Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128000342, 9780128000557

Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine

2nd Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Roger Byard Jason Payne-James
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000342
eBook ISBN: 9780128000557
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 4th November 2015
Page Count: 3120
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Description

Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volumes 1-4, Second Edition is a pioneering four volume encyclopedia compiled by an international team of forensic specialists who explore the relationship between law, medicine, and science in the study of forensics.

This important work includes over three hundred state-of-the-art chapters, with articles covering crime-solving techniques such as autopsies, ballistics, fingerprinting, hair and fiber analysis, and the sophisticated procedures associated with terrorism investigations, forensic chemistry, DNA, and immunoassays.

Available online, and in four printed volumes, the encyclopedia is an essential reference for any practitioner in a forensic, medical, healthcare, legal, judicial, or investigative field looking for easily accessible and authoritative overviews on a wide range of topics.

Chapters have been arranged in alphabetical order, and are written in a clear-and-concise manner, with definitions provided in the case of obscure terms and information supplemented with pictures, tables, and diagrams. Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading.

Key Features

  • Brings together all appropriate aspects of forensic medicine and legal medicine
  • Contains color figures, sample forms, and other materials that the reader can adapt for their own practice
  • Also available in an on-line version which provides numerous additional reference and research tools, additional multimedia, and powerful search functions
  • Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading

Readership

Medical examiners; coroners; the police; prison medical officers; those involved in refugee medicine and allegations of torture; healthcare professionals also involved in this field: prison nurses, sexual assault nurse examiners and custody nurses

Table of Contents

  • Editors-in-Chief
  • Dedication
  • Introduction to the First Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Article Titles
    • A
      • Accreditation: Crime Scene Investigators
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Accreditation Criteria for Forensic Science
        • Court Testimony Monitoring
        • Duties and Competencies of Crime Scene Investigators
        • Competency and Proficiency Testing Crime Scene Investigators
        • Internal Competency and Proficiency Test Instrument
        • Crime Scene Proficiency Advisory Committee
        • Crime Scene Proficiency Test
        • Crime Scene Investigation
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Accreditation: Forensic Physicians
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Aspects
        • Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine Objectives
        • Standard Setting
        • MFFLM Examination
        • LFFLM Examinations
        • Quality Standards
        • Specialist Status
        • Credentialing
        • European Perspective
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Accreditation: Forensic Specialties
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fit-for-Purpose
        • Specific Criteria
        • The Accreditation Process
        • Maintenance of Accreditation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Accreditation: Regulation of Forensic Science
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • What is Regulation?
        • Ethos of Regulation
        • Regulation Supported by Accreditation
        • Voluntary, Mandatory, or Statutory Regulation
        • Practitioner Registration or Certification
        • Benefits and Challenges of Accreditation
        • Challenges of Regulation
        • What Happens if the Standard Is Not Met?
        • Future Requirements for Regulation
        • See also
        • References
      • Accreditation: Toxicology Laboratories
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Why Are There Several Accreditation Programs?
        • What Do Most Accreditation Programs Have in Common?
        • What Do Accreditation Programs Assess?
        • How Do Accreditation Programs Differ?
        • Specific Accreditation Programs Covering Forensic Toxicology
        • Voluntary versus Regulatory or Mandatory Accreditation
        • Is Accreditation of Forensic Toxicology Laboratories Going to Be Mandatory?
        • Does Accreditation Ensure Acceptable, Error-Free Testing?
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Age Estimation in the Living
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Age Estimation in the Juvenile
        • Methods
        • Sexual Maturity
        • Dental Age
        • Bone Age
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Age Estimation in the Living: Dental Age Estimation – Theory and Practice
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Mathematical and Statistical Background
        • Approaches to the Numerical Aspects of Dental Age Assessment
        • Nomenclature and Description of Tooth Development Stages
        • Why Use the 8 Stage System?
        • Recommendations for Robust Age Estimation
        • A Worked Example
        • Numerical Format of Reported Results
        • Accuracy of Estimates Using the UK Caucasian Reference Data Set
        • How Reliable Are the Estimates of Probability in Discerning That a Given Subject Is Above or Below a Given Threshold?
        • The Special Case of 3rd Molars
        • A Special Problem with Stage H – Inherent Difficulties
        • Can the Same Approach Be Used with the Primary Dentition?
        • Questions Frequently Asked
        • Other Methods of Dental Age Estimation
        • Alternative Imaging
        • Ancillary Methods of Age Estimation
        • Justification for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
        • Consent
        • Conclusions
        • Some Centers for Dental Age Assessment
        • Appendix 1
        • Appendix 2
        • Appendix 3
        • Appendix 4
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Age Estimation in the Living: Imaging and Age Estimation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Roentgenological Examination of the Hand
        • Dental Examination
        • Radiological Examination of the Clavicles
        • Non-Radiative Imaging Procedures
        • See also
        • References
      • Age Estimation in the Living: Osteology and Age Estimation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Growth and Development of the Skeleton
        • Skeletal Age in the Juvenile
        • Methods of Juvenile Skeletal Age Assessment
        • Skeletal Age in the Adult
        • Principal Methods of Adult Skeletal Age Assessment
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Alcohol: Acute and Chronic Use and Postmortem Findings
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Chemistry of Alcohol
        • Reporting Blood–Alcohol Concentrations
        • Breath-Alcohol Analysis
        • Alcoholic Beverages
        • Analysis of Alcohol in Body Fluids
        • Fate of Alcohol in the Body
        • Absorption
        • Distribution
        • Metabolism
        • Gastric Metabolism of Ethanol
        • Nonoxidative Metabolism
        • Metabolic Effects of Alcohol
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Distribution of Alcohol in Body Fluids
        • Impairment Effects of Alcohol
        • Acute Intoxication
        • Tolerance
        • Alcohol Biomarkers
        • Toxicity of Alcohol
        • Postmortem Aspects
        • Alternative Specimens
        • Intracranial Hematomas
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Alcohol: Blood and Body Fluid Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Analytical Methodology
        • Gas Chromatography
        • Biochemical Methods – Immunoassays
        • Specimen Selection and Collection – Living Subjects
        • Specimen Selection and Collection – Postmortem
        • Blood and Its Constituents
        • Vitreous Humor
        • Other Body Fluids
        • Urine
        • Decomposed or Embalmed Specimens
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Alcohol: Breath Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol Traffic Legislation
        • Statutory Limits of Blood-Alcohol Concentration
        • Statutory Limits of Breath-Alcohol Concentration
        • Alcohol in the Body
        • Absorption Phase
        • Distribution Phase
        • Elimination phase
        • Classification of Breath-Alcohol Instruments
        • Infrared Breath-Alcohol Analyzers
        • Electrochemical (Fuel Cell) Instruments
        • Lung physiology and Gas Exchange
        • Blood–Breath Ratios of Alcohol
        • Role of Arterial-Venous differences
        • Mouth Alcohol Effect
        • Physiological Factors and Medical Conditions
        • Response to Interfering Substances
        • Breath Analyzers for Self-Testing
        • Ignition Interlock Devices
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Allergies: Postmortem Findings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Precautions
        • External Examination
        • Internal Examination
        • Special Investigations
        • Possible Future Diagnostic Indicators
        • See also
        • References
      • Animal Attacks and Injuries: Anthropological Findings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Morphological Characteristics
        • Imaging Trauma on Bone Resulting from Animal Attacks
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
      • Animal Attacks and Injuries: Fatal
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Animal Kingdom
        • Causation of Fatal Animal Attacks
        • Mammals
        • Birds
        • Reptiles
        • Fishes
        • Lower Marine Creatures
        • Arthropods
        • Medicolegal Investigations in Fatal Animal Attacks
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Animal Attacks and Injuries: Nonfatal
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mammals
        • Birds
        • Reptiles and Amphibians
        • Fish
        • Lower Marine Creatures
        • Arthropods
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Ancestry Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Definition
        • Impetus for the Assessment of Ancestry
        • History of Research
        • Methods Used for Ancestry Assessment
        • Morphological Characteristics
        • Morphometric Characteristics
        • Software and Online Resources Used for Ancestry Assessment
        • Discussion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Anthropology: Bone Pathology and Antemortem Trauma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bone Pathology
        • Antemortem Trauma
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Anthropology: Cremated Bones – Anthropology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Soft and Hard Tissues
        • Primary-Level Heat-Induced Changes
        • Secondary-Level Heat-Induced Changes
        • Recovering Cremated Remains in the Field
        • The Effect of Cremation on Identification
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Forensic Anthropology and Childhood
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Infantile Abuse
        • Infanticide and Death in the Neonatal Period
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Morphological Age Estimation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Age Estimation of Juveniles/Subadults
        • Age Estimation of Adults
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ancestry Estimation
        • Sex Estimation
        • Age Estimation
        • Stature Estimation
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Anthropology: Role of DNA
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • DNA Molecules
        • Techniques
        • Ancient DNA
        • Applications of DNA Analysis in Anthropology
        • Contamination, Interpretation Difficulties, and Validation of Results
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Sex Determination
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of Sex Determination
        • Sex Determination from the Adult Pelvis
        • Sex Determination from the Cranium
        • Sex Determination from the Mandible
        • Sex Determination from Other Bones of the Skeleton
        • Sex Determination in Fetal and Juvenile Bones
        • Sex Determination from Deoxyribonucleic Acid Analysis
        • Sex Determination Using Computed Tomography
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Stature Estimation from the Skeleton
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methods for Estimating Stature Based on the Skeleton
        • Development and Use of Methods for Estimating Stature from the Skeleton
        • Recommendation
        • See also
        • References
      • Anthropology: Taphonomy in the Forensic Context
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Postmortem Processes
        • Variables That Affect the Preservation of Human Remains
        • Forensic Taphonomy
        • Research Trends in Taphonomy
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Anthropology: Use of Forensic Archeology and Anthropology in the Search and Recovery of Buried Evidence
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Locating Human Remains
        • The Search for Buried Evidence
        • Confirming the Presence of a Grave and/or Human Remains
        • Excavation and Exhumation
        • The Excavation and Exhumation Process
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Asphyxia: Clinical Findings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Signs of Asphyxiation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Asphyxia: Pathological Features
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Classification
        • Environment
        • Airway/Oxygenation
        • Blood Flow
        • Tissues
        • Combined Effects
        • Pathological Features of Asphyxia
        • Special Cases
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy: Adult
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Overview
        • Hospital (Medical) versus Medicolegal (Forensic) Autopsies
        • Autopsy versus External Examination Only
        • ‘Full’ versus ‘Partial’ Autopsies
        • Investigative Information
        • External Examination
        • Internal Examination
        • Ancillary Procedures
        • Special Examinations and Dissections
        • Follow-up Information
        • Autopsy Report
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy: Infectious and Serious Communicable Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
        • Hepatitis Viruses
        • Tuberculosis
        • Risk Reduction: Infection Control
        • Postexposure Management
        • Prevention of Other Infections
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy: Medicolegal Considerations, Including Organ Retention and Handling
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • What is an Autopsy?
