Handbook of Crystal Growth - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444633040, 9780444633057

Handbook of Crystal Growth, Volume 3A-3B

2nd Edition

Thin Films and Epitaxy

Editors: Tom Kuech
eBook ISBN: 9780444633057
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633040
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 14th November 2014
Page Count: 1382
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Description

Volume IIIA Basic Techniques
Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIIA (Basic Techniques)
, edited by chemical and biological engineering expert Thomas F. Kuech, presents the underpinning science and technology associated with epitaxial growth as well as highlighting many of the chief and burgeoning areas for epitaxial growth. Volume IIIA focuses on major growth techniques which are used both in the scientific investigation of crystal growth processes and commercial development of advanced epitaxial structures. Techniques based on vacuum deposition, vapor phase epitaxy, and liquid and solid phase epitaxy are presented along with new techniques for the development of three-dimensional nano-and micro-structures.

Volume IIIB Materials, Processes, and Technology
Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIIB (Materials, Processes, and Technology)
, edited by chemical and biological engineering expert Thomas F. Kuech, describes both specific techniques for epitaxial growth as well as an array of materials-specific growth processes. The volume begins by presenting variations on epitaxial growth process where the kinetic processes are used to develop new types of materials at low temperatures. Optical and physical characterizations of epitaxial films are discussed for both in situ and exit to characterization of epitaxial materials. The remainder of the volume presents both the epitaxial growth processes associated with key technology materials as well as unique structures such as monolayer and two dimensional materials.

Key Features

Volume IIIA Basic Techniques

  • Provides an introduction to the chief epitaxial growth processes and the underpinning scientific concepts used to understand and develop new processes.
  • Presents new techniques and technologies for the development of three-dimensional structures such as quantum dots, nano-wires, rods and patterned growth
  • Introduces and utilizes basic concepts of thermodynamics, transport, and a wide cross-section of kinetic processes which form the atomic level text of growth process

Volume IIIB Materials, Processes, and Technology

  • Describes atomic level epitaxial deposition and other low temperature growth techniques
  • Presents both the development of thermal and lattice mismatched streams as the techniques used to characterize the structural properties of these materials
  • Presents in-depth discussion of the epitaxial growth techniques associated with silicone silicone-based materials, compound semiconductors, semiconducting nitrides, and refractory materials

 

Readership

Scientists and engineers from diverse (academic/industrial) backgrounds including crystal growers, physicists, chemists, engineers, bioengineers, solid state scientists, materials scientists, earth scientists, etc.

