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Fluorinated Ionomers - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781437744576, 9781437744583

Fluorinated Ionomers

2nd Edition

Author: Walther Grot
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437744576
eBook ISBN: 9781437744583
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 15th July 2011
Page Count: 312
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Table of Contents

  • Series Page
  • Plastics Design Library
  • PDL Fluorocarbon Series Editor’s Preface
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Polymers
    • 1.2. Physical Shapes
  • 2. History
  • 3. Manufacture
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Perfluorinated Ionomers
    • 3.3. Polymerization
    • 3.4. Fabrication
    • 3.5. Hydrolysis and Acid Exchange
    • 3.6. Finishing and Testing
    • 3.7. Liquid Compositions
    • 3.8. Fluorinated Ionomers with Phosphonic or Sulfonyl Imide Functional Groups
    • 3.9. Partially Fluorinated Ionomers
    • 3.10. Composite Materials of Ionomers and Inorganic Oxides
    • 3.11. Composite Materials of Ionomers and a Porous Matrix
    • 3.12. Remanufactured Membranes
  • 4. Properties
    • 4.1. Properties of the Precursor Polymers
    • 4.2. Properties of the Ionic Forms
    • 4.3. Morphology
    • 4.4. Transport Properties
    • 4.5. Optical Properties
    • 4.6. Thermal Properties
    • 4.7. Stability
  • 5. Applications
    • 5.1. Electrolysis
    • 5.2. Sensors and Actuators
    • 5.3. Dialysis
    • 5.4. Gas and Vapor Diffusion
    • 5.5. Protective Clothing
    • 5.6. Catalysis
  • 6. Fuel Cells and Batteries
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Operating Parameters
    • 6.3. Ionomer Stability
    • 6.4. Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs)
    • 6.5. Manufacture of MEAs
    • 6.6. Rechargeable Flow Through Batteries
  • 7. Commercial Membrane Types
    • 7.1. Unreinforced Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Films
    • 7.2. Reinforced Perfluorinated Membranes
  • 8. Economic Aspects
    • 8.1. Chlor-Alkali Cells
    • 8.2. Fuel Cells
  • 9. Experimental Methods
    • 9.1. Infrared Spectra
    • 9.2. Hydrolysis, Surface Hydrolysis, and Staining
    • 9.3. Other Reactions of the Precursor Polymer
    • 9.4. Ion Exchange Equilibrium
    • 9.5. Determination of EW by Titration or Infrared Analysis
    • 9.6. Determining Melt Flow
    • 9.7. Distinguishing the Precursor Polymer from Various Ionic Forms
    • 9.8. Fenton’s Test for Oxidative Stability
    • 9.9. Examination of a Membrane
    • 9.10. Determining the Permselectivity
    • 9.12. Simple Electrolytic Cells
  • 10. Heat Sealing and Repair
  • 11. Handling, Storage, and Installation
    • 11.1. Handling the Film
    • 11.2. Pretreatment
    • 11.3. Installation
  • 12. Toxicology, Safety, and Disposal
    • 12.1. Toxicology
    • 12.2. Safety
    • 12.3. Disposal
  • Appendix A. A Chromic Acid Regeneration System
  • Appendix B. Laboratory Chlor-alkali Cell
  • Appendix C. Solution Cast Nafion Film
  • Appendix D. Plastic-Based Bipolar Plates
  • DuPont™ Nafion® membranes: Membranes for Fuel Cells
  • DuPont™ Nafion® PFSA Membranes N-112, NE-1135, N-115, N-117, NE-1110: perfluorosulfonic acid polymer
  • Suppliers and Resources
  • Glossary and Web Sites
  • Index


Fluorinated ionomer polymers form impermeable membranes that conduct electricity, properties that have been put to use in large-scale electrochemical applications, revolutionizing the chlor-alkali industry and transforming production methods of some of the world’s highest-production commodity chemicals: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The use of fluorinated ionomers such as Nafion® have removed the need for mercury and asbestos in these processes and led to a massive reduction in electricity usage in these highly energy-intensive processes. Polymers in this group have also found uses in fuel-cells, metal-ion recovery, water electrolysis, plating, surface treatment of metals, batteries, sensors, drug release technologies, gas drying and humidification, and super-acid catalysis used in the production of specialty chemicals. Walther Grot, who invented Nafion® while working for DuPont, has written this book as a practical guide to engineers and scientists working in electrochemistry, the fuel cell industry and other areas of application. His book is a unique guide to this important polymer group and its applications, in membranes and other forms. The 2e expands this handbook by over a third, with new sections covering developments in electrolysis and membranes, additional information about the synthesis and science of the polymer group, and an enhanced provision of reference data.

Key Features

  • An essential reference for scientists working with electrolysis and electrochemical processes (the use of this polymer group in industrial chemistry processes is credited with a 1% reduction in global electricity usage)
  • Covers the techniques involved in the growing range of applications for fluorinated ionomers, including fuel cells, batteries and drug delivery The only book on this important polymer group, written by Walther Grot, the inventor of the leading fluorinated ionomer, Nafion® from DuPont


Industrial Chemists, Chemical Engineers and Electrical Engineers involved in product development and technical service in the Chlor-alkali and fuel cell industries. Engineers involved in applications using fluorinated ionomers, e.g. chemical industry, energy / clean tech, automotive industry. Fluoropolymer manufacturers


No. of pages:
© William Andrew 2011
15th July 2011
William Andrew
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

Walther Grot

Affiliations and Expertise

Ion Power, Inc. (former DuPont), Delaware, U.S.A.