        • The Importance of Autopsies
        • Context and Purpose of Autopsies
        • Role of the Pathologist
        • Managing the Mortuary
        • Retention of Tissue Samples and Whole Organs for Diagnostic Purposes
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Relevant Websites
      • Autopsy: Molecular
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Basic Terms and Concepts
        • Microarrays
        • Next Generation Sequencing
        • Forensic Applications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy: Pediatric
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Scene Investigation
        • Gross Examination
        • Radiographs
        • Internal Examination
        • The ‘Float Test’
        • Sections for Microscopic Examination
        • Placenta
        • Ancillary Studies
        • Organ and Tissue Recovery
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Autopsy: Procedures and Standards
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • External Postmortem Examination
        • Anatomical Dissection
        • Medicolegal Autopsy
        • Clinical Autopsy
        • The Present Use of the Autopsy
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Autopsy Findings: Autopsy in Drug Use
        • Abstract
        • The External Examination
        • The Internal Examination
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy Findings: Drowning and Submersion Deaths
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Investigative Approach
        • Pathophysiology
        • Autopsy Findings
        • Contributing Causes of Drowning
        • Manner of Death
        • Diving-Related Deaths
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy Findings: Fire Deaths
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Scene Examination
        • Causes and Mechanisms of Death
        • Thermal Injuries (Burns)
        • Cause of Death
        • External Examination – Fire Deaths
        • Internal Exam and Microscopy
        • Artifacts
        • Laboratory Exam
        • Special Issues
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy Findings: Organic Toxins
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Volatile Substances
        • Plant-Based Toxins
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy Findings: Postmortem Drug Measurements, Interpretation of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Specimens Used for Analytical
        • Analytical Procedures
        • Ethanol
        • Drugs
        • Histologic Evidence of Drug Toxicity
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Autopsy Findings: Postmortem Drug Sampling and Redistribution
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Postmortem Drug Redistribution
        • Stomach Contents
        • Bacterial Activity
        • Autopsy Sampling
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Autopsy Findings: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome – Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Etiology
        • The First Definition of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • The Age Distribution
        • Historical Developments
        • Recent Developments in Epidemiological Research
        • Large Geographical Variation in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Rates: A Matter of Different Diagnostic Practices?
        • SIDS A Diminishing Proportion of all Sudden Infant Deaths
        • More Gray-Zone Cases
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Research
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and the Immune System
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Infection
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Laryngeal Vagal Reflexes
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and ‘Genetic Risk Factors’
        • Possible Fatal Genetic Factors
        • The Vicious Circle in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • Will the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Enigma Be Solved in Our Time?
        • References
      • Autopsy Findings: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome – Pathological Findings and Autopsy Approach
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy
        • Historical Background
        • Diagnostic Shift
        • Pathological Features
        • Autopsy Approach
        • A Suggested Approach to the Investigation of Unexpected Infant and Early Childhood Death
        • Organ Retention
        • Conclusions
        • Appendix
        • See also
        • References
      • Aviation Accidents: Role of the Pathologist
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • History
        • Principles
        • Concepts
        • Organization of Mishap Investigation Boards
        • Litigation Focus
        • Survivability Concepts That Are Key to Analysis
        • Forensic Principles
        • Identification
        • Forensic Procedures and Resources
        • Injury Analysis and Reconstruction
        • Investigative Template
        • Patterned Injuries
        • Jurisdiction Issues
        • Preexisting Medical Conditions
        • Toxicology Analysis
        • Forensic Biochemistry and Molecular Diagnostics
        • Scene Investigation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aviation Medicine: Illness and Limitations for Flying
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fitness for Flight and Medical Certification
        • Medication Use and Flight Performance
        • Other Factors and Flight Performance
        • Physiological Aspects of Flight
        • Other Considerations in Aviation
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
    • B
      • Backtracking Calculations for Alcohol and Drugs
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Concentration-Versus-Time Curves and Backtracking Calculations
        • Alcohol
        • Drugs Other than Alcohol
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ballistic Trauma: Overview and Statistics – Wound Ballistics
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Epidemiology
        • Weapons
        • Ammunition
        • Wounding Mechanism
        • Treatment Principles
        • Special Means of Investigation of Relevance to the Forensic Pathologist
        • Experimental Investigations – Tissue Simulants
        • International Humanitarian Law
        • Multi-Media Annexes
        • See also
        • References
      • Blood Grouping
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Blood Grouping
        • Blood Group Types
        • Major Blood Group Systems
        • Blood Groups on White Cells and Platelets
        • Forensic Serology
        • Grouping from Blood and Blood Stains
        • Human Variation and Distribution of Blood Groups
        • Disputed Parentage and Medicolegal Significance of Blood Groups
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Body Cavity Searches: Practical Issues and Consent
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • Dumping
        • Consent
        • Legal Provisions
        • Specific Drugs
        • Practical Aspects
        • Management in Hospital
        • Risk of Death
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Body Recovery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Preservation of the Body Prior to Removal
        • Body Lifting and Moving
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
    • C
      • Carbon Monoxide Exposure: Autopsy Findings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Concentration
        • Patient Populations
        • Human Production and Physiology
        • Occurrence and Inhalation
        • Samples and Testing
        • Scene Investigation
        • Source Categorization
        • Cause of Death
        • Autopsy
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carbon Monoxide Exposure: Clinical Findings – Sequelae in Survivors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Methods of Exposure
        • Clinical Findings
        • Diagnosis and Investigation
        • Management
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Children: Emotional Abuse
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Concepts Related to Psychological/Emotional Abuse
        • The Emergence of Psychological Maltreatment as an Entity
        • The Terminology that Describes Inflicted Psychological Harm
        • Emotional–Psychological Maltreatment and Child Abuse Statistics
        • United Kingdom Data
        • United States Data
        • Canadian Data
        • Australian Data
        • Psychological Maltreatment and the Legal System
        • Child Protection Legislation and Psychological/Emotional Maltreatment
        • Child Protection Legislation and the Categorization of Child Abuse
        • Clinical Aspects of Psychological Maltreatment
        • A Framework for Recognizing Psychological Maltreatment and Determining the Need for Statutory versus Mental Health Intervention
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Children: Infant Death Investigation
        • Abstract
        • Childhood Deaths That Require Specialist Forensic Scrutiny
        • Inquiries into Childhood Deaths
        • Concealment of the Death
        • Scene of Death Investigation
        • Child Homicide
        • Targeted Case Reviews
        • Euthanasia
        • The Investigation of an Infant’s Death
        • Haemosiderin Deposits in Babies’ Lung
        • Deaths of Children in Domestic Fires
        • The Bereaved of the Deceased Infant’s Family
        • See also
        • Appendix
        • References
      • Children: Neglect
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Extent of the Phenomenon
        • Signs and Types of Child Neglect
        • Effects of Child Neglect on Brain Development
        • Medium- and Long-Term Effects of Child Neglect
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Children: Noninflicted Causes of Childhood Death
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Motor Vehicle Deaths
        • Drowning
        • Thermal Deaths
        • Asphyxia
        • Falls from Heights
        • Poisoning and Drug Toxicity
        • Electrocution
        • Farm Deaths
        • Deaths Related to Animal Activity
        • Sports Deaths
        • Environmental Temperature-Related Deaths
        • Hospital Deaths
        • Miscellaneous
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Children: Normal Anogenital Anatomy and Variants
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Embryonic Anogenital Development
        • Hymen
        • Posterior Fourchette/Fossa Navicularis
        • Perineum
        • Perianal Variants
        • Male Genital Variants
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Children: Physical Abuse
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition of Child Maltreatment
        • Risk Factors of Child Physical Abuse
        • Taking a History of Physical Abuse
        • Assessing the Physical Abuse
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Children: Sexual Abuse – Epidemiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Key Data
        • Epidemiological Studies: Flaws and Suggestions
        • Selection of Population
        • Age Limit of Victims and Perpetrators
        • Definition of Sexual Abuse
        • Data Collection
        • Incest
        • Long-Term Effects of CSA
        • Historical Evolution of CSA
        • Physicians’ Role
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
      • Children: Sexual Abuse – Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Various Circumstances of Examination of Child Victims of Sexual Abuse
        • Interviewing and Preparing the Child before a Medical Examination
        • Behavioral Indicators of Children Sexual Abuse
        • Physical Examination and Medical Evaluation
        • Photographic Documentation of the Lesions
        • Forensic Sampling in Child Sexual Abuse
        • Searching for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Children
        • Assessing the Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse of Children
        • Other Treatments Needed
        • Conclusion: Sexual Abuse and Judicial Proceedings
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Children: Stages of Growth and Development
        • Abstract
        • Normal Growth and Puberty
        • Abnormalities of Growth and Puberty
        • Normal Development
        • Abnormalities of Development
        • Assessing Growth and Development
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Children: Sudden Natural Infant and Childhood Death
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • Cardiac Conditions
        • Vascular Conditions
        • Infectious Disorders
        • Respiratory Conditions
        • Neurological Conditions
        • Metabolic Disorders
        • Hematological Conditions
        • Gastrointestinal Conditions
        • Genitourinary Conditions
        • Metabolic Conditions
        • Endocrine Conditions
        • Miscellaneous Conditions
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Clinical Trials: Legal Aspects and Consent
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Informed Consent
        • Use of Placebos
        • Other Legal Concerns
        • Reviewing Committees or Boards
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cold-Case Review: UK Experience
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • What is Forensic Science?
