Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Thin Films and Epitaxy

2nd Edition - November 2, 2014

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  • Editor: Thomas Kuech
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633040
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444633057

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Volume IIIA Basic TechniquesHandbook of Crystal Growth, Second Edition Volume IIIA (Basic Techniques), edited by chemical and biological engineering expert Thomas F. Kuech, presents the underpinning science and technology associated with epitaxial growth as well as highlighting many of the chief and burgeoning areas for epitaxial growth. Volume IIIA focuses on major growth techniques which are used both in the scientific investigation of crystal growth processes and commercial development of advanced epitaxial structures. Techniques based on vacuum deposition, vapor phase epitaxy, and liquid and solid phase epitaxy are presented along with new techniques for the development of three-dimensional nano-and micro-structures.Volume IIIB Materials, Processes, and TechnologyHandbook of Crystal Growth, Second Edition Volume IIIB (Materials, Processes, and Technology), edited by chemical and biological engineering expert Thomas F. Kuech, describes both specific techniques for epitaxial growth as well as an array of materials-specific growth processes. The volume begins by presenting variations on epitaxial growth process where the kinetic processes are used to develop new types of materials at low temperatures. Optical and physical characterizations of epitaxial films are discussed for both in situ and exit to characterization of epitaxial materials. The remainder of the volume presents both the epitaxial growth processes associated with key technology materials as well as unique structures such as monolayer and two dimensional materials.

Key Features

Volume IIIA Basic Techniques

  • Provides an introduction to the chief epitaxial growth processes and the underpinning scientific concepts used to understand and develop new processes.
  • Presents new techniques and technologies for the development of three-dimensional structures such as quantum dots, nano-wires, rods and patterned growth
  • Introduces and utilizes basic concepts of thermodynamics, transport, and a wide cross-section of kinetic processes which form the atomic level text of growth process

Volume IIIB Materials, Processes, and Technology

  • Describes atomic level epitaxial deposition and other low temperature growth techniques
  • Presents both the development of thermal and lattice mismatched streams as the techniques used to characterize the structural properties of these materials
  • Presents in-depth discussion of the epitaxial growth techniques associated with silicone silicone-based materials, compound semiconductors, semiconducting nitrides, and refractory materials



Scientists and engineers from diverse (academic/industrial) backgrounds including crystal growers, physicists, chemists, engineers, bioengineers, solid state scientists, materials scientists, earth scientists, etc.

