Environmental Microbiology

Environmental Microbiology

3rd Edition - March 1, 2014

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  • Editors: Ian Pepper, Charles Gerba, Terry Gentry
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123946263
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123948175

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Description

Designed for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and environmental professionals, this book builds upon the tremendous success of the previous editions with a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of environmental microbiology as a discipline that has greatly expanded in scope and interest over the past several decades. From terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to urban and indoor environments, this edition relates environmental microbiology to a variety of life science, ecology, and environmental science topics including biogeochemical cycling, bioremediation, environmental transmission of pathogens, microbial risk assessment, and drinking water treatment and reuse. The final chapter highlights several emerging issues including microbial remediation of marine oil spills, microbial contributions to global warming, impact of climate change on microbial infectious disease, and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Key Features

  • Presents state-of-the-art research results with key, recent references to document information
  • Emphasizes critical information using "Information Boxes" throughout
  • Includes real-world case studies to illustrate concepts, along with frequent use of graphics, cartoons and photographs
  • Offers questions at the end of each chapter designed to test key concepts
  • Lecture slides available for instructors online

Readership

Advanced students, technicians, researchers, and consultants in environmental sciences, microbiology, environmental engineering, public health, biology, chemistry, and civil engineering

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    The Authors

    Contributing Authors

    Part I: Review of Basic Microbiological Concepts

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Environmental Microbiology

    1.1 Environmental Microbiology as a Discipline

    1.2 Microbial Influences on our Daily Lives

    1.3 Environmental Microbiology in 2014

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 2. Microorganisms Found in the Environment

    2.1 Classification of Organisms

    2.2 Prokaryotes

    2.3 Eukaryotes

    2.4 Viruses

    2.5 Other Biological Entities

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter References

    Chapter 3. Bacterial Growth

    3.1 Growth in Pure Culture in a Flask

    3.2 Continuous Culture

    3.3 Growth in the Environment

    3.4 Mass Balance of Growth

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part II: Microbial Environments

    Chapter 4. Earth Environments

    4.1 Earth’s Living Skin

    4.2 Physicochemical Characteristics of the Earth Environment

    4.3 Soil as a Microbial Environment

    4.4 Microorganisms in Surface Soils

    4.5 Distribution of Microorganisms in Soil

    4.6 Microorganisms in Subsurface Environments

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter References

    Chapter 5. Aeromicrobiology

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Aerosols

    5.3 Nature of Bioaerosols

    5.4 Aeromicrobiological Pathway

    5.5 Microbial Survival in the Air

    5.6 Extramural Aeromicrobiology

    5.7 Intramural Aeromicrobiology

    5.8 Bioaerosol Control

    5.9 Biosafety in the Laboratory

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 6. Aquatic Environments

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Microbial Habitats in the Aquatic Environment

    6.3 Microbial Lifestyles in Aquatic Environments

    6.4 Marine Environments

    6.5 Freshwater Environments

    6.6 Other Notable Aquatic Environments

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 7. Extreme Environments

    7.1 Low Temperature Environments

    7.2 High Temperature Environments

    7.3 Desiccation and UV Stress

    7.4 Aphotic Environments Based on Chemolithoautotrophy

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part III: Detection, Enumeration, and Identification

    Chapter 8. Environmental Sample Collection and Processing

    8.1 Soils and Sediments

    8.2 Water

    8.3 Air

    8.4 Detection of Microorganisms on Fomites

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 9. Microscopic Techniques

    9.1 History of Microscopy

    9.2 Theory of Microscopy

    9.3 Visible Light Microscopy

    9.4 Fluorescence Microscopy

    9.5 Electron Microscopy

    9.6 Scanning Probe Microscopy

    9.7 Imaging

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter References

    Chapter 10. Cultural Methods

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Extraction and Isolation Techniques

    10.3 Plating Methods

    10.4 Culture Media for Bacteria

    10.5 Cultural Methods for Fungi

    10.6 Cultural Methods for Algae and Cyanobacteria

    10.7 Cell Culture-Based Detection Methods for Viruses

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 11. Physiological Methods

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Measuring Microbial Activity in Pure Culture

    11.3 Choosing the Appropriate Activity Measurement for Environmental Samples

    11.4 Carbon Respiration

    11.5 Incorporation of Radiolabeled Tracers into Cellular Macromolecules

    11.6 Adenylate Energy Charge

    11.7 Enzyme Assays

    11.8 Stable Isotope Probing

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 12. Immunological Methods

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 What is an Antibody?