Table of Contents

  • General Preface
  • Preface to Volume III
  • List of Contributors
  • Part A. Basic Techniques
    • 1. Epitaxy for Energy Materials
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. The Epitaxial Methods
      • 1.3. Epitaxial Processes for High-Efficiency III–V Solar Cells
      • 1.4. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
      • 1.5. Germanium Layers on Glass
      • 1.6. Epitaxial Processes for Thermo-Photovoltaic Devices
    • 2. Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for Current III–V and Nitride Semiconductor Compound Issues
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Overview of the HVPE Process
      • 2.3. Morphology-Controlled Growth at the Micrometer and Submicrometer Scales
      • 2.4. HVPE Growth of NWs
      • 2.5. Conclusion
    • 3. The Science and Practice of Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE)
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. The Science of MOVPE—Fundamental Aspects
      • 3.3. The Role of Impurities
      • 3.4. Growth System Considerations
      • 3.5. Conclusions
    • 4. Principles of Molecular Beam Epitaxy
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Description of MBE Equipment
      • 4.3. MBE Growth Process
      • 4.4. III-V Alloy Growth
      • 4.5. Doping of III-V Materials
      • 4.6. Growth of Highly Mismatched Alloys
      • 4.7. Summary
    • 5. Molecular Beam Epitaxy with Gaseous Sources
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. MBE Growth System
      • 5.3. GSMBE Growth for III–V Semiconductors
      • 5.4. MOMBE/CBE Growth for III–V Semiconductors
      • 5.5. Summary
    • 6. Liquid-Phase Epitaxy
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Historical Perspective
      • 6.3. Phase Equilibria Modeling
      • 6.4. Doping and Impurity Control
      • 6.5. Driving Forces for Crystal Growth in LPE
      • 6.6. Substrate Surface Preparation for LPE
      • 6.7. LPE Instrumentation, Control and In situ Analysis
      • 6.8. Melt Convection
      • 6.9. Heteroepitaxy
      • 6.10. LPE Growth Mechanisms and Layers with Atomically Smooth Surfaces
      • 6.11. Quantum Wells, Superlattice, and Nanostructures by LPE
      • 6.12. Growth of Thick Ternary and Quaternary Alloy Layers for “Virtual” Substrates with Adjustable Lattice Parameters
      • 6.13. Selective Epitaxy and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth
      • 6.14. LPE for Shaped Crystal Growth
      • 6.15. Silicon and SiGe LPE and Solution Growth with Main Applications to Solar Cells
      • 6.16. Silicon Carbide LPE
      • 6.17. III-V Nitride LPE
      • 6.18. Conclusion and Outlook
    • 7. Solid-Phase Epitaxy
      • 7.1. Introduction and Background
      • 7.2. Experimental Methods
      • 7.3. Solid-Phase Epitaxy in Si and Ge
      • 7.4. Atomistic Models
      • 7.5. Defects Formed during Solid-Phase Epitaxy
      • 7.6. Diffusion and Segregation of Impurities during Solid-Phase Epitaxy
      • 7.7. SPE in Other Semiconductors
      • 7.8. Summary
    • 8. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)
      • 8.1. Typical Experimental PLD Setups
      • 8.2. Physics and Chemistry of PLD
      • 8.3. Application of PLD to Various Materials
      • 8.4. Related Deposition Technologies
    • 9. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. VLS Growth of Si Nanowires
      • 9.3. VLS Growth of III–V Nanowires
    • 10. Selective Area Masked Growth (Nano to Micro)
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Methodology of SAG
      • 10.3. Applications of Selective Area Masked Growth
      • 10.4. Summary
    • 11. Organic van der Waals Epitaxy versus Templated Growth by Organic–Organic Heteroepitaxy
      • 11.1. Organic van der Waals Epitaxy
      • 11.2. Templated Growth by Organic–Organic Heteroepitaxy
    • 12. Epitaxy of Small Organic Molecules
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Structure of Organic Small-Molecule Interfaces
      • 12.3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Organic Epitaxy
      • 12.4. Methods of Epitaxial Growth of Organic Molecular Crystals
      • 12.5. Characterization of Organic Molecular Heterostructures
      • 12.6. Conclusion
    • 13. Epitaxial Growth of Oxide Films and Nanostructures
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Oxide Thin Film Growth
      • 13.3. Lithography-Based Epitaxial Oxide Nanostructures
      • 13.4. Template Synthesis and Deposition for Oxide Nanostructures
      • 13.5. Three-Dimensional Deposition for Oxide Nanostructures
      • 13.6. Self-assembled Nanocomposite Oxide Films
      • 13.7. Summary
    • 14. Epitaxy of Carbon-Based Materials: Diamond Thin Film
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Homoepitaxy of Diamond
      • 14.3. Heteroepitaxy of Diamond
      • 14.4. Summary and Conclusions
    • 15. Magnetic Semiconductors
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. III–V Magnetic Semiconductors
      • 15.3. Other Magnetic Semiconductors and Related Materials
      • 15.4. Summary
    • 16. MOCVD of Nitrides
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Understanding the Growth of Nitrides by MOCVD
      • 16.3. Summary
    • 17. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Nitrides for Advanced Electronic Materials
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Apparatus for Nitride MBE
      • 17.3. PAMBE Growth of Advanced Electronic Nitride Materials
      • 17.4. Ammonia-Assisted MBE Growth
    • 18. Epitaxial Graphene
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Preliminaries: Band Structure
      • 18.3. Graphene Synthesis on SiC