Table of Contents

  • General Preface
    Preface to Volume III
    List of Contributors
    Part A. Basic Techniques
    1. Epitaxy for Energy Materials
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. The Epitaxial Methods
    1.3. Epitaxial Processes for High-Efficiency III–V Solar Cells
    1.4. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
    1.5. Germanium Layers on Glass
    1.6. Epitaxial Processes for Thermo-Photovoltaic Devices
    2. Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for Current III–V and Nitride Semiconductor Compound Issues
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Overview of the HVPE Process
    2.3. Morphology-Controlled Growth at the Micrometer and Submicrometer Scales
    2.4. HVPE Growth of NWs
    2.5. Conclusion
    3. The Science and Practice of Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE)
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. The Science of MOVPE—Fundamental Aspects
    3.3. The Role of Impurities
    3.4. Growth System Considerations
    3.5. Conclusions
    4. Principles of Molecular Beam Epitaxy
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Description of MBE Equipment
    4.3. MBE Growth Process
    4.4. III-V Alloy Growth
    4.5. Doping of III-V Materials
    4.6. Growth of Highly Mismatched Alloys
    4.7. Summary
    5. Molecular Beam Epitaxy with Gaseous Sources
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. MBE Growth System
    5.3. GSMBE Growth for III–V Semiconductors
    5.4. MOMBE/CBE Growth for III–V Semiconductors
    5.5. Summary
    6. Liquid-Phase Epitaxy
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Historical Perspective
    6.3. Phase Equilibria Modeling
    6.4. Doping and Impurity Control
    6.5. Driving Forces for Crystal Growth in LPE
    6.6. Substrate Surface Preparation for LPE
    6.7. LPE Instrumentation, Control and In situ Analysis
    6.8. Melt Convection
    6.9. Heteroepitaxy
    6.10. LPE Growth Mechanisms and Layers with Atomically Smooth Surfaces
    6.11. Quantum Wells, Superlattice, and Nanostructures by LPE
    6.12. Growth of Thick Ternary and Quaternary Alloy Layers for “Virtual” Substrates with Adjustable Lattice Parameters
    6.13. Selective Epitaxy and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth
    6.14. LPE for Shaped Crystal Growth
    6.15. Silicon and SiGe LPE and Solution Growth with Main Applications to Solar Cells
    6.16. Silicon Carbide LPE
    6.17. III-V Nitride LPE
    6.18. Conclusion and Outlook
    7. Solid-Phase Epitaxy
    7.1. Introduction and Background
    7.2. Experimental Methods
    7.3. Solid-Phase Epitaxy in Si and Ge
    7.4. Atomistic Models
    7.5. Defects Formed during Solid-Phase Epitaxy
    7.6. Diffusion and Segregation of Impurities during Solid-Phase Epitaxy
    7.7. SPE in Other Semiconductors
    7.8. Summary
    8. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)
    8.1. Typical Experimental PLD Setups
    8.2. Physics and Chemistry of PLD
    8.3. Application of PLD to Various Materials
    8.4. Related Deposition Technologies
    9. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires
    9.1. Introduction
    9.2. VLS Growth of Si Nanowires
    9.3. VLS Growth of III–V Nanowires
    10. Selective Area Masked Growth (Nano to Micro)
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Methodology of SAG
    10.3. Applications of Selective Area Masked Growth
    10.4. Summary
    11. Organic van der Waals Epitaxy versus Templated Growth by Organic–Organic Heteroepitaxy
    11.1. Organic van der Waals Epitaxy
    11.2. Templated Growth by Organic–Organic Heteroepitaxy
    12. Epitaxy of Small Organic Molecules
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Structure of Organic Small-Molecule Interfaces
    12.3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Organic Epitaxy
    12.4. Methods of Epitaxial Growth of Organic Molecular Crystals
    12.5. Characterization of Organic Molecular Heterostructures
    12.6. Conclusion
    13. Epitaxial Growth of Oxide Films and Nanostructures
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Oxide Thin Film Growth
    13.3. Lithography-Based Epitaxial Oxide Nanostructures
    13.4. Template Synthesis and Deposition for Oxide Nanostructures
    13.5. Three-Dimensional Deposition for Oxide Nanostructures
    13.6. Self-assembled Nanocomposite Oxide Films
    13.7. Summary
    14. Epitaxy of Carbon-Based Materials: Diamond Thin Film
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Homoepitaxy of Diamond
    14.3. Heteroepitaxy of Diamond
    14.4. Summary and Conclusions
    15. Magnetic Semiconductors
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. III–V Magnetic Semiconductors
    15.3. Other Magnetic Semiconductors and Related Materials
    15.4. Summary
    16. MOCVD of Nitrides
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. Understanding the Growth of Nitrides by MOCVD
    16.3. Summary
    17. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Nitrides for Advanced Electronic Materials
    17.1. Introduction
    17.2. Apparatus for Nitride MBE
