Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies

Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies

3rd Edition - April 17, 2020

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  • Editors: Markku Tilli, Mervi Paulasto-Krockel, Matthias Petzold, Horst Theuss, Teruaki Motooka, Veikko Lindroos
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128177877
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128177860

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Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Third Edition is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS. The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, modeling, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques of MEMS structures. The third edition of this book provides an important up-to-date overview of the current and emerging technologies in MEMS making it a key reference for MEMS professionals, engineers, and researchers alike, and at the same time an essential education material for undergraduate and graduate students.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive overview of leading-edge MEMS manufacturing technologies through the supply chain from silicon ingot growth to device fabrication and integration with sensor/actuator controlling circuits
  • Explains the properties, manufacturing, processing, measuring and modeling methods of MEMS structures
  • Reviews the current and future options for hermetic encapsulation and introduces how to utilize wafer level packaging and 3D integration technologies for package cost reduction and performance improvements
  • Geared towards practical applications presenting several modern MEMS devices including inertial sensors, microphones, pressure sensors and micromirrors


Materials Scientists, Electrical Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Part I
    1. Properties of silicon; Fracture toughness
    2. Czochralski Growth of Silicon Crystals
    3. Properties of Silicon Crystals
    4. Silicon Wafers: Preparation and Properties; Modern technologies
    5. Epi Wafers: Preparation and Properties
    6. Thin Films on Silicon
    6.1 Thin Films on Silicon: Silicon Dioxide
    6.2 Thin Films on Silicon: Silicon Nitride
    6.3 Thin Films on Silicon: Poly-SiGe for MEMS-Above-CMOS Applications and Poly-Si
    6.4 Thin Films on Silicon:
    6.5 Thin Films on Silicon: Piezoelectric Thin Film Materials for MEMS,
    6.6 Black Silicon
    6.7 Thin films for Anti-stiction
    7. Thick-Film SOI Wafers: Preparation and properties

    Part II
    8. Multiscale Modeling Methods
    9. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Microstructures
    10. Electrostatic and RF-Properties of MEMS Structures
    11. Optical Modeling of MEMS
    12. Modeling of Silicon Etching
    13. Gas Damping in Vibrating MEMS Structures
    14. Recent Progress in Large-scale Electronic State Calculations and Data-driven Sciences

    Part III
    15. MEMS Lithography
    16. Deep Reactive Ion Etching; update
    17. Wet Etching of Silicon
    18. Porous Silicon Based MEMS
    19. Surface Micromachining
    20. Vapor Phase Etch Processes for Silicon MEMS
    21. Inkjet Printing, Laser-Based Micromachining and Micro 3D Printing Technologies for MEMS
    22. Microfluidics and BioMEMS in Silicon

    Part IV
    23. Silicon Direct Bonding
    24. Anodic Bonding
    25. Glass Frit Bonding
    26. Metallic Alloy Seal Bonding
    27. Emerging Wafer Bonding Technologies
    28. Bonding of CMOS Processed Wafers
    29. Wafer-Bonding Equipment
    30. Encapsulation by Film Deposition
    31. Dicing of MEMS Devices
    32. 3D Integration of MEMS
    33. Own chapter for eWLP
    34. Through-Substrate Via Technologies for MEMS
    35. Outgassing and Gettering

    Part V
    36. Silicon Wafer and Thin Film Measurements
    37. Oxygen and Bulk Microdefects in Silicon
    38. Optical Measurement of Static and Dynamic Displacement in MEMS
    39. MEMS Residual Stress Characterization: Methodology and Perspective
    40. Microscale deformation analysis
    41. Strength of Bonded Interfaces
    42. Hermeticity Tests
    43. MEMS testing and calibration
    44. MEMS Reliability

    Part VI
    45. Case Accelerometer
    46. Case Gyroscope
    47. Case Pressure Sensor
    48. Case Microphone
    49. Case Micromirror
    50. Case Optical MEMs

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1026
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: April 17, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128177877
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128177860