    12.3 Immunoassays

    12.4 Immunosensors

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 13. Nucleic Acid-Based Methods of Analysis

    13.1 Structure and Complementarity of Nucleic Acids

    13.2 Obtaining Microbial Nucleic Acids from the Environment

    13.3 Hybridization-Based Assays

    13.4 Amplification-Based Assays

    13.5 DNA Fingerprinting

    13.6 Recombinant DNA Techniques

    13.7 Sequence Analysis

    13.8 Choosing the Appropriate Nucleic Acid-Based Method

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part IV: Microbial Communication, Activities, and Interactions with Environment and Nutrient Cycling

    Chapter 14. Microbial Source Tracking

    14.1 Water Quality and Fecal Contamination

    14.2 Microbial Source Tracking Methods

    14.3 Common Bacteria Used in Source Tracking Studies: Bacteroides

    14.4 Application of Source Tracking

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 15. Microbial Transport in the Subsurface

    15.1 Factors Affecting Microbial Transport

    15.2 Factors Affecting Transport of DNA

    15.3 Novel Approaches to Facilitate Microbial Transport

    15.4 Microbial Transport Studies

    15.5 Models for Microbial Transport

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 16. Biogeochemical Cycling

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Carbon Cycle

    16.3 Nitrogen Cycle

    16.4 Sulfur Cycle

    16.5 Iron Cycle

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part V: Remediation of Organic and Metal Pollutants

    Chapter 17. Microorganisms and Organic Pollutants

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Environmental Law

    17.3 The Overall Process of Biodegradation

    17.4 Contaminant Structure, Toxicity and Biodegradability

    17.5 Environmental Factors Affecting Biodegradation

    17.6 Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants

    17.7 Bioremediation

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 18. Microorganisms and Metal Pollutants

    18.1 Metals in the Environment

    18.2 Cause for Concern

    18.3 Metals Defined

    18.4 Metal Sources

    18.5 Metal Solubility, Bioavailability and Speciation

    18.6 Metal Toxicity Effects on the Microbial Cell

    18.7 Mechanisms of Microbial Metal Resistance and Detoxification

    18.8 Methods for Studying Metal–Microbial Interactions

    18.9 Microbial Metal Transformations

    18.10 Physicochemical Methods of Metal Remediation

    18.11 Microbial Approaches in the Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    18.12 Microbial Approaches in the Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Aquatic Systems

    Questions and Problems

    Chapter References

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 19. Microbial Diversity and Interactions in Natural Ecosystems

    19.1 Microbial Communities

    19.2 Microbial Diversity in Natural Systems

    19.3 Microbial Interactions

    19.4 Microbial Diversity and Natural Products

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 20. Microbial Communication: Bacteria/Bacteria and Bacteria/Host

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Signaling Via Quorum Sensing in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    20.3 Signaling in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    20.4 Other Types of Signaling

    20.5 Summary and Core Concepts

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 21. Bioinformation and ’Omic Approaches for Characterization of Environmental Microorganisms

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Genomics and Comparative Genomics

    21.3 Metagenomics

    21.4 Transcriptomics

    21.5 Proteomics

    21.6 Metabolomics

    21.7 Bioinformation

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part VI: Water- and Foodborne Pathogens

    Chapter 22. Environmentally Transmitted Pathogens

    22.1 Environmentally Transmitted Pathogens

    22.2 Bacteria

    22.3 Parasitology

    22.4 Viruses

    22.5 Fate and Transport of Enteric Pathogens in the Environment

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 23. Indicator Microorganisms

    23.1 The Concept of Indicator Organisms

    23.2 Total Coliforms

    23.3 Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia Coli

    23.4 Fecal Streptococci (Enterococci)

    23.5 Clostridium Perfringens

    23.6 Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium

    23.7 Heterotrophic Plate Count

    23.8 Bacteriophages

    23.9 Other Potential Indicator Organisms

    23.10 Standards and Criteria for Indicators

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 24. Risk Assessment

    24.1 The Concept of Risk Assessment

    24.2 Elements of Risk Analysis

    24.3 The Process of Risk Assessment

    24.4 Microbial Risk Assessment

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part VII: Wastewater Treatment and Disinfection

    Chapter 25. Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    25.1 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage)

    25.2 Conventional Wastewater Treatment

    25.3 Oxidation Ponds

    25.4 Septic Tanks

    25.5 Land Application of Wastewater

    25.6 Wetlands Systems

    25.7 Sludge Processing

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 26. Land Application of Organic Residuals: Municipal Biosolids and Animal Manures