        • Science in Context
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coma: Definitions and Differential Diagnoses – Adult
        • Abstract
        • Definition of Coma
        • The Anatomical Substrate of Consciousness
        • Pathophysiology
        • Investigations
        • Management
        • Prognosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Diagnosis
        • Persistent Vegetative State
        • Locked-in Syndrome
        • Other Differential Diagnoses of Coma
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coma: Definitions and Differential Diagnoses – Pediatric
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Developmental Considerations
        • Pediatric Vulnerability
        • Etiology
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Complaints against Doctors, Healthcare Workers, and Institutions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The National Health Service Complaints Procedure
        • Conciliation
        • The National Health Service Constitution
        • The Ombudsman
        • General Medical Council
        • The New Council
        • Separation of Functions
        • Revalidation
        • Appeals
        • The Professional Standards Authority
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Consent: Confidentiality and Disclosure
        • Abstract
        • Introduction to Medical Confidentiality
        • Confidentiality in the Modern Age
        • Caldicott Guardians
        • Legal Duties to Disclose Confidential Medical Information
        • Disclosure in the Public Interest
        • Disclosure for the Purpose of Litigation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Consent: Medical Examination in Custody
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Accountability
        • Development of Consent
        • Analysis of Informed Consent
        • Capacity
        • Information Imparted
        • Voluntariness
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Consent: Mental Capacity and Case Law
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Principles
        • The Test
        • Decisions Requiring Capacity
        • Some Particular Capacity Problems
        • An Approach to Assessment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Consent: Mental Capacity Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Assessment of Capacity Practical Aspects
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Consent: Treatment without Consent
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Capacity
        • Autonomy
        • Negligence
        • The General Medical Council
        • Doctrine of Necessity
        • Incapacity
        • Hunger Strike
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Courts and Tribunal Report Writing in England and Wales
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Notes, Records, and Statements
        • Types of Witness
        • The Importance of Honesty and Accuracy
        • See also
        • References
      • Court Systems: England and Wales – Law and Courts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Criminal Law
        • Civil Law
        • Court Hierarchy in England and Wales
        • Addressing the Judiciary in Court
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Court Systems: European Community Law
        • Abstract
        • Institutional Framework and Legislative Instruments of the European Union
        • Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters
        • Rights and Principles
        • Extradition
        • Substantive Law
        • Sanctions and Penalties
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Court Systems: India
        • Abstract
        • Historical Background of the Indian Legal System
        • The Constitution of India and the Indian Legal System
        • Hierarchy of Courts in India and Their Powers
        • Civil Courts
        • Special Courts and Tribunals
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Court Systems: Japanese Law and Courts
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Historical Background
        • Law Today
        • Law Enforcement
        • Legal Professions
        • Court System
        • Court-Supporting Systems
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Court Systems: Jewish (Halacha) Law
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • No Remains Found
        • Remains Found – Personal Recognition
        • Remains Found – Characteristics or Marks
        • Identification by Property
        • Autopsy
        • Burial and Mourning
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Court Systems: Legal Precedent and Case Law
        • Abstract
        • Main Sources of English Law
        • Legislation
        • Case Law
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Relevant Websites
      • Court Systems: Sharii'ah Law and Courts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Sources of Sharii’ah
        • The Sphere of Sharii’ah Law and Islamic Society
        • Categories of Crimes in Sharii’ah
        • Judges in Sharii’ah
        • Sharii’ah Law, Medical Jurisprudence, and Forensic Evidence
        • Case Studies in Sharii’ah Law
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Court Systems: United States of America – Law and Courts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Branches of Government
        • Legal Framework
        • Constitutional Law
        • Common Law
        • Statutory Law
        • Administrative/Regulatory Law
        • Foundations of the US Court System
        • Federal and State Courts
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Crime Scene Investigation and Examination: Chain of Evidence
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Collection
        • Chain of Custody
        • See also
        • References
      • Crime Scene Investigation and Examination: Death-Scene Investigation – United States of America
        • Abstract
        • United States Death Investigation Systems
        • Death Reporting Systems
        • Military, Offshore, and Indian Jurisdiction
        • National Guidelines for Death Investigation
        • First Responders
        • Scientific Working Group for Medicolegal Death Investigation
        • Multidisciplinary Team Approach
        • Evidence
        • Scene Safety, Briefing, and Walk-Through
        • Chain of Custody
        • Scene Documentation
        • Interview Witnesses
        • Actualization of Decedent
        • Evidence on the Decedent
        • Postmortem Changes
        • Decedent’s Clothing and Valuables
        • Identification of Deceased
        • Organ and Tissue Donation
        • Removal of Deceased from Death Scene
        • Scene Debriefing
        • Notification of Next of Kin
        • Documentation of Medical, Psychological, Work, and Social History
        • American Board of Medicolegal Death Investigators
        • Society of Medicolegal Death Investigators
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Crime Scene Investigation and Examination: Major Incident Scene Management
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • What Is Crime Scene Investigation?
        • What Is a Crime Scene?
        • Primary Crime Scene
        • Secondary Crime Scene(s)
        • Approaches to Crime Scene Investigation
        • Crime Scene Investigation Management
        • Crime Scene Management and Coordination
        • Crime Scene Manager
        • Crime Scene Coordinator
        • Scene Security and Control
        • Management of Occupational Health and Safety Issues
        • Management of Contamination Issues
        • Management of Records
        • Management of Quality Management Systems Records
        • Ongoing Case Management
        • Computerization of Case Management
        • Australian Jurisdictional Differences in Crime Scene Investigation
        • The Future – Field Testing
        • The Future – Case Reviews
        • What Is a Review?
        • Types of Review
        • Independent Formal Review
        • Other Types of Independent Formal Review
        • Quality Assurance Reviews
        • The Future – Practitioners
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Crime Scene Investigation and Examination: Recovery of Human Remains
        • Abstract
        • Search Techniques for Human Remains
        • Surface Recovery
        • Excavation Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Crime Scene Investigation and Examination: Suspicious Deaths
        • Abstract
        • Cause of Death
        • Manner of Death
        • Death Scene
        • Postmortem Examination
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Crime Scene Investigation and Examination: Underwater Crime Scenes
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Underwater Crime Scene
        • Profiling
        • Temporal and Geographical Location of Evidence
        • The Underwater Crime Scene Sketch
        • Handling Evidence
        • Firearms
        • Fingerprints
        • Automobiles
        • Auto Recovery
        • Aircraft
        • Aircraft Recovery
        • Bodies
        • Drowning
        • Death from Explosions
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Crime Scene Management Systems: Continental Europe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • A Short Definition of the Crime Scene
        • The Judicial Framework
        • Professionals on the Crime Scene
        • Operational Methods at the Crime Scene
        • The Use of Electronic Data (Databases)
        • Links to Laboratories and Central Organizations
        • Finances
        • European Collaboration
        • Criticisms, Conclusions, and Prospects
        • See also
        • References
      • Crime Scene Management Systems: United States of America
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Processing Crime Scenes
        • Basic, General Stepwise Protocols
        • Crime Scene or Event Reconstruction
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Criminal Profiling
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Behavioral Analysis
        • Challenges/Criticisms
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Custody: In-Custody Deaths – United Kingdom and Continental Europe
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Deaths in Prison Custody in Europe
        • Historical and Current Aspects of Investigation into Deaths and Harm in Police Custody in England and Wales
        • Deaths in Police Custody, Causes, and Statistics – England and Wales
        • See also
        • References
      • Custody: In-Custody Deaths – United States of America
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Consideration for In-Custody
        • Nonviolent In-Custody Death
        • Controlled Violence
        • Uncontrolled Violence
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • D
      • Death Investigation Systems: China
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Death-Reporting Procedures
        • Autopsy Examination
        • Organization of Forensic Medical Staff
        • The Academic Forensic Departments
        • Postgraduate Training in Forensic Medicine/Pathology
        • Hong Kong and Macau
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Death Investigation Systems: Corporate Liability for Manslaughter
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Background
        • The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Death Investigation Systems: Decomposition, Patterns, and Rates
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anthropological Research Facility
        • Stages of Decomposition
        • Insect Activity
        • Estimation of Time Since Death
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Death Investigation Systems: Fatal Accident Inquiry – Scotland
        • Abstract
        • Sudden Deaths and Fatal Accident Inquiries
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Death Investigation Systems: India
        • Abstract
        • Background and History
        • Police Inquest
        • Magistrate Inquest
        • Coroner System in India
        • The Inquest Report
        • Medicolegal Postmortem Examination
        • Procedural Formalities of Medicolegal Autopsy in India
        • Role of a Doctor in Death Investigation in India
        • Complexities of Death Investigations in India
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Death Investigation Systems: Japan
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Death Investigation by Doctors and the Police
        • Medicolegal Autopsy System in Japan
        • Medical Examiner System and Administrative Autopsy
        • New Policies on Death Investigation by the Police
        • Medical Practice Associated Deaths
        • Information on Medicolegal Autopsy (New Attempts)
        • See also
        • References
      • Death Investigation Systems: Murder, Manslaughter, Homicide, and Attempts – Definitions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Murder
        • Manslaughter
        • Attempts
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Death Investigation Systems: Role of Coroner – England and Wales
        • Abstract
        • The Coroner in England and Wales
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Death Investigation Systems: Scandinavia
        • Abstract
        • Scene of Crime Investigation
        • Mass Disasters
        • Medicolegal Autopsies
        • See also
        • References
      • Death Investigation Systems: United States of America
        • Abstract
        • The Early Development of Forensic Investigation
        • The Coroner System in England and Wales
        • The Coroner/Medical Examiners System in Early United States
        • The Death Investigation Systems in Modern United States
        • The Coroner’s Death Investigation Systems
        • The Coroner’s Inquest Systems
        • The Medical Examiner’s Death Investigation Systems
        • The Forensic Pathologist
        • Special Situations
        • Federal Criminal Responsibilities in Indian Country
        • Deaths on US Government Property
        • Professional Associations for Medical Examiners and Coroners
        • Forensic Science Publications
        • Who Can Pronounce a Death?
        • The Death Certificate
        • Issuing of the Death Certificate
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Death Penalty: Medical Involvement in the Administration of Capital Punishment in the United States
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Modern History of Medical Involvement in Executions
        • Challenging the Lethal Injection in Baze v. Rees
        • Medical Involvement in the Administration of the Lethal Injection
        • Changing Landscape Today
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Deaths: Autoerotic Deaths
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Historical Background
        • Psychological and Physiological Background
        • Incidence
        • Diagnostic Criteria
        • Death Scene Features
        • Fail-Safe Device
        • Lethal Outcomes
        • Diagnostic Problems
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Deaths: Dowry Killings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • How is Dowry Defined?
        • What is the Prevalence of ‘Dowry’ in India?