    17.3. PAMBE Growth of Advanced Electronic Nitride Materials
    17.4. Ammonia-Assisted MBE Growth
    18. Epitaxial Graphene
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. Preliminaries: Band Structure
    18.3. Graphene Synthesis on SiC
    18.4. Overview of Graphene Synthesis on SiC
    18.5. Practical Information on Graphene Synthesis and Properties
    18.6. Formation on Si-Face
    18.7. Formation on C-Face
    18.8. Other Graphene Synthesis Approaches on SiC
    18.9. Outlook
    Part B. Materials, Processes, and Technology
    19. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Two-Dimensional Crystals
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene
    19.3. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hexagonal Boron Nitride
    19.4. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Molybdenum Disulfide
    20. Kinetic Processes in Vapor Phase Epitaxy
    20.1. Introduction to Thermodynamics and Kinetics
    20.2. Intended Focus and Scope of Article
    20.3. Atomistic Processes Involved in Thin-Film Growth
    20.4. Closing Remarks
    21. Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Chemical Kinetics
    21.1. Introduction to MOVPE
    21.2. Thermochemical Aspects of the MOVPE Growth Process
    21.3. Chemical Kinetic Processes within the MOVPE System
    21.4. Reaction Kinetics of Organometallic Compounds
    21.5. Reaction Kinetics of Group 15 Compounds
    21.6. Growth Reactions
    21.7. Conclusion
    22. Transport Phenomena in Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactors
    22.1. Introduction
    22.2. Basic Overview of Transport Phenomena during Vapor Phase Epitaxy
    22.3. Overview of Production-Scale VPE Technologies and Reactors
    22.4. Epitaxy of Silicon
    22.5. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-V Materials
    22.6. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitrides
    22.7. Epitaxy of SiC
    22.8. Conclusions
    23. Nucleation and Surface Diffusion in Molecular Beam Epitaxy
    23.1. Introduction
    23.2. Basic Understandings
    23.3. Intersurface Diffusion
    23.4. Fabrication and Control of Microstructures
    24. Predicted Thermal- and Lattice-Mismatch Stresses
    24.1. Introduction
    24.2. Thermal Stress in an Elongated Film–Substrate Strip
    24.3. Lattice-Mismatch Stresses in a Circular Film-Substrate Assembly
    24.4. Conclusions
    25. Low-Temperature and Metamorphic Buffer Layers
    25.1. Introduction
    25.2. Uniform Buffer Layers
    25.3. Step-Graded Buffer Layers
    25.4. Linearly-Graded Buffer Layers
    25.5. Nonlinear Buffers
    25.6. Superlattice Buffers
    25.7. Low-Temperature Buffer Layers and Two-step Growth
    25.8. Conclusion
    26. Self-Assembly in Semiconductor Epitaxy: From Growth Mechanisms to Device Applications
    26.1. Introduction
    26.2. Self-Assembled Quantum Dots
    26.3. Material Systems
    26.4. Structural Characterization of Self-Assembled Structures
    26.5. Electronic States and Optical Properties of Quantum Dots
    26.6. Devices, Applications, and New Physics
    26.7. Summary and Outlook
    27. Atomic Layer Deposition
    27.1. Thin Films and the Need for Precise Growth Control
    27.2. From Atomic Layer Epitaxy to Atomic Layer Deposition
    27.3. Basics of ALD
    27.4. Materials, Precursors, and Co-reactants
    27.5. ALD Chemistries
    27.6. ALD Reactors
    27.7. ALD Virtues and Practicalities
    27.8. Conclusion
    28. Silicon Carbide Epitaxy
    28.1. Introduction
    28.2. Crystal Structures of SiC
    28.3. Fundamentals of SiC Epitaxy
    28.4. Chemical Vapor Deposition
    28.5. Doping Control
    28.6. Extended Defects in 4H-SiC Epilayers
    28.7. Point Defects (Deep Levels)
    28.8. Fast Epitaxy
    28.9. Homoepitaxy on Other Orientations
    28.10. Other Techniques
    28.11. Summary
    29. In Situ Characterization of Epitaxy
    29.1. Introduction
    29.2. Measurement Modalities
    29.3. Future Techniques
    30. X-Ray and Electron Diffraction for Epitaxial Structures
    30.1. Introduction
    30.2. Diffraction Principles
    30.3. Epitaxial Growth and Diffraction Characterization
    30.4. Conclusion
    31. Growth of III/Vs on Silicon: Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides and Antimonides
    31.1. Introduction
    31.2. Challenges of III/Vs on Silicon Heteroepitaxy
    31.3. Si Surface Preparation
    31.4. Growth of Nearly Lattice-Matched III/Vs on Silicon
    31.5. Growth of Highly Mismatched III/Vs on Silicon
    31.6. Summary
    32. Heteroepitaxial Growth of Si, Si1−xGex-, and Ge-Based Alloy
    32.1. Introduction
    32.2. Crystal Growth
    32.3. Strain, Dislocations, and Defects in Heteroepitaxial Layers
    32.4. Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1382
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: November 2, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633040
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444633057

About the Editor

Thomas Kuech

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

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