About the Editors

Markku Tilli

Markku Tilli obtained a degree in Materials Science (Physical Metallurgy) at Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) in 1974. Until 1980 he had various research and teaching positions at HUT specializing in crystal growth technologies. From 1981 to 1984 he managed process research and development in Silicon project at HUT silicon wafer manufacturing pilot plant. Since 1985 he has had various managing positions at Okmetic in research, development and customer support areas, and held a position of Senior Vice President, Research until his retirement in 2018. His MEMS related activities started in 1982 when he developed a process to make double side polished silicon wafers for bulk micromachined sensors. Since then he has developed advanced new silicon wafer types for MEMS, including special epitaxial wafers, SOI and SOI wafers with buried cavities. His publication topics include oxygen precipitation in silicon, silicon crystal growth, wafer cleaning as well as silicon wafer manufacturing technologies and applications in MEMS. He is member of the Technology Academy of Finland and has received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science in Engineering from Aalto University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director and Senior Vice President of Research, Okmetic, Finland (retired)

Mervi Paulasto-Krockel

Dr. Mervi Paulasto-Kröckel is professor at Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in Finland. She studied materials science and semiconductor technology in Helsinki University of Technology, and gradudated as MSc Tech in 1990. She continued her studies in the Technical Universities of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and Helsinki and attained her doctoral degree in 1995. After a 2-years post-doctoral appointment at the Joint Research Centre of European Commission in the Netherlands, her professional career continued in the electronics industry. She was a Staff Principal Engineer at Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector in Munich. In 2004 Paulasto-Kröckel joined Infineon Technologies where she was the Director Package Development responsible for semiconductor assembly and interconnect development for automotive products worldwide. At the end of 2018 Dr. Paulasto-Kröckel became a professor at Helsinki University of Technology, which is now called Aalto University after a merger with two other leading universities in the Helsinki area. Her current research focus is on advanced materials and interconnect technologies for MEMS/NEMS and power electronics, as well as multi-material assemblies behavior under different loads and their characteristic failure mechanisms. Her group has extensive experience in studying interactions and interfacial reactions between dissimilar materials, such as different oxide and nitride materials, metals and semiconductors. The group has developed a combined methodology approach to solve multi-materials compatibility issues in microelectronics and microsystems. Prof. Paulasto-Kröckel has over 110 international publications in the fields of microelectronics packaging and interfacial compatibility of dissimilar materials. She is IEEE EPS Distinguished Lecturer and a member of the Finnish Academy of Technical Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Finland

Matthias Petzold

Matthias Petzold is Professor, Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, Germany. His research focuses on physical failure analysis of semiconductor materials, on strength and reliability properties of MEMS, on material diagnostics in microelectronics packaging and on innovative methods and instrumentation for microstructure diagnostics and mechanical testing. He is currently heading the institute’s Center for Applied Microstructure Diagnostics (CAM) and is deputy director of the Fraunhofer institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS in Halle.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, Germany

Horst Theuss

Horst Theuss is Lead Principal, Infineon Technologies AG, Germany, where he is today responsible for Backend predevelopments focusing on new packages for MEMS and sensors. Since 2000, he has worked on a variety of assembly technologies and concepts in the field of discrete semiconductors, wafer level packaging, cavity packaging, materials and integration concepts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lead Principal, Infineon Technologies, AG, Germany

Teruaki Motooka

Teruaki Motooka received PhD degree in 1981 in Applied Physics from Kyushu University. He was a research scientist in the Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd. for 1971-1984, a visiting research assistant professor at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA for 1984-1988, an associate professor in the Institute of Applied Physics at University of Tsukuba, Japan for 1988-1993, and became a full professor at Kyushu University in 1993. He retired from Kyushu University in 2010. He has published more than 150 scientific papers on various international journals and these papers have been cited more than 2000 times.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan

Veikko Lindroos

Veikko Lindroos is Professor Emeritus, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Aalto University, Finland. His research covers a broad spectrum of materials science and technology, such as metallic materials, silicon technology and MEMS materials magnetic, electronic and composite materials as well as shape memory effect and materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Aalto University, Finland

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