        • Social Consequences of Dowry
        • Marriage Squeeze and Dowry Inflation
        • Violence
        • Cause of Death
        • Laws of the Land
        • Women’s Movement in India
        • Measures to Prevent Dowry Deaths
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Honor Killings
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Different Definitions of ‘Honor-Based Violence’
        • Repeated Domestic Violence
        • Forced Marriage
        • Youngest Brother
        • Cultural Background
        • Impact of the Problem
        • The Legal Situation in Some Countries
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Deaths: Iatrogenic Deaths – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Investigation
        • Types of Medicine-Related Deaths
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Inherited Metabolic Disease and Sudden Unexpected Death – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Disorders that May Lead to Sudden or Unexplained Death
        • Inborn Errors of Metabolism That Can Mimic Non-Accidental Injury
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Deaths: Obesity – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Practical Issues in Handling
        • Examination
        • Decomposition
        • Special Dissections
        • Tests and Investigations
        • Specific Diseases/Conditions That May Be Encountered at Autopsy
        • Pregnancy
        • Surgical Issues
        • Predisposition to Injury
        • Suicide
        • Problems with Attempted Resuscitation
        • Problems with Dialysis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Perioperative and Postoperative – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Purpose and Value of the Postmortem Examination
        • The Postmortem Examination
        • External Examination
        • Internal Examination
        • Deaths Related to Anesthesia
        • Autopsy Report
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Placental and Maternal Conditions – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Placental Examination. Macroscopic and Microscopic Features
        • Placenta in Multiple Pregnancies
        • Placental Lesions Associated with Stillbirth
        • Placental Changes Following Intrauterine Fetal Death
        • What the Placenta Can Tell in Cases of Fetal Remains
        • Medicolegal Examination of the Placenta in Live-Born Infants
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Pregnancy-Related Deaths – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Deaths: Resuscitation Related Injuries – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Head and Neck
        • Thorax
        • Abdomen
        • Extremities
        • Special Populations
        • Systemic and/or Delayed Complications of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Sports – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Natural Deaths in Athletes
        • Chronic Diseases
        • Traumatic Death
        • Thoracoabdominal Injuries
        • Injuries to Extremities
        • Diet, Nutrition, and Drugs
        • Anabolic Steroids and Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs)
        • Stimulants
        • Hostile Environments
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Deaths: Trauma, Abdominal Cavity – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Sites of Injury – Abdomen
        • Diaphram
        • Types of Trauma – Abdominal Cavity
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Trauma, Head and Spine – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview
        • Axonal Injury and the Role of β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Immunohistochemistry
        • Spinal Injuries
        • Forensic Neuropathological ‘Syndromes’
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Trauma, Musculoskeletal System – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • External Pattern of Injuries
        • Autopsy Procedures
        • Causes of Death
        • Rhabdomyolysis
        • Myoglobinuria and Acute Renal Failure
        • Fat and Marrow Embolism
        • Liposuction
        • Rib Fractures
        • Pelvic Fractures
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Deaths: Trauma, Thorax – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy
        • Penetrating Cardiovascular Injuries
        • Blunt Cardiovascular Injury
        • Pulmonary Injuries
        • Tracheobronchial Injuries
        • Esophageal Perforation
        • Rib Fractures and Flail Chest
        • Mechanical Fixation of the Thorax and Asphyxia
        • Diaphragmatic Injuries
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Deaths: Trauma, Vascular System – Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Mechanisms of Vascular Injury
        • Hemorrhage and the Pathophysiology of Hypovolemic Shock
        • Other Complications of Vascular Trauma
        • Autopsy Findings in Hypovolemic Shock
        • Trends in the Clinical Management of Hemorrhage
        • Factors Affecting Outcome of Vascular Trauma
        • Survival Time and Acting Capacity
        • Weapon Assessment
        • Blood Pattern Analysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Deliberate Self-Harm Patterns: Patterns of Injury
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Incidence and Range of Self-Harm
        • Forensic Aspects of Self-Harm
        • Identification and Interpretation of Self-Harm Injury
        • Examples of Forensic Self-Harm Cases
        • Assessment of Potential Nonfatal Self-Harm
        • See also
        • References
      • Deliberate Self-Harm Patterns: Psychology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Correlates and Causality
        • Assessment and Intervention
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Detention: Care in Police Custody – United Kingdom
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background to Healthcare in Police Custody
        • Spectrum of Disease and Illness
        • Facilities For and Practicalities of Assessment
        • Undertaking an Examination
        • Harm in Police Custody
        • Excited Delirium
        • Broad Principles of Care
        • Risk Assessment, Identification, and Diversion
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Detention: Care in Prison Custody – United Kingdom
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • British Context
        • Specific Problems
        • See also
        • References
      • Detention: Fitness to be Interviewed
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Legal Framework
        • Guidelines on Interview Fitness
        • Health Screening for Persons in Police Custody
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Detention: Istanbul Protocol – Development, Practical Applications, and Future Directions
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Development of the Istanbul Protocol
        • Future Directions for the Istanbul Protocol
        • A Culture of Human Rights
        • See also
        • References
      • Detention: Legal Aspects of Detention in Military Detention
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Applicable Law
        • Categories of Conflict
        • Categories of Detainee
        • Standards of Detention
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Detention: Legal Framework for the Care of Those in Detention and the Prohibition/Prevention of Torture, Cruel, Degrading or Inhuman Treatment
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Overview of the Situation of Detention in the World
        • Rights of Persons in Detention
        • Mechanisms of Protection
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Detention: Medicines Management in Custodial Settings
        • Abstract
        • Types of Secure Environments
        • Safe and Secure Management of Medicines
        • Medicine Availability and Acquisition
        • Prescribing Formulary
        • Storage and Disposal
        • Authorization of Medicines Administration and Supply
        • Administration of Medication
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Detention: Solitary Confinement
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Conditions of Solitary Confinement
        • The Different Uses of Solitary Confinement
        • The Health Effects of Solitary Confinement
        • Vulnerable Groups
        • Long-Term Effects
        • Solitary Confinement as a Human Rights Issue
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Detention: Standards Required for Detention and Practical Aspects of Inspection of Prisoners
        • Abstract
        • The Right(s) to Health
        • The Health of Prisoners
        • The Assessment of a Competent Health Service
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Disaster Victim Management: DNA Identification
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Antemortem Samples
        • Postmortem Samples
        • DNA Analysis
        • Software and Statistics
        • Quality
        • Ethics
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Disaster Victim Management: Internationally Agreed Best Practices for Disaster Victim Identification
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Disaster
        • Victim
        • Identification
        • Methods of Identification
        • Best Practice Response Structure for Disaster Victim Identification
        • Incident Commander
        • Senior Identification Officer
        • Body Recovery Team
        • Postmortem Team
        • Antemortem Team
        • Identification Commission or Identification Board
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Disaster Victim Management: Management of Disaster Victim Identification
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organization of Disaster Victim Identification in a Mass Casualty Situation
        • National versus International Operations
        • The Role of INTERPOL
        • Experience from Disasters
        • Conclusion and Recommendations
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Disaster Victim Management: Role of Anthropologist
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Contributions by Anthropologists to Disaster Responses
        • Mass Fatality Considerations
        • Forensic Anthropologist’s Role in Disaster Victim Identification Management: Phases 1–5
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Disaster Victim Management: Role of Forensic Odontology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Pre-Disaster Management
        • Event Management
        • Post-Event
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Disaster Victim Management: Role of Forensic Pathologists
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Mass Fatality Incidents
        • Notification
        • Advance Team
        • Recovery of Bodies
        • Disaster Manual
        • Triage
        • Computer Assistance
        • Identification
        • Release of Bodies
        • Personal Property and Evidence
        • Delegation of Duties
        • Communication
        • Pathology Protocol
        • Security
        • Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
        • See also
        • References
      • Disaster Victim Management: Setting up Emergency Mortuary Facility
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mortuary Organization
        • Site Location
        • Site Set Up
        • Working Conditions
        • Final Phase – Debriefing, Cleaning of Area
        • See also
        • References
      • Disaster Victim Management: Underwater Management
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Underwater Operations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • DNA: Basic Principles
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • DNA Structure
        • Chromosomal DNA (Nuclear DNA)
        • Amelogenin
        • Short Tandem Repeats
        • Mini Short Tandem Repeats
        • Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats
        • X Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats
        • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • DNA: Ethics of Forensic Applications and Databanks
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Domestic Context
        • The International Context
        • Conclusion: Scientists and Human Rights
        • See also
        • References
      • DNA: Hair Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Background
        • Hair Structure
        • Hair Growth Phases
        • DNA within Hair
        • Nuclear DNA
        • Analysis of Nuclear DNA
        • Mitochondrial DNA
        • Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA
        • Animal Testing
        • New Technologies
        • See also
        • References
      • DNA: Heritable Channelopathies and Selected Cardiomyopathies – Postmortem Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Molecular Autopsy and Diagnosis of Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome
        • Definition and Epidemiology of Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome
        • Role of Molecular Autopsy in SUDS
        • Disorders of the Ion Channel
        • Disorders of the Heart Muscle
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • DNA: Mitochondrial DNA
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Mitochondrial Genome
        • Polymorphisms in Mitochondrial DNA
        • Analysis of mtDNA
        • Haplotypes and Haplogroups
        • Species Identification
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • DNA: Sampling and Contamination Risks
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Analytical Methods
        • Low-Template DNA Profiling
        • Sources of Contamination
        • Preventative Measures
        • Case Examples
        • See also
        • References
      • DNA: Statistical Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Single-Source Specimen
        • Paternity Determination
        • DNA Mixture
        • Other Issues
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dogs; Use in Police Investigations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Smell and Scenting Ability
        • Types of Dog and Training
        • Training
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Domestic Violence
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Defining the Phenomenon: Prevalence and Categories of Intimate Partner Violence
        • Physical Health Implications of Intimate Partner Violence
        • Mental Health Implications of Intimate Partner Violence
        • The Other Side of Homicide: When Battered Women Kill
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Domestic Violence: Elder Abuse
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Elder Maltreatment
        • Physical Abuse
        • Neglect
        • Self-Neglect
        • Sexual Abuse
        • Dementia
        • Nursing Homes and Institutions
        • Restraints
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Drug-Induced Injury; Accidental and Iatrogenic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Drug-Induced Injuries in History
        • Medicolegal Aspects
        • See also
        • References
      • Drugs, Prescribed: Drug Licencing and Registration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • National Licensing: UK Procedure for a Marketing Authorization
        • Implications of Licensing in Clinical Practice
        • Special Categories of Medicinal Products
        • Relevant Websites
      • Drugs, Prescribed: Drug Product Liability
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Breach of Warranty of Fitness
        • Strict Liability
        • Defenses in Pharmaceutical Product Liability Suits
        • Pharmaceutical Product Liability Lawsuit Examples
        • GlaxoSmithKline – Paxil, Wellbutrin, and Avandia
        • Prescribing Practice and Risk Mitigation
        • Prescribing Guidance
        • Record Keeping
        • Risk Mitigation for Forensic Physicians
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Drugs, Prescribed: Hair Analysis – Substance Use
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Amphetamines/New Psychoactive Substances
        • Cannabis
        • Cocaine
        • Heroin
        • Methadone/Buprenorphine
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Drugs, Prescribed: Testamentary Capacity – Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Undue Influence
        • The Effects of Drugs on Testamentary Capacity
        • The Drugs
        • Drugs of Abuse
        • Specific Problems
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • E
      • Electric Shocks and Electrocution, Clinical Effects and Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Commercial Electricity Distribution
        • Electrical Safety Considerations
        • Current Flows in the Body
        • Effect of Frequency
        • Sensation
        • Motor Function
        • Cardiac Function
        • Nerve Function
        • Burns
        • Lightning
        • Microwaves
        • Conducted Energy Weapons (Stun Guns and Taser® Devices)
        • Potential to Cause Injury
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Entomology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basis for Forensic Use of Insects
        • Decomposition
        • Relationships of Insects to the Body
        • The Postmortem Interval Estimate
        • Movement of the Corpse
        • Assessment of Trauma
        • Crime Scene Characterization
        • Entomotoxicology
        • Sources of Human DNA
        • Abuse and Neglect of Children and the Elderly
        • Standardization of Techniques
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Evidence, Rules of
        • Abstract
        • Evidence
        • Common-Law (Accusatorial or Adversarial) Evidence
        • Common-Law Rules of Evidence
        • Civil Law (Inquisitorial) Systems
        • Role of Rules of Evidence
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Excited Delirium
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Pathophysiology
        • Metabolic Acidosis
        • Resuscitation Strategies/Treatment of Acidois
        • Summary
        • References
      • Exhumation: Legal and Practical Aspects
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Expert Witness: Daubert and Beyond
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Pre-Daubert Frye Test
        • The Competing Daubert Test
        • The Immediate Impact of the New Daubert Test
        • The Long-Term Impact of the New Daubert Test
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Expert Witness: Qualifications, Testimony, and Malpractice
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Role of Expert Testimony in Court
        • Foundational Requirements to Qualify as an Expert
        • Cross-Examination of Expert Witnesses
        • Varied Court Settings for Use of Medical/Forensic Expert Testimony
        • Litigation, Legal Discovery, and the Patient–Doctor Privilege
        • Boundaries of Responsible Expert Testimony
        • Irresponsible Expert Testimony
        • Pushing the Boundaries: Examples of Litigation-Generated Science and Publication
        • Improving Expert Testimony: Preserving Physician/Expert Credibility
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Expert Witness: Role and Duties
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Selecting an Expert
        • Qualifications
        • Experience as an Expert Witness
        • Education and Training
        • Membership in Professional Associations, Certification, and Accreditation
        • Increased Scrutiny of Experts
        • Weight of the Evidence
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Extremes of Temperature: Hyperthermia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Defining Heat-Related Illness
        • Pathophysiology
        • Heat-Related Deaths
        • Factors in Heat-Related Deaths
        • Postmortem Diagnosis of Heat-Related Deaths
        • Conclusion
        • Other Deaths in Which Hyperthermia May be Implicated
        • See also
        • References
      • Extremes of Temperature: Hypothermia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Problems in Diagnosis
        • Morphological Features of Fatal Hypothermia
        • Wischnewski Spots
        • Pancreatic Changes
        • Epidemiology
        • Age-Related Vulnerability
        • Underlying Disorders Associated with Hypothermia
        • Sex and Racial Differences
        • Location of Deaths
        • Conclusions
        • References
    • F
      • Falls from Height; Physical Findings – Adult
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Falls from Height; Physical Findings – Pediatric
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Free Falls
        • Stairway Falls
        • Pelvic Trauma
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Female Genital Mutilation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence and Classification
        • Motivations and Reasons for Female Genital Mutilation
        • Timing of Female Genital Mutilation
        • Female Genital Mutilation in the United Kingdom
        • Legislation
        • Management and Care – A Multidisciplinary Approach
        • Reporting
        • Current Global Approach
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Fire Investigation: Evidence Recovery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Evidence Collection from Fire Scenes
        • Sample Extraction
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • ASTM Standards
      • Forensic Botany
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Background
        • The Forensic Botanist
        • Scope of Forensic Botany
        • Sources of Botanical Forensic Evidence
        • Plant Identification
        • The Crime Scene
        • The Body (Human or Animal)
        • Clothing, Vehicles, Tools, and Other Objects
        • Search
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Journals: Bibliometrics and Journal Impact Factors
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Forensic Science Journals
        • Bibliometrics
        • Journal Impact Factors
        • Journal Citation Reports
        • Five-year Impact Factors
        • Adjusting for Self-citations
        • Trends over Time
        • Hirsch Index
        • Dilemma of Multiple Authorship
        • Highly Cited Journals
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Medicine, History of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Contemporary Forensic Pathology
        • Contemporary Clinical Forensic Medicine
        • Summary
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Autism Spectrum Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Forensic Issues
        • Dangerousness and Risk Assessment
        • Diminished Responsibility
        • Mitigation
        • Treatability
        • Release or Discharge
        • Wrongful Conviction or Detention
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Criminal Responsibility
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The History of the Insanity Defense
        • The Insanity Defense Today
        • Disposition of Those Found Not Guilty by
        • Psychiatric Evaluation for Criminal Responsibility
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Drug and Alcohol Addiction – Psychoactive Substances Addiction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Common Drugs of Abuse
        • Definitions
        • Screening
        • Assessment
        • Drug Testing
        • Interventions
        • Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol
        • Pharmacotherapy of Drugs
        • Drugs Used for Maintenance
        • Drugs Used to Prevent Relapse
        • Community Reinforcement, Couple and Family
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Ethics of Psychiatry
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Who is a Forensic Psychiatrist? A Forensic Psychologist?
