Handbook of Lipids in Human Function - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781630670368, 9781630670351

Handbook of Lipids in Human Function

1st Edition

Fatty Acids

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson Fabien De Meester
eBook ISBN: 9781630670351
Hardcover ISBN: 9781630670368
Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
Published Date: 4th December 2015
Page Count: 842
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Description

Handbook of Lipids in Human Function: Fatty Acids presents current research relating to health issues whose impact may be modified by adopting personalized diets and lifestyle interventions of the consumption of fatty acids. Addressing cardiovascular and neurological diseases as well as cancer, obesity, inflammatory conditions, and lung disease, the authors correlate lipid sources with specific conditions, providing important insights into preventative as well as response-based actions designed to positively impact health outcomes.

The material is presented in 29 chapters and brings together the research and work of an international team of experts. designed to bridge the gap between traditional approaches to dietary interventions and leading edge integrated health strategies, Handbook of Lipids in Human Function: Fatty Acids is a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians.

Key Features

  • Discusses the importance of essential fatty acids in maintaining cardio- and cerebro-vascular health
  • Explains the metabolic risks associated with deficiencies and/or imbalance of essential fatty acids
  • Explores the promise of essential fatty acids as adjuvants to pharmacopoeia
  • Suggests interventions with personalized lipid diets

Readership

food scientists, lipidologists, and nutritionists

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1. Personalized Diet and Lifestyle Interventions on Lipids and Lipoproteins
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Diet Habits, Lifestyles, and Circulating Lipids and Lipoproteins
    • Genetic Determinants of Circulating Lipids and Lipoproteins
    • Gene–Diet/Lifestyle Interactions and Circulating Lipids and Lipoproteins
    • Lipidomics
    • Summary
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Trans Fats and Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases: Facts or Artifacts?
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • From Cis to TFAs: Natural Perfection to Industrial Imperfection
    • Physicochemical Characteristics of TFAs: Valuable Reasons for Industrial Production
    • Analytical TFA Characterization: Not Always Easy, But Often Present
    • TFAs on Health and Cardiovascular Diseases: Are They Really Hurting the Heart?
    • TFA-Mediated Molecular Mechanisms Leading to Higher CVD Risks
    • Contrasting Panorama of Worldwide TFA Consumption Is Relying on Technological Alternatives and Preventive Policies
    • Key Points
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Fatty Acids and Cardiac Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Membrane Organization
    • Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
    • Cardioprotection
    • Myocardial Energetics
    • The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
    • The n-3 PUFAs in Cardiovascular Disease
    • The n-3 PUFA Antiarrythmetic Effects
    • The n-3 PUFA Alterations to Membrane Microdomain
    • The n-3 PUFA Effects on Cardiac Function
    • The n-3 PUFA Index
    • The n-3 PUFA Effects on Mitochondrial Function
    • The n-3 PUFA Metabolites
    • The n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
    • n-6 PUFAs in Cardiovascular Disease
    • n-6 PUFAs: CYP-Derived Metabolites of AA
    • n-6 PUFAs: CYP-Derived Metabolites of LA
    • n-6 PUFAs: Cyclooxygenase-Derived Metabolites
    • n-6 PUFAs: Lipooxygenase-Derived Metabolites
    • The n-6/n-3 FA Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease
    • Trans Fatty Acids
    • Saturated Fatty Acids
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Lipids Nutrition and Epigenetic Modification in Obesity-Related Co-Morbitities
    • Abstract
    • List Abbreviations
    • Introduction
    • Obesity and Epigenetic
    • Atherosclerosis and Epigenetic
    • NAFLD and Epigenetic
    • Cancer and Epigenetics
    • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Epigenetic
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Dairy Products: Their Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Disease
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Trends in the Consumption of Milk and Dairy Foods
    • Nutrients Provided by Dairy Foods
    • Contribution of Dairy Foods to Fat and Fatty Acid Intake
    • Epidemiological Evidence of the Association Between Dairy Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease
    • Saturated and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids from Milk and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence from Intervention Studies
    • Dairy, Blood Pressure, and Arterial Stiffness
    • Trans Fatty Acids from Milk and Cardiovascular Disease