    26.1 Introduction to Organic Residuals

    26.2 Land Application of Biosolids and Animal Wastes: A Historical Perspective and Current Outlook

    26.3 Potential Microbial Hazards Associated with Class B Biosolids, Animal Manures and Land Application

    26.4 Pathogens of Concern in Organic Residuals

    26.5 Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Pathogens in Organic Residuals

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 27. Recycled Water Treatment and Reuse

    27.1 Recycled Water Reuse

    27.2 Treatment Technologies to Produce Recycled Water

    27.3 Recycled Water Application in the U.S.

    27.4 Recycled Water Regulations

    27.5 Microbial Water Quality Aspects of Recycled Water

    27.6 Influence of Residence Time in Distribution Systems on Microbial Water Quality

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 28. Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution

    28.1 Water Treatment Processes

    28.2 Water Treatment Requirements

    28.3 Water Distribution Systems

    28.4 Real-Time Monitoring of Microbial Contaminants in Water Distribution Systems

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 29. Disinfection

    29.1 Thermal Destruction

    29.2 Kinetics of Disinfection

    29.3 Factors Affecting Disinfectants

    29.4 Halogens

    29.5 Ozone

    29.6 Metal Ions

    29.7 Ultraviolet Disinfection

    29.8 Photodynamic Inactivation and Photocataylysts

    29.9 Other Chemical Disinfectants

    29.10 Gamma and High-Energy Irradiation

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Part VIII: Urban Microbiology

    Chapter 30. Domestic and Indoor Microbiology

    30.1 Household Sources of Pathogens

    30.2 Fomites: Role in Disease Spread

    30.3 Transfer of Pathogens

    30.4 Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Chapter 31. Global Emerging Microbial Issues in the Anthropocene Era

    31.1 Microbial Contributions to Climate Change

    31.2 Global Change and Microbial Infectious Disease

    31.3 Microbial Remediation of Marine Oil Spills

    31.4 Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    Questions and Problems

    References and Recommended Reading

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 728
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: March 1, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123946263
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123948175

About the Editors

Ian Pepper

Ian Pepper
Dr. Ian Pepper is currently a Professor at the University of Arizona. He is also Director of the University of Arizona, Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) and the NSF Water and Environmental Technology (WET) Center. Dr. Pepper is an environmental microbiologist specializing in the molecular ecology of the environment. His research has focused on the fate and transport of pathogens in air, water, soils and wastes. His expertise has been recognized by membership on six National Academy of Science Committees and former memberships on an EPA FIFRA Science and Advisory Panel. Dr. Pepper is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Microbiology, the Soil Science Society of America, and the American Society of Agronomy. He is also a Board Certified Environmental Scientist within the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists. He is the author or co-author of six textbooks; 40 book chapters; and over 180 peer-review journal articles.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Charles Gerba

Charles Gerba
Dr. Charles P. Gerba is a Professor at the University of Arizona. He conducts research the transmission of pathogens through the environment. His recent research encompasses the transmission of pathogens by water, food and fomites; fate of pathogens in land applied wastes; development of new disinfectants; domestic microbiology and microbial risk assessment. He has been an author on more than 500 articles including several books in environmental microbiology and pollution science. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1998 he received the A. P. Black Award from the American Water Works Association for outstanding contributions to water science and in 1996 he received the McKee medal from the Water Environment Federation for outstanding contributions to groundwater protection. He received the 1999 Award of Excellence in Environmental Health from National Association of County and City Health Officials.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Terry Gentry

Terry Gentry
Dr. Terry Gentry is a Professor of Soil and Aquatic Microbiology in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University. He teaches an undergraduate course in soil and water microbiology and a graduate course in environmental microbiology. His research focuses on the use of molecular technologies to detect and identify microbial pathogens from animal, human, and natural sources along with the characterization of microbial populations and communities contributing to applied processes such as the bioremediation of organic and metal contaminants and sustainability of intensive cropping systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Soil and Aquatic Microbiology, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Andrew S. Wed Apr 20 2022

    Environmental Microbiology

    This is a subject area of interest to our company and we needed a good general reference text book on the subject and this fits the bill nicely. While I haven't read it cover to cover yet, the chapter 10 on cultural methods for different environmental samples has proved useful and chapter 17 on bioremediation is also very useful - it has been some time since I studied this so this provided a good update on current state of knowledge. The electronic version on special offer at the time of purchase recently represents excellent value for money.

  • AndreaDrochak Wed Oct 24 2018

    Environmental microbiology-hardcover

    The book arrived in new condition and helped with my fall semester course load .

  • SpencerCopeland Mon Oct 22 2018

    detailed yet easy to read

    detailed yet easy to read