        • Specific Issues, Problems, and Areas of Practical Concern
        • Boundaries, Relationships, and Role Conflicts
        • Establishing and Clarifying the Expert’s Role
        • Theoretical Concerns
        • Avoiding the Courtroom
        • The Defense Psychiatrist
        • Appelbaum’s Theory
        • Critiques of Appelbaum’s Approach
        • Integrity versus Advocacy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Fitness (Competence) to Stand Trial
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Law on Fitness in the United Kingdom
        • The Law on Fitness to Stand Trial in Commonwealth Countries
        • Competence to Stand Trial in the United States
        • Other Competencies
        • Competency Screening Tests
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Forensic Interviewing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Planning and Preparation
        • Engage
        • Explore
        • Review
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Forensic Psychiatric Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Issue
        • Criteria
        • Data
        • Reasoning
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Forensic Psychiatry – Education, Training, and Certification
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The United States
        • The United Kingdom
        • Canada
        • Japan
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Forensic Psychology – Education, Training, and Certification
        • Abstract
        • Summary
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Malingering and Related Response Styles
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Conceptual Framework
        • Misconceptions about Malingering
        • Detection of Malingering
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Mental Handicap and Learning Disability
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Background
        • Current Psychiatric (DSM-5) Definitions and Characteristics
        • Diagnostic Testing
        • Causes
        • Course
        • Progression
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Ethnic, Gender, and Cultural Variations
        • Case Considerations
        • Employment Considerations
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Multiple Personality Disorder
        • Abstract
        • The Concept of Dissociation and the Emergence of Dissociative Identity Disorder
        • Dissociative Identity Disorder and the Law
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Personality Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Models of Understanding Personality Disorder
        • Assessment/Measurement of Personality Disorders
        • Etiology of Personality Disorders
        • Treatment and Management of Personality Disorders
        • Psychosocial Treatments: Treatments that Combine Group Work with Individual Therapy
        • Psychodynamic Psychotherapies
        • Integrative Approaches to Psychotherapy
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Psychological Autopsy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Targets
        • Interveners
        • Methodology
        • Information collected
        • Ethics
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Sex Offenders
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • The Mentally Disordered Sex Offender
        • Child Sex Offenses
        • Adult Rape and Sexual Assault
        • Noncontact Offenses
        • Female Sex Offenders
        • Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Management
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Stalking
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition and Prevalence
        • Typologies
        • Clinical Aspects
        • Risk Assessment
        • Treatment of Stalkers
        • Assistance to Victims
        • See also
        • References
      • Forensic Psychiatry and Forensic Psychology: Suicide Predictors and Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Global Suicide Statistics
        • Prediction and Risk
        • Perpetuating Risk Factors
        • Predisposing Risk Factors
        • Contributing Risk Factors
        • Precipitating Risk Factors
        • Subpopulation Risk Profiles
        • Data Sources
        • Limitations
        • Prevention of Suicides and Suicide Statistics
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
    • H
      • Head Trauma: Neuropathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Brain Injury
        • Examination Procedures
        • External Examination
        • Blunt Trauma of the Head
        • Internal Examination
        • Penetrating Injuries
        • Intracranial Hemorrhage
        • See also
        • References
      • Head Trauma: Pediatric and Adult – Clinical Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Classification of Head Injuries
        • The Pathology of Head Injury
        • Extracranial Insults
        • Intracranial Insults
        • Brain Damage Secondary to Raised Intracranial Pressure
        • Brain Swelling
        • Hydrocephalus
        • Penetrating Head Injuries
        • Posttraumatic Epilepsy
        • Outcome and Prognosis
        • Postconcussional Syndrome
        • The Role of the Clinical Forensic Physician in the Assessment of Nonfatal Head Injuries
        • Pediatric Head Injury
        • Head Injury and Child Abuse
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Healing and Repair of Wounds and Bones
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • What You Need To Know Before Estimating Wound Healing for Forensic Purposes
        • Information on the Wound Healing Process that May Be Used for Forensic Purposes
        • Insights into Macrophage and Mast Cell Activity in Wound Healing
        • How to Choose the Most Suitable Method for Wound Age Estimation
        • Omics Sciences in Wound Age Estimation
        • Bone Fracture Healing
        • See also
        • References
      • Histopathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Technical Procedures and Organ Sampling
        • Conventional Histological Staining, Enzyme Histochemical Staining, Immunohistochemical Methods, TUNEL Assay, and In Situ Hybridization
        • Specific Forensic Medical Case Groups and Investigations
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Human Rights; Controls and Principles
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • International Humanitarian Law
        • Unlawful Combatants
        • International Human Rights Law
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
    • I
      • Identification: Facial Restoration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Superimposition
        • Video or Photographic Comparisons
        • Facial Reconstruction
        • Face Aging
        • Facial Restoration
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Identification: Fingerprints a Key Identification Parameter – Detection, Identification, and Interpretation
        • Abstract
        • Fingerprints: A Brief History
        • Fingerprints and Fingermarks: Definitions
        • Structure of Fingerprints
        • Fingermarks at Crime Scenes
        • Fingerprint Identification
        • Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
        • Comparison of Fingermark and Fingerprint Identification with Deoxyribonucleic Acid
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Identification: Prints – Ear
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Morphology of the External Ear
        • Variations in the External Ear
        • Individualization of Earprints
        • Matching of Earprints
        • Automatic Matching of Earprints and ‘FearID’ (Forensic Ear Identification)
        • The Concerns of Courts with Earprint Evidence and Some Cases Relating to Earprints
        • Current Status of Earprint Identification
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Identification: Prints – Footprints
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • American Society of Forensic Podiatry, and Various Programs Relating to Footprints
        • Morphological and Individual Characteristics of Footprints
        • Collection of Footprints at the Crime Scene
        • Methods of Analyzing Footprints
        • Estimation of Biological Profile from Footprints
        • Estimation of Stature from Footprints
        • Estimation of Sex from Footprints
        • Footprints and Body Weight
        • Dermatoglyphic Features of Footprints and Footprint Ridge Density
        • Future of Footprints and Further Research
        • See also
        • References
      • Imaging: Forensic Photography
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Purpose
        • Sensor Types
        • Capture Capability
        • Comparisons: Human Visual System versus Photography
        • The Nature of Light
        • Taking Photographs
        • The Color Reference, or Control
        • Cross-Polarized Photography
        • Reflected Ultraviolet
        • Induced Fluorescence
        • Infrared
        • Composition
        • Image Processing
        • Outputs
        • Image Quality
        • Summary and Conclusion
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Imaging: Neuroradiology and Abusive Head Trauma
        • Abstract
        • Background and Definition
        • Incidence and Outcome
        • Imaging Modalities and Guidelines
        • Pathological Features
        • Looking at Scan Images
        • Imaging Patterns: Skull Fracture
        • Imaging Patterns: Extra-Axial Intracranial Bleeding
        • Assessing the Age of Blood on CT and MRI
        • Imaging Patterns: Parenchymal Brain Injury
        • Imaging Guidelines
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Imaging: Radiology – Noninvasive Autopsies
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Postmortem Radiography
        • Postmortem Ultrasound
        • Postmortem Computed Tomography
        • Postmortem Computed Tomography Angiography
        • Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Recent Advances
        • Toward an Integrated ‘Examination after Death’
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Imaging: Radiology – Overview
        • Abstract
        • Scope
        • Team Effort
        • History
        • Identification
        • Postmortem Artifacts Created by Scavengers
        • Mass Casualties
        • Body Packing
        • Documentation of Injury
        • Gunshot Wounds
        • Bombings
        • Non-Accidental Injury
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Imaging: Radiology, Pediatric, and Child Abuse – Skeletal Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • The Skeletal Survey
        • Individual Injuries
        • Radiological Dating of Fractures
        • Visceral Injury
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Immunoassays; Forensic Applications
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Forensic Medicine and Immunoassay
        • Practical Applications of Immunoassay in Forensic Medicine
        • Forensic Biological Aspect
        • Forensic Pathological Aspect
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Injuries and Deaths During Police Operations: Forensic Medical Investigation of Police Shootings
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Use of Force Justification
        • Dynamics of Use of Deadly Force Encounters
        • Firearms and Deadly Force: Shooting to Stop the Suspect
        • Post Incident Investigation
        • Training
        • Weapons
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Injuries and Deaths During Police Operations: Special Weapons and Training Teams
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organizational Structures
        • Situations Calling for SWAT Team Response
        • SWAT Team Organization
        • SWAT Team Firearms
        • Special Equipment – Less Lethal Weapons
        • Additional Equipment and Devices
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Blunt Force Injury
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomic Regionalization
        • Blunt Injuries to the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissues
        • Bony and Joint Injuries
        • Visceral Blunt Injuries
        • Aging of Injuries
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Burns and Scalds
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Burns
        • Mechanism of Injury
        • Clinical Effects of Burns
        • Source of Burns
        • Histology
        • Forensic Aspects
        • Approach to Investigations
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Explosive Injuries
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Explosions and Their Effects
        • Injuries and Their Effects in Bomb Explosions
        • Injury Patterns
        • Injuries Due to Explosions of Mines and Hand Grenades
        • Medicolegal Management of the Dead and Surviving Individuals in Explosions
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Firearm Injuries
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Evaluation of Firearm Injuries
        • Weapon and Ammunition Types
        • Velocity and Energy
        • Low-Velocity Firearms Injuries
        • High-Velocity Firearms Injuries
        • Shotgun Firearms Injuries
        • Miscellaneous
        • Other Issues Related to Firearms Injuries
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Injury Documentation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Requirement for Documentation of Injuries, Marks, and Scars
        • Examination and Documentation of Injury
        • Specific Factors
        • Other Issues for Nonforensic Healthcare Professionals
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Legal Classifications
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Common Assault
        • Manslaughter and Murder
        • Murder