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Fatty Acids in Corn Oil: Role in Heart Disease Prevention
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Effects of Corn Oil/Linoleic Acid on Plasma Lipid Profile
    • Effects of Corn Oil on Inflammation
    • Effects of Linoleic Acid on Inflammation
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Dietary Approaches to Reduce Aortic Stiffness
    • Abstract
    • Background on Aortic Stiffness
    • Measurement of Aortic Stiffness
    • Consequences of High Aortic Stiffness and Aortic BP
    • The Importance of Keeping Aortic Stiffness Low
    • Dietary Factors Associated with Arterial Stiffness: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence
    • Dietary Factors Associated with Arterial Stiffness: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Lifestyle Factors
    • Future Directions
    • Summary
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Inflammation and Atherogenic Effects Due to Saturated Fatty Acids
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Epidemiology of Saturated Fatty Acid Intake and CHD Risk
    • Reasons Epidemiology Data Are So Inconsistent
    • Different Changes of Risk Factors over Time
    • Genetic Influence of Pro-Inflammation Status
    • Inflammation and Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis
    • Molecular Mechanism of SFA Influence
    • Clinical Controlled Study of SFA Intake
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 9. The Use of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 PUFAs) in Atrial Fibrillation
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Overview of the Classification and Pathophysiology of AF
    • Potential Antifibrillatory Mechanisms of n-3 PUFA
    • Human Studies
    • Reasons for Inconsistent Results in Human Studies
    • Population Heterogeneity
    • AF Subtype and Duration
    • Differences in Fish Oil Supplementation and Duration
    • Are n-3 PUFAs Harmful?
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 10. Individual Fatty Acids in Cardiometabolic Disease
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Fatty Acids and Risk of CHD
    • Fatty Acids and Risk of T2D
    • References
  • Chapter 11. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Patients with Coronary Disease Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
    • Abstract
    • Why Patients with Coronary Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Are Subjects at High Risk
    • Why Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Might Offer Beneficial Effects in Patients Treated with PCI
    • OMEGA-PCI Study
    • Other Omega-3 PUFA Effects with Potential Benefit After PCI
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition in Children
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • The Role of n-3 Fatty Acids in the Brain
    • Consequences of n-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency
    • Relationship Between n-3 Fatty Acid Status and Cognition
    • Randomized Controlled Trials of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Children (2 Years and Older)
    • Summary and Future Directions
    • References
  • Chapter 13. The Effects of Glycerophospholipids and Fatty Acids on APP Processing: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Abstract
    • Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Proteolytic Processing of APP
    • Link Between Lipids and AD
    • Glycerophospholipids and AD
    • Polyunsaturated FAs and AD
    • Trans Fatty Acids and AD
    • Nutritional FAs and AD
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Role of Dietary Fatty Acids in Mood Disorders
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
    • LCn-3 Fatty Acids
    • Neurodevelopment
    • LCn-6 Fatty Acids
    • Summary and Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 15. Biochemical Aspects of n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Brain
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • n-6 Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators and Their Receptors in the Brain
    • n-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators and Their Receptors in the Brain
    • Interplay Between n-6 Fatty Acid and n-3 Fatty Acid Metabolism
    • Levels of n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acid-derived Lipid Mediators in Neurological Disorders
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 16. Neurocognitive Functions and Lipids
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Cognitive Impairment, Dementia, and Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 17. What Are the Physiological Roles of Mead Acid (5,8,11-Eicosatrienoic Acid)?
    • Abstract
    • Part 1: Effects of Mead Acid on Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
    • Part 2: The Effects of MA on Angiogenesis
    • General Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 18. Fat Metabolism During Exercise and Dietary Interventions for Enhancing Fat Metabolism and Athletic Performance
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Fatty Acid Metabolism During Exercise
    • Conclusions and Implications
    • References
