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Absolute Volume Factor (AVF, gal/lbs)
      • Dirty (Slurry) Versus Clean Frac Fluid
      • Slurry (Dirty) Density (ppg)
      • Stage Fluid Clean Volume (BBLs)
      • Stage Fluid Slurry (Dirty) Volume (BBLs)
      • Stage Proppant (lbs)
      • Sand per Foot (lb/ft)
      • Water per Foot
      • Sand-to-Water Ratio (SWR, lb/gal)
      • Slick Water Frac Schedule
      • Foam Frac Schedule and Calculations
      • Foam Volume
      • Nitrogen Volume
      • Blender Sand Concentration
      • Slurry Factor (SF)
      • Clean Rate (No Proppant)
      • Clean Rate (with Proppant)
      • Slurry Rate (with Proppant)
      • Nitrogen Rate (With and Without Proppant)
    • Chapter Eleven. Horizontal Well Multistage Completion Techniques
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conventional Plug and Perf
      • Composite Bridge (Frac) Plug
      • Sliding Sleeve
      • Sliding Sleeve Advantages
      • Sliding Sleeve Disadvantages
      • Frac Stage Spacing (Plug-to-Plug Spacing)
      • Shorter Stage Length (SSL)
      • Cluster Spacing
      • Refrac Overview
    • Chapter Twelve. Completions and Flowback Design Evaluation in Relation to Production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Landing Zone
      • Stage Spacing
      • Cluster Spacing
      • Number of Perforations, Entry-Hole Diameter (EHD), and Perforation Phasing
      • Sand and Water per Foot
      • Proppant Size and Type
      • Bounded Versus Unbounded (Inner vs. Outer)
      • Up Dip Versus Down Dip
      • Well Spacing
      • Water Quality
      • Flowback Design
      • Flowback Equipment
      • Flowback Equipment Spacing Guidelines
      • Tubing Analysis
    • Chapter Thirteen. Rock Mechanical Properties and In Situ Stresses
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Young’s Modulus (psi)
      • Poisson’s Ratio (ν)
      • Fracture Toughness (image)
      • Brittleness and Fracability Ratios
      • Vertical, Minimum Horizontal, and Maximum Horizontal Stresses
      • Vertical Stress
      • Minimum Horizontal Stress
      • Biot’s Constant (Poroelastic Constant)
      • Maximum Horizontal Stress
      • Various Stress States
      • Fracture Orientation
      • Transverse Fractures
      • Longitudinal Fractures
    • Chapter Fourteen. Diagnostic Fracture Injection Test
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Typical DFIT Procedure
      • DFIT Data Recording and Reporting
      • Before-Closure Analysis
      • After-Closure Analysis (ACA)
    • Chapter Fifteen. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing Propagation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Stratigraphic and Geological Structure Modeling
      • Development of Hydraulic Fracturing Simulators
      • Two-dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Models
      • Fluid Flow in Hydraulic Fractures
      • Solid Elastic Response
      • Pseudo–Three-Dimensional (Pseudo-3D) Hydraulic Fracturing Models
      • Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Models
      • Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Interactions
      • Hydraulic Fracture Stage Merging and Stress Shadow Effects
    • Chapter Sixteen. Operations and Execution
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Water Sources
      • Hydration Unit (“Hydro”)
      • Blender
      • Sand Master (Sand Mover, Sand King, or Sand Castle)
      • T-belt
      • Missile
      • Frac Manifold (Isolation Manifold)
      • Frac Van (Control Room)
      • Overpressuring Safety Devices
      • Water Coordination
      • Sand Coordination
      • Chemical Coordination
      • Stage Treatment
      • Tips for Flowback After Screening Out
      • Frac Wellhead
    • Chapter Seventeen. Decline Curve Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Decline Curve Analysis (DCA)
      • Anatomy of Decline Curve Analysis
      • Primary Types of Decline Curves
      • Arps Decline Curve Equations for Estimating Future Volumes
    • Chapter Eighteen. Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Net Cash-Flow Model (NCF)
      • Royalty
      • Working Interest (WI)
      • Net Revenue Interest (NRI)
      • British Thermal Unit (BTU) Content
      • Shrinkage Factor
      • Operating Expense (Opex)
      • Total Opex per Month
      • Severance Tax
      • Ad Valorem Tax
      • Net Opex
      • Revenue
      • NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange)
      • Henry Hub and Basis Price
      • Cushing Hub and West Texas Intermediate (WTI)
      • Mont Belvieu and Oil Price Information Services (OPIS)
      • Capital Expenditure Cost (Capex)
      • Opex, Capex, and Pricing Escalations
      • Profit (Net Cash Flow)
      • Before Federal Income Tax (BTAX) Monthly Undiscounted Net Cash Flow (NCF)
      • Discount Rate
      • Weight of Debt and Equity
      • Cost of Debt
      • Cost of Equity
      • Capital Budgeting
      • Net Present Value (NPV)
      • BTAX and ATAX Monthly Discounted Net Cash Flow (NCF)
      • Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
      • NPV Versus IRR
      • Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)
      • Payback Method
      • Profitability Index (PI)
      • Tax Model (ATAX Calculation)
    • Example Problems
    • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 452
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2016
  • Published: November 10, 2016
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128498620

About the Authors

Hoss Belyadi

Hoss Belyadi is the founder and CEO of Obsertelligence, LLC, focused on providing artificial intelligence (AI) in-house training and solutions. As an adjunct faculty member at multiple universities, including West Virginia University, Marietta College, and Saint Francis University, Mr. Belyadi taught data analytics, natural gas engineering, enhanced oil recovery, and hydraulic fracture stimulation design. With over 10 years of experience working in various conventional and unconventional reservoirs across the world, he works on diverse machine learning projects and holds short courses across various universities, organizations, and the department of energy (DOE). Mr. Belyadi is the primary author of Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs (first and second editions) and is the author of Machine Learning Guide for Oil and Gas Using Python. Hoss earned his BS and MS, both in petroleum and natural gas engineering from West Virginia University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder and CEO, Obsertelligence, LLC, PA, USA

Ebrahim Fathi

Dr. Fathi is currently an Associate Professor of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering at West Virginia University. He has received 2014 (AIME) Rossiter W. Raymond Memorial Award and SPE outstanding Technical Editor Award in 2013. Ebrahim has authored several peer reviewed journal publications and conference papers. He has been heavily involved in research on various aspects of unconventional reservoir developments, including machine learning, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing of horizontal wells, and prediction of fault reactivation. His research has also included laboratory measurement and characterization of fluid transport and storage in organic-rich shales, innovative research developing new-generation of flow simulators for unconventional reservoirs, and the area of computational fluid dynamics. He earned a BS in Exploration of Mining Engineering and a MS in Exploration of Petroleum Engineering, both from Tehran University, a PhD and Post-doc in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Oklahoma.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, USA

Fatemeh Belyadi

Fatemeh Belyadi is currently the founder and CEO of Integrated Smart Data Solutions, LLC. Dr. Belyadi was formerly an Assistant Professor of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering at West Virginia University, Exterran Energy Solution Company, and Kish Oil and Gas Company (KOGC) where she specialized in process equipment, gas plant, refinery reactor design, reservoir management, and machine learning. SPE publishes a large portion of her professional activities, where she regularly attends and presents papers in SPE conferences. Her research interests include multi-phase fluid flow, wellbore integrity, designing and managing drilling fluids, machine learning, and enhanced oil recovery especially from stripper wells. Dr. Belyadi received her BS, MS, and PhD in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering from West Virginia University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder and CEO of Integrated Smart Data Solutions, LLC, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

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