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Fatal and Nonfatal: Sharp and Cutting-Edge Wounds
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Incidence
        • Wound Characteristics
        • Lacerations versus Sharp-Force Cuts
        • Incised Wounds
        • Incised Wounds in Specific Sites
        • Stab Wounds
        • Characteristics of Surface Wounds
        • Other Information
        • Assessment of Wound Tracks
        • Outcome of Injury
        • Defense Wounds
        • Homicidal versus Suicidal Stabbing
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Recreational: Airborne Sports Injury
        • Abstract
        • Various Types of Airborne Sport
        • Accident Statistics
        • Causes of Accidents
        • Injuries and Cause of Death
        • Forensic Autopsy
        • Alcohol and Drugs
        • Case Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Injury, Recreational: Water Sports Injury
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Cause of Death and Morbidity
        • Medicolegal Investigations
        • Prevention
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Injury, Transportation: Air Disaster Injury
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Legislative and Regulatory Framework
        • Investigator Safety Issues
        • Objectives of the Medical Investigation
        • Specific Challenges in the Aviation Autopsy
        • Attending the Crash Scene
        • Pre-Autopsy
        • Imaging
        • Disaster Victim Identification
        • The Autopsy
        • Specific Injuries
        • Natural Disease
        • Toxicology
        • Artifacts
        • Correlation
        • See also
        • References
      • Injury, Transportation: Motor Vehicle Injury
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of Accidents
        • Human Factors Contributing to Accidents and Injuries
        • Forces Involved in Accidents
        • General Injuries
        • Injuries to Pedestrians
        • Injuries to Cyclists
        • Injuries to Occupants of Motor Vehicles
        • Internal Findings
        • Interpretation of Injuries in Relation to the Accident
        • Further Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
    • J
      • Judicial Punishment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Judicial Punishment in the Torah and in Contemporary Judaism
        • Judicial Punishment in Christianity
        • Judicial Punishment in Sharii’ah and Islam
        • Capital Judicial Punishment in Contemporary Society
        • Framing the Question: Justice versus Deterrent
        • Weighing in on the Debate: Medicine and Pharmacy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
    • M
      • Mass Murder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Mass Murderers
        • Areas of Future Research
        • See also
        • References
      • Mass Poisonings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Medical Professionals as Mass Poisoners
        • Mass Poisoner Typologies
        • Near Mass Poisoning
        • The Suicidal Mass Poisoner
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Definitions of Death
        • Abstract
        • History of Definitions of Death
        • Consequences of Recent Technologies
        • The Concept of Brain Death
        • Controversies about Brain Death
        • The Diagnosis of Brain Death
        • Brain Death Legislation
        • The Present Situation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Ethics: Abortion
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Abortion Before Legal Authorization Laws
        • Abortion Methods in Countries Where Abortion is Legal
        • Pre-Abortion Care
        • Methods of Abortion
        • After-Care and Follow-Up
        • Abortion and Its Complications in the Countries Where Abortion is Illegal
        • Unsafe Abortion in Countries Where Abortion Is Legal
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Ethics: Advance Directives (‘Living Will’)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Advance Statement
        • Advance Decision
        • How an Advance Decision to Refuse Treatment Is Made
        • The Mental Capacity Act 2005 – Capacity to Make Decisions (General)
        • The Mental Capacity Act 2005 – Advance Decisions to Refuse Treatment
        • 26 Effect of Advance Decisions
        • Lasting Power of Attorney
        • Advance Decision versus Lasting Power of Attorney
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Ethics: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background: Autonomy and Dying
        • The Spectrum of Options at the End of Life
        • The Ethical Debate over Assisted Dying
        • Legal Considerations in Assisted Dying
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Ethics: Principles of Medical Ethics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • International Codes of Medical Ethics
        • Role of Medical Ethics
        • Traditional Understanding of Medical Ethics
        • Medical Ethics and Professionalism
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Ethics: Role of Ethics and Research Committees
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Health Research Authority
        • Research Ethics Committees in the National Health Service
        • The Role of a Research Ethics Committee
        • Research Ethics Committees Legal Responsibilities and Liabilities
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Ethics: Serious Reportable Communicable Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • International Health Regulations 2005
        • Surveillance Requirements and Reporting
        • Serious Reportable Communicable Diseases and Forensic Medicine
        • Confidentiality Issues
        • A Local Example – Victoria, Australia
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Ethics: Withholding or Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Terminology
        • The Demise of the Liverpool Care Pathway
        • Re: M – A Fundamental Case about Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment
        • Main Points for Future Withholding/Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment Cases
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice – Medicolegal Perspectives: Negligence, Causation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Negligence in General
        • The Application of Negligence to Medical Care and Treatment
        • Causation as an Element of Medical Negligence Claim
        • The Cause in Fact Requirement
        • Single Defendant
        • Multiple Defendants
        • Difficult Causation Problems
        • The Proximate Cause Requirement
        • The Cardozo Test for Foreseeability
        • The Andrews Test for Foreseeability
        • Intervening Act Analysis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice – Medicolegal Perspectives: Negligence, Duty of Care
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Negligence in General
        • The Application of Negligence to Medical Care and Treatment
        • The Duty of Care – When the Duty of Care Applies
        • The Duty of Care – The Physician’s Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care
        • Duty of Care – Proof of the Physician’s Duty of Care
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice – Medicolegal Perspectives: Negligence, Quantum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Negligence in General
        • Application of the Negligence Burden of Proof of Damages
        • Proof of Money Damages – Economic Damages
        • Proof of Money Damages – Noneconomic Damages
        • Proof of Money Damages – Punitive Damages
        • The US Supreme Court Ruling in State Farm
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice – Medicolegal Perspectives: Negligence, Standard of Care
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Negligence in General
        • The Application of Negligence to Medical Care and Treatment
        • The Existence of a Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care
        • The Breach of the Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care
        • The Standard of Care
        • Proof of the Applicable Standard of Care
        • Causation
        • Legally Cognizable Injury
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Anesthesiology
        • Abstract
        • General Anesthesia
        • Local Anesthesia
        • The Process of Anesthesia
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Common Triggers for Malpractice Claims in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
        • Minimizing Risks
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Clinical Forensic Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Cases
        • Graham Rawlinson
        • Andrej Rymarzak
        • Derek Keilloh
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Medical Malpractice: Clinical Governance
        • Abstract
        • Routes of Accountability
        • Clinical Governance
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Colorectal Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Stages in Patient Management at Risk
        • Specific Colorectal Disorders
        • Other Colorectal Pathology
        • Emergency Surgery and Colorectal Pathology
        • See also
        • References
        • Further reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Duty of Care
        • Training and Malpractice
        • Outcomes
        • How Errors Occur
        • Informed Consent and Negligence
        • Head and Neck
        • Potential Neural Complications
        • Other Complications
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Medical Malpractice: Emergency Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Challenges within Emergency Medicine
        • Clinical Quality
        • Adapting
        • Designing Error out of the Emergency Department
        • Responding to Medical Malpractice and Complaints
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Facio-Maxillary Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • The Nature of Maxillofacial Surgery
        • Malpractice
        • Surgical Procedures
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Fitness to Practice Procedures – Healthcare
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: Professionalism in Healthcare
        • Health and Care Professions Council
        • The General Medical Council
        • Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service
        • Interims Orders Panel
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: General Practice
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Legal Test in the United Kingdom
        • The Legal Test in the United States
        • Vicarious Liability
        • The Epidemiology of Malpractice Claims in Primary Care
        • Failure or Delay in Making the Correct Diagnosis
        • Prescribing Errors
        • Failure to Conduct an Adequate Assessment
        • Minor Surgery Errors
        • Minimizing the Risk
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Health Service Fraud Investigation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fraud by False Representation
        • Fraud by Failure to Disclose Information
        • Fraud by Abuse of Position
        • Obtaining Services Dishonestly
        • Investigation and Prosecution
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Intensive Care
        • Abstract
        • Criminal Acts – Murder
        • Negligence
        • Professional Problems
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Laparoscopic Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Administrative Bodies
        • Laparoscopic Surgery
        • Complications of Laparoscopic Technique
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Neonatology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Unlawful Killing and Manslaughter
        • Iatrogenic Disorders in Neonatology
        • Malpractice in Neonatal Clinical Practice
        • Strategies for Reducing Malpractice Litigation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Neurosurgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Communication and Consent
        • Withdrawal of Treatment
        • Negligence
        • Material Contribution
        • Good Practice
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Nursing Issues
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Professional Conduct and Accountability
        • Professional Accountability for Others
        • Malpractice: The Nurse and the Law
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Oncology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Natural History of Cancer
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging and Grading
        • Effect of a Delay in the Treatment of Cancer
        • Treatment
        • Chemotherapy
        • Biological Agents
        • Risks Associated with Chemotherapy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Oral Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • The Nature of Oral Surgery
        • Malpractice
        • Radiography
        • Surgical Procedures
        • Biopsy/Excision of Oral Lesions
        • General Considerations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Orthopedics
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Review of Litigation in England
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Medical Malpractice: What Is It?
        • The NHS Litigation Authority
        • LASPO Act
        • Provisions for a Medical Malpractice Claim
        • Medical Malpractice and the Law of Tort
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery
        • Abstract
        • The Scope of Plastic and Cosmetic/Aesthetic Surgery
        • Trends in Medical Malpractice in Plastic and Cosmetic/Aesthetic Surgery
        • Cosmetic/Aesthetic Surgery: A Specific Problem?