  • Chapter 19. Ruminal Metabolism of Fatty Acids: Modulation of Polyunsaturated, Conjugated, and Trans Fatty Acids in Meat and Milk
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Rumen, the Site of Fatty Acid Metabolism in Ruminants
    • Postruminal Absorption of Fatty Acids
    • Fatty Acid Transfer to Mammary Gland and Muscle and FA Effect on Tissue Metabolism
    • How to Increase PUFA Flows
    • Modulation of Trans and Conjugated Fatty Acids
    • Conclusion and Perspectives
    • References
  • Chapter 20. Lipids and Metabolic Syndrome
    • Abstract
    • The Origin of Metabolic Syndrome
    • Criteria for Clinical Diagnosis of MetS
    • Prevention and Treatment of MetS
    • Lipids and MetS
    • Summary
    • References
  • Chapter 21. Fatty Acids and Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Obesity
    • Abstract
    • Hypothalamic Networks Regulating Energy Balance
    • Insulin and Leptin in Hypothalamic Control of Energy Metabolism
    • Gastrointestinal Hormones in Hypothalamic Control of Energy Balance
    • Hypothalamic Lipid Metabolism Modulating Energy Balance
    • Inflammation in Obesity and Molecular Mechanisms
    • Fatty Acids and Hypothalamic Inflammation
    • ER Stress and Lipotoxicity
    • Summary and Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 22. Dietary Lipid Determines the Health of Airway Epithelia and the Lungs
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Role of Balanced Diet in Maintenance of Lung Health
    • Dietary Lipids and Pulmonary Diseases
    • 12/15-LOX Metabolism in Airway Injury
    • References
  • Chapter 23. Oleic Acid and Lung Injury
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Oleic Acid
    • The Lungs
    • Lung Injury
    • Origin of Pulmonary Insult
    • Oleic Acid-Induced Lung Injury
    • Experimental Animal Models in the Induction of Acute Lung Injury
    • Putative Targets to the Lung Injury Treatment
    • References
  • Chapter 24. Dietary Fats and Inflammation
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Metabolism of Essential Fatty Acids
    • Lipid Mediators of Immunity and Inflammation
    • Obesity and Systemic Inflammation
    • Dietary Saturated Fats and Inflammation
    • Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases
    • Asthma and Atopic Disease
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 25. Intensive Lipid-Lowering Treatment in Patients with Inflammatory Joint Diseases
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Underestimation of CV Risk in IJD
    • Lipid-Lowering Treatment in IJD
    • Experiences from a “Preventive Cardio-Rheuma” Clinic
    • Systemic Inflammation and Lipid-Lowering Therapy
    • Effect on Atherosclerosis After Intensive Lipid-Lowering Therapy in IJD
    • References
  • Chapter 26. Arachidonic Acid and Cancer Risk
    • Abstract
    • Nutritional Importance of Arachidonic Acid in Humans
    • ARA-Enriched Oils: Manufacturing Processes and Industrial Applications
    • Safety Assessment of ARA-Enriched Oils: Basic Toxicological Tests and Carcinogenic Potential
    • ARA and Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies
    • Conclusions
    • References
    • Appendix 26.1 PubMed Search Terms and Strategies
  • Chapter 27. Blood Cell Membrane Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acid Abnormality and Supplementation in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Abstract
    • Sickle Cell Disease
    • Cell Membrane Defect in SCD
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation of Sickle Cell Patients
    • Conclusions
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 28. Lipids, Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation and NAFLD: A Ménage À Trois?
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Effect of Individual Dietary and Lipids
    • Hormonal and Nonhormonal Regulators of Lipid, Glucose and Energy Metabolism in NAFLD
    • JNK Pathways
    • Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation: The Main Role of IL-6
    • Future Directions and Conclusive Remarks
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 29. Disturbances of Lipid Metabolism in a Cancer Cell and How This Knowledge Increases Its Role in Clinical Oncology
    • Abstract
    • Cancer Development and Lipid Metabolism
    • Cancer Management and Lipid Metabolism
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
842
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press and AOCS Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press and AOCS Press
eBook ISBN:
9781630670351
Hardcover ISBN:
9781630670368

About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA

Fabien De Meester

Fabien De Meester PhD is a biochemist, owner and managing director of DMF, a company invested in the promotion of body/mind health at people management levels. His long expertise in protein and lipid chemistry derives from his day-to-day consulting activities within enterprises around the world. It provides him with the visionary approach needed to implement changes in use and importance of fatty acids.

Affiliations and Expertise

DMF Ltd Co, Marche, Belgium TsimTsoum Institute, Krakow, Poland