      • 18.4. Overview of Graphene Synthesis on SiC
      • 18.5. Practical Information on Graphene Synthesis and Properties
      • 18.6. Formation on Si-Face
      • 18.7. Formation on C-Face
      • 18.8. Other Graphene Synthesis Approaches on SiC
      • 18.9. Outlook
  • Part B. Materials, Processes, and Technology
    • 19. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Two-Dimensional Crystals
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene
      • 19.3. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hexagonal Boron Nitride
      • 19.4. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Molybdenum Disulfide
    • 20. Kinetic Processes in Vapor Phase Epitaxy
      • 20.1. Introduction to Thermodynamics and Kinetics
      • 20.2. Intended Focus and Scope of Article
      • 20.3. Atomistic Processes Involved in Thin-Film Growth
      • 20.4. Closing Remarks
    • 21. Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Chemical Kinetics
      • 21.1. Introduction to MOVPE
      • 21.2. Thermochemical Aspects of the MOVPE Growth Process
      • 21.3. Chemical Kinetic Processes within the MOVPE System
      • 21.4. Reaction Kinetics of Organometallic Compounds
      • 21.5. Reaction Kinetics of Group 15 Compounds
      • 21.6. Growth Reactions
      • 21.7. Conclusion
    • 22. Transport Phenomena in Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactors
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. Basic Overview of Transport Phenomena during Vapor Phase Epitaxy
      • 22.3. Overview of Production-Scale VPE Technologies and Reactors
      • 22.4. Epitaxy of Silicon
      • 22.5. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-V Materials
      • 22.6. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitrides
      • 22.7. Epitaxy of SiC
      • 22.8. Conclusions
    • 23. Nucleation and Surface Diffusion in Molecular Beam Epitaxy
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. Basic Understandings
      • 23.3. Intersurface Diffusion
      • 23.4. Fabrication and Control of Microstructures
    • 24. Predicted Thermal- and Lattice-Mismatch Stresses
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Thermal Stress in an Elongated Film–Substrate Strip
      • 24.3. Lattice-Mismatch Stresses in a Circular Film-Substrate Assembly
      • 24.4. Conclusions
    • 25. Low-Temperature and Metamorphic Buffer Layers
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. Uniform Buffer Layers
      • 25.3. Step-Graded Buffer Layers
      • 25.4. Linearly-Graded Buffer Layers
      • 25.5. Nonlinear Buffers
      • 25.6. Superlattice Buffers
      • 25.7. Low-Temperature Buffer Layers and Two-step Growth
      • 25.8. Conclusion
    • 26. Self-Assembly in Semiconductor Epitaxy: From Growth Mechanisms to Device Applications
      • 26.1. Introduction
      • 26.2. Self-Assembled Quantum Dots
      • 26.3. Material Systems
      • 26.4. Structural Characterization of Self-Assembled Structures
      • 26.5. Electronic States and Optical Properties of Quantum Dots
      • 26.6. Devices, Applications, and New Physics
      • 26.7. Summary and Outlook
    • 27. Atomic Layer Deposition
      • 27.1. Thin Films and the Need for Precise Growth Control
      • 27.2. From Atomic Layer Epitaxy to Atomic Layer Deposition
      • 27.3. Basics of ALD
      • 27.4. Materials, Precursors, and Co-reactants
      • 27.5. ALD Chemistries
      • 27.6. ALD Reactors
      • 27.7. ALD Virtues and Practicalities
      • 27.8. Conclusion
    • 28. Silicon Carbide Epitaxy
      • 28.1. Introduction
      • 28.2. Crystal Structures of SiC
      • 28.3. Fundamentals of SiC Epitaxy
      • 28.4. Chemical Vapor Deposition
      • 28.5. Doping Control
      • 28.6. Extended Defects in 4H-SiC Epilayers
      • 28.7. Point Defects (Deep Levels)
      • 28.8. Fast Epitaxy
      • 28.9. Homoepitaxy on Other Orientations
      • 28.10. Other Techniques
      • 28.11. Summary
    • 29. In Situ Characterization of Epitaxy
      • 29.1. Introduction
      • 29.2. Measurement Modalities
      • 29.3. Future Techniques
    • 30. X-Ray and Electron Diffraction for Epitaxial Structures
      • 30.1. Introduction
      • 30.2. Diffraction Principles
      • 30.3. Epitaxial Growth and Diffraction Characterization
      • 30.4. Conclusion
    • 31. Growth of III/Vs on Silicon: Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides and Antimonides
      • 31.1. Introduction
      • 31.2. Challenges of III/Vs on Silicon Heteroepitaxy
      • 31.3. Si Surface Preparation
      • 31.4. Growth of Nearly Lattice-Matched III/Vs on Silicon
      • 31.5. Growth of Highly Mismatched III/Vs on Silicon
      • 31.6. Summary
    • 32. Heteroepitaxial Growth of Si, Si1−xGex-, and Ge-Based Alloy
      • 32.1. Introduction
      • 32.2. Crystal Growth
      • 32.3. Strain, Dislocations, and Defects in Heteroepitaxial Layers
      • 32.4. Conclusions
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1382
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444633057
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444633040

About the Editor

Tom Kuech

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

Reviews

"...any library in the materials science or chemical engineering departments of universities should carry these volumes.... I would recommend it to academics in the crystal growth field who want to have a complete reference work they can use to ensure their students are well grounded in the fundamentals and also to industrial crystal-growers who now and then need to understand why it is that what they do actually works." --Advanced Materials