        • Causes of Malpractice in Plastic and Cosmetic/Aesthetic Surgery
        • The Genesis of Malpractice Claims in Plastic and Cosmetic/Aesthetic Surgery
        • Issues Surrounding Consent and Basic Medicolegal Principles
        • Issues Surrounding the Use of the Internet and Computer-Generated Pictures
        • Regulation of Cosmetic Surgery in the United Kingdom
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Malpractice: Psychiatry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Definitions
        • Breach of Confidentiality
        • Lack of Informed Consent and Inadequate Treatment with Psychotropic Medication
        • Negligent Psychotherapy
        • Suicide Assessment and Prevention
        • Injury to Third Parties
        • Doctor–Patient Boundary Violations
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Psychology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Codes of Conduct and Registration to Practice
        • Competence
        • Advertising of Services
        • Confidentiality
        • Personal Conduct and Interpersonal Relationship
        • The Conduct of Research
        • Use of Test Results
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Medical Malpractice: Radiotherapy
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Radiation
        • The Patient Pathway
        • Errors in Radiation Oncology
        • Failure to Obtain Informed Consent
        • Errors in Planning
        • Misidentification
        • Errors in Dose
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Medical Malpractice: Rheumatology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Rheumatic Disorders
        • Rheumatologists
        • Malpractice Suits: Rheumatology
        • Diagnostic Investigations in Rheumatology
        • Litigation and Rheumatological Experts
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Stages in Patient Management at Risk
        • Specific Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders
        • Other Upper Gastrointestinal Pathology
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Malpractice: Vascular Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Estimating the Size of the Problem
        • Endovascular Intervention and New Technology
        • Medical Management and Elective Arterial Intervention
        • Urgent Arterial Intervention
        • Emergency Arterial Intervention
        • Treatment of Varicose Veins
        • Generic Aspects of Risk Management
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Misadventure
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Medication Errors
        • Errors Involving Mechanical Devices
        • Errors Related to Medical Decision-Making
        • Errors Related to System Process Issues
        • Investigation of Medical Misadventure
        • See also
        • References
      • Medical Records, Access to
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Perspective and Evolution of Medical Records
        • Contents of Medical Records
        • Purpose of Medical Records
        • Ownership of the Medical Record
        • Access to and Use of Medical Records
        • Emerging Trends in Medical Records
        • Electronic Health Record/Electronic Medical Records
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Medical Records: Documentation, Confidentiality, and Obligations
        • Abstract
        • Medical Records: An Introduction
        • What Is Contained in a Medical Record?
        • Presentation of Medical Reports
        • Medical Reports and the Caldicott Guardian
        • Medical Records and Confidentiality
        • Release of Medical Records with Patient Consent
        • Release of Medical Records without Patient Consent: Disclosure and Obligations
        • Inspecting Medical Records
        • Medical Records and the Patient’s Family
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Mental Health: Crime and Mental Health
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • What Is Mental about Mental Disorder? Conceptual and Philosophical Issues
        • Mental Disorder and Crime
        • Definition of Mental Disorder
        • Prevalence of Mental Disorder in Offender Populations
        • Correlation between Mental Disorder and Violence
        • Comorbidity and Trajectories
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Risk Assessment and Clinical Risk Management
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Mental Health: Detention of Mentally Incapacitated Adults
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Bournewood Case
        • The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards
        • How Is Deprivation of Liberty Defined?
        • Case Law Since 2007
        • Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards Procedure
        • Other Legal Bases on Which Detention Can Be Achieved
        • Interaction with the Mental Health Act
        • Future
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mental Health: Detention under Mental Health Act – England and Wales
        • Abstract
        • The Mental Health Act
        • Remands to Hospital
        • Hospital Orders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Mental Health: Suicide in the Criminal Justice System – Prevalence, Risk Factors, Prediction, and Prevention
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Suicide Rates
        • Risk Factors for Suicide
        • Identification of People at Risk of Suicide
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Mental Health: Treatment without Consent
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Consent: Why Is It Important?
        • The Mental Capacity Act 2005
        • The Mental Health Act 1983
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • References
      • Mortality: Role of Mortality Committees
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Child Death Review Teams and the Review Process
        • The Contribution of Child Death Review Teams to Prevention
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mortality: Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mortality Rate – Definition and Types
        • Mortality Rates versus Case Fatality Rate (Ratio)
        • Sources of Mortality Data
        • Uses of Mortality Data
        • Limitations of Mortality Data
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Murder–Suicide (Dyadic Death)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition of Homicide–Suicide
        • Homicide–Suicide Studies
        • Assailants and Victims
        • Methods of Killing and Suicide
        • Epidemiology
        • Reasons for Homicide–Suicide
        • The Investigation of Homicide–Suicide
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
    • N
      • Necrophilia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Etiopathology
        • Necrophilia in Animals
        • Legal Aspects
        • Ethical Aspects
        • Recent Case Studies
        • See also
        • References
      • Neonaticide
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Background
        • Case Characteristics
        • Scene Examination
        • Pathological Findings
        • Flotation Test
        • Cause of Death
        • Maternal Identification
        • Placental Examination
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
    • O
      • Occupational Health: Autopsy – Occupational Health and Safety
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hazard and Risk
        • Specific Risks from Communicable Diseases
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Occupational Health: Police and Occupational Health
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Occupational Health Needs of Police Officers
        • The Provision of Occupational Health Services
        • Working Conditions of Police Officers
        • Recruitment
        • Standards
        • Special Categories
        • Physical Health
        • Training in Techniques
        • Injury
        • Mental Health
        • Infectious Disease
        • Discharge from Service
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Odontology: Bite Mark Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Collection of Evidence
        • Analysis of Bites Marks
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Odontology: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Examination of the Mouth to Corroborate Identity
        • Radiology
        • Aging Using Morphological Criteria
        • Prenatal Period
        • The First Few Months of Postnatal Life
        • Later Development of the Deciduous Dentition
        • Mixed Dentition
        • Permanent Dentition
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Organ and Tissue Transplantation: Ethical and Practical Issues
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organs and Tissues
        • §121.13 Definition of human organ under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, as amended
        • Developing Understandings of the Body
        • Brain Death
        • Measures Taken to Improve the Supply of Organs and Tissues
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgment
        • References
    • P
      • Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • History of Parentage Testing
        • Technical Considerations
        • The Methods Used in Parentage Testing
        • Analysis of the Typical Parentage Trio
        • Cases Lacking a Known Parent
        • Special types of DNA testing
        • Y-STR Markers
        • Mutations and How to Deal with Them
        • DNA Sequencing
        • Future Considerations
        • See also
        • References
      • Pattern Evidence
        • Abstract
        • Pattern Recognition
        • Patterns
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pharmacology of Legal and Illicit Drugs
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Pharmacodynamics
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Piercings: Body Piercings
        • Abstract
        • History of Piercing
        • Legislation and Regulation
        • Techniques
        • Types of Body Piercing
        • Complications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Poisoning: Overview and Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Poisoning Data Collection for Epidemiology
        • Self-Poisoning with Analgesics
        • Self-Poisoning with Antidepressants
        • Self-Poisoning with Anxiolytic and Sedative Drugs
        • Self-Poisoning with Antimalarials
        • Drugs of Abuse
        • Self-Poisoning with Volatile Substances
        • Carbon Monoxide
        • Pesticide Poisoning
        • Domestic and Industrial Chemicals
        • Alcohols
        • Plants
        • Herbal or Traditional Medicines
        • Rare Poisons
        • Possible Interventions to Change the Epidemiology of Poisoning
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Postmortem Changes: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Livor Mortis
        • Postmortem Ecchymoses
        • Rigor Mortis
        • Algor Mortis
        • Autolysis
        • Maceration
        • Putrefaction
        • Adipocere
        • Mummification
        • Skeletonization
        • Postmortem Preservation by Freezing
        • Miscellaneous
        • See also
        • References
      • Postmortem Changes: Postmortem Electrolyte Disturbances
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Background
        • Physiology
        • Electrolyte Disturbances in Clinical Biochemistry
        • Electrolyte Disturbances in Forensic Biochemistry
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Preparation of Witnesses: Witness Preparation – Scotland
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Preparation of Witnesses: Witness Preparation – United States of America
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Preparation for Attorneys
        • Preparation for Witnesses
        • See also
        • References
      • Professional Bodies: Arab World
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of Medicolegal Services in Libya
        • Medicolegal Services in the Arab World
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Professional Bodies: France – Forensic, Medical and Scientific Training
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Extent of the Problem
        • Forensic Doctors – Number, Origin, and Training
        • Curricula
        • Research and Teaching
        • Forensic Scientists Specializing in Criminalistics
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Professional Bodies: India
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Academic Forensic Medicine in India
        • Regulation of Medical Education in India
        • Undergraduate Forensic Medicine Education and Training
        • Postgraduate Forensic Medicine Education and Training
        • Faculty Requirement in Forensic Medicine Education: Recent Issues in India
        • The Future
        • Organizations and Associations
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Professional Bodies: Rest of the World
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organizations
        • See also
        • Relevant Websites
    • R
      • Recovered Memory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Emergence of a Controversy
        • First Criminal Trial Relying on ‘Recovered Memories’ and Expert Testimony
        • Definitions: Loosening and Blurring of Language
        • Conflicting Interpretations of Research on Evidence for ‘Repression’ or ‘Dissociative Amnesia,’ and Memories Recovered therefrom
        • Prospective Studies of Children and Adults Known to Have Been Traumatized
        • Case Reports versus Case Studies
        • False Memories
        • Forensic Experience with ‘Recovered Memory’/‘False Memory’ Cases
        • Use of Colloquial English by Complainants: What Do People Mean by ‘Blocking Out’ and Memories ‘Coming Back’?
        • Strategic Presentations by Complainants
        • Discovery and Disclosure
        • Recovered Memories Arising in the Context of Adult Onset Psychopathology
        • Guidelines for Forensic Psychological Assessors Instructed as Expert Witnesses
        • See also
        • References
      • Refugee Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Medicolegal Problems Related to Refugees
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Religious Attitudes to Death
        • Abstract
        • World Religion in Context
        • The Abrahamic Faiths
        • The Indian Faiths
        • East Asian Traditions
        • African Diasporic Religions
        • Indigenous and Pagan Traditions
        • Iranian Traditions
        • New Movements
        • Other Major Traditions
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Religious Attitudes to Death: Religious Exception Defense
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Exemptions to Child Abuse Charges
        • Death Statistics
        • Illustrative Cases
        • Investigation and Prosecution
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Restraint Techniques, Injuries, and Death: Baton
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Effects
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Restraint Techniques, Injuries, and Death: Conducted Energy Devices
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • TASER®
        • Other Stun Devices
        • See also
        • References
      • Restraint Techniques, Injuries, and Death: Handcuffs
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Effects
        • Neurological Injury
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Restraint Techniques, Injuries, and Death: Impact Rounds
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Effects
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Restraint Techniques, Injuries, and Death: Irritant (Incapacitant) Sprays
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nature of Sprays
        • Practical Implications
        • Clinical Studies and Effects
        • Management
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Restraint Techniques, Injuries, and Death: Use of Force Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Riot Control Agents
        • Neck Holds
        • Impact Weapons
        • Electronic Control Devices
        • Blunt Projectiles
        • Firearms
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Ritualistic Crime
        • Abstract
        • Defining Ritualistic Crime
        • Forensic Evidence Specific to Ritualistic Crime
        • Contemporary Blood Rituals
        • Vampire Culture and ‘Blood Sports’
        • Santería and Voodoo ‘Blood Offerings’
        • Palo Mayombe ‘Blood and Human Remains’
        • Satanism: ‘Mutilation, Cannibalism, Ritual Abuse, and Dismemberment’
        • Animal Sacrifice
        • Ritual Murder
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Road Traffic Accidents: Air Bag-Related Injuries and Deaths
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The History of Air Bag Research and Development
        • Mechanisms of Injury
        • Phases of Air Bag Deployment
        • Air Bag Tethers and Covers
        • Mechanism of Injury
        • Determination of Occupant Role
        • Side Air Bags
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Road Traffic: Determination of Fitness to Drive – Driving Offense
        • Abstract
        • Postmortem Forensic Toxicology
        • Human Performance Toxicology
        • The Effects of Alcohol
        • The Effects of Various Drugs on the Human Body
        • Unsafe Driving Behavior: Not Drug Related
        • See also
        • References
      • Road Traffic: Determination of Fitness to Drive – General
        • Abstract
        • Determination of Driver Fitness
        • Cardiovascular Medical Conditions that May Impair the Driver
        • Neurological Conditions that May Impair the Driver
        • Metabolic Conditions that May Impair the Driver
        • Respiratory Conditions that May Impair the Driver
        • Renal Condition that May Impair the Driver
        • Sleeping Disorders that May Impair the Driver
        • Sensory Conditions that May Impair the Driver
        • Deficits of the Extremities that May Impair the Driver
        • Medications and Their Effects on Drivers’ Fitness
        • Standardized Tests for Driving Performance
        • The Role of the Postmortem Examination
        • Americans: Age 65 and Over
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Road Traffic: Determination of Fitness to Drive – Sobriety Tests and Drug Recognition
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Driving under the Influence of Drugs – Legal Matters
        • Field Impairment Testing
        • The Modified Romberg Balance Test
        • Recognition of the Drugged Driver
        • Opiates
        • Central Nervous System Stimulants
        • Central Nervous System Depressants
        • Hallucinogens
        • Inhalants
        • Dissociative Anesthetics
        • The Future of Drug Drive Enforcement
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Road Traffic: Global Overview of Drug and Alcohol Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Aspects of European Laws Relating to Driving under the Influence
        • European Statistics on Driving under the Influence
        • Most Recent Statistics: Alcohol and Drug Statistics in Drivers
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
    • S
      • Serial Murder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Typologies
        • Serial Murder Research
        • Serial Murder
        • Serial Sexual Murder
        • Causes of Death
        • Crime Scene
        • Body Disposal
        • Method of Operation, Ritual, and Signature
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Serology: Blood Identification
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Human Blood
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Serology: Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Bloodstain Characteristics
        • Impact Patterns
        • Cast-Off Patterns
        • Projected Patterns
        • Splash Patterns
        • Transfer Stains
        • Drip Trails
        • Blood Drying Times
        • Documentation of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Serology: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Scope
        • Recognition, Collection, and Preservation of Biological Evidence
        • Presumptive Tests and Definitive Tests
        • Identification of Blood and Bloodstains
        • Semen and Sexual Assault Evidence
        • Saliva and Other Body Fluids
        • Emerging Developments in Body Fluid Identification
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Basic Terms
        • The Extent of the Problem
        • Drugs Used to Facilitate Sexual Assault
        • Specimens and Analytical Methods
        • History and Legislation
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Human Normal Sexual Response
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Modeling Human Sexual Responses
        • Male Genital Structures
        • Sexual Arousal in the Male
        • Female Genital Structures Involved in Arousal
        • Sexual Arousal and Orgasm by Forced or Nonconsensual Sexual Stimulation
        • See also
        • References
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Injuries and Findings after Sexual Contact
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Availability of Data of Injury Following Sexual Contact
        • Nonconsensual Sexual Contact and Injury
        • Consensual Sexual Contact and Injury
        • Injuries to Children
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Normal Anogenital Anatomy and Variants
        • Abstract
        • Pelvic Structure
        • Female External Genitalia
        • Female Internal Genital Organs
        • Male External Genital Organs
        • Male Internal Genital Organs
        • Variants in Female Genital Anatomy
        • Variants in Male Genital Anatomy
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Psychological Sequelae of Rape
        • Abstract
        • Adult Victims of Sexual Assault
        • The Investigation and Prosecution of Rape and Serious Sexual Assault Cases
        • Psychological Responses Following Rape and Serious Sexual Assault
        • Long-Term Mental Health Effects of Serious Sexual Assault and Rape
        • Management of Rape Victims
        • See also
        • References
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Sexual Assault – Evidential Sample Collection
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • The Evidence Collector
        • The Evidence Collection Kit
        • What Do the Findings Mean?
        • Forensic Medical Examination Paperwork
        • Chain of Evidence
        • Contamination Issues
        • Injury Assessment in Relation to Forensic Evidential Sample Collection
        • DNA Sensitivity
        • Staff DNA Databases
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Sexual Assault – Management Post-Assault
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Statistics
        • Basic Principles of Medical Forensic Service Provision
        • Consent to the Medical Forensic Examination
        • History Taking
        • Assault History
        • General Examination and Genito-Anal Examination
        • Medical Aftercare
        • Pregnancy
        • Sexually Transmitted Infections
        • Psychological Sequelae of Sexual Assault
        • Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults
        • Communication with Primary Care Services
        • See also
        • References
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Sexual Assault – Persistence of Biological Samples
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Semen Persistence
        • Persistence of Vaginal Secretions
        • Persistence of Saliva
        • Persistence of Blood
        • Persistence of Feces
        • Persistence of Urine
        • Persistence of Fibers
        • Persistence of Hair
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Sexual Offenses, Adult: Sexual Offence – Global Crime Figures and Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of International Data on Rape
        • Other Useful Sources of Rape Statistics
        • Using International Rape Data
        • The Way Forward
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Starvation
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Normal Nutritional Requirements
        • Disease-Associated Malnutrition
        • Degrees of Starvation
        • Detection of Nutritional Risk
        • Fatal Starvation
        • Autopsy Findings
        • Histology
        • Laboratory Tests
        • Investigation of Pediatric Starvation and Malnutrition
        • Classification of Protein-Energy Malnutrition
        • Fatal Malnutrition in Adolescents and Adults
        • Immediate Cause of Death
        • Dehydration
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Alternative Body Fluids Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Amniotic Fluid
        • Breast Milk
        • Oral Fluid
        • Semen
        • Sweat
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Cocaine and Other Stimulants
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemistry
        • Metabolism
        • Other Metabolites
        • Excretion
        • Drug Interactions
        • Fetal Metabolism
        • Breast Milk
        • Adulterants
        • Interpreting Cocaine Concentrations
        • Estimating Time of Ingestion
        • Interpretation of Low Cocaine Concentrations
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Hair Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biology of Hair
        • Hair Analysis
        • Applications
        • Recent Trends in Contamination Research
        • Significance of a Negative Result
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Substance Misuse: Herbal Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Determining Causation
        • Terms and Definitions
        • The Law and Regulation of Herbal Products
        • Quality Control of Herbal Medicines
        • Specific Syndromes
        • Impact on Laboratory Tests
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Substance Misuse: Heroin
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Worldwide Usage
        • Manufacture and Forms
        • Route of Administration
        • Metabolism and Excretion
        • Pharmacological Effects
        • Dependence and Toxicity
        • Behavioral Changes
        • Morbidity and Mortality
        • Definition of a Heroin Death
        • Presence of Other Drugs
        • Demographics of a Heroin User
        • Treatment of Heroin Users
        • Analytical Toxicology
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Legal Highs
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Individual Drugs
        • Opiate type
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Substance Misuse: Medical Effects
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • History and Examination
        • Polydrug Use and Tolerance
        • Clinical Syndromes
        • Infective Complications of Injection
        • Blood-borne Viruses
        • Vascular Complications
        • Pulmonary Complications
        • Noninfective Complications
        • Older People
        • Mental Health
        • Rapid Tranquilization
        • Drug-Related Deaths
        • Harm Reduction
        • Special Investigations
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Methods of Administration
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Methods of Administration
        • Enteral
        • Parenteral
        • Topical
        • Inhalation
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Substance Misuse: Miscellaneous Drugs
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Hallucinogens and Dissociative Anesthetics
        • Inhalants
        • Club Drugs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Substance Misuse: Sedatives
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Benzodiazepines
        • Non-Benzodiazepine Sedative Hypnotics
        • Barbiturates
        • Muscle Relaxants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Substance Misuse: Substance Abuse – Patterns and Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Opiates/Opioids
        • Cocaine
        • Other Natural Substances
        • Amphetamines
        • Ecstasy and Other Dance Scene Drugs
        • Synthetic Cathinones
        • Synthetic Cannabinoids
        • Volatile Substance Misuse
        • Polydrug Use
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Substance Misuse and Crime
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Legal Framework
        • Examples of Substance Misuse and Crime Research
        • Harm Reduction and Minimization
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Substitution Drugs
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Methadone
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Overdose
        • Drug Interactions
        • Methadone Measurement
        • Methadone Monitoring
        • Buprenorphine
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Misuse
        • Overdose
        • Buprenorphine Measurement
        • See also
        • References
      • Substance Misuse: Urine Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Urine Specimen Characteristics and Integrity
        • Application Examples
        • Immunoassay and GC–MS Result
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
      • Sudden Natural Death: Cardiovascular
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Mechanisms of Sudden Cardiac Death
        • Sudden Cardiac Death Due To Acquired Heart Disease
        • Sudden Cardiovascular Death
        • See also
        • References
      • Sudden Natural Death: Central Nervous System and Miscellaneous Causes
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Central Nervous System
        • Respiratory System
        • Gastrointestinal Tract
        • Endocrine System
        • Metabolic and Inherited Causes of Sudden Death
        • Miscellaneous Disorders
        • See also
        • References
      • Sudden Natural Death: Infectious Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Infectious Diseases and Infectious Agents
        • Organ System Involvement and Cause of Death in Infections
        • Bacterial Causes of Sudden Death
        • Viral Causes of Sudden Death
        • Fungal Causes of Sudden Death
        • Protozoal Causes of Sudden Death
        • Helminthic Causes of Sudden Death
        • Emergence and Reemergence of Infectious Diseases
        • Medicolegal Investigations into Infectious Deaths
        • Autopsy in Cases of Sudden Death Due to Infectious Causes
        • Histology, Microbiology, and Molecular Diagnosis of Sudden Infectious Deaths
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Suicide: Etiology, Methods, and Statistics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Etiology of Suicide
        • Suicide Rates
        • Methods of Suicide
        • Suicide, Murder, or Accident?
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Suicide: Self-Harm
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Terminology
        • Epidemiology
        • Framework of Assessment
        • Repetition
        • Self-Harm in Forensic Groups
        • Management
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Suicide: Youth Suicide
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methods of Self-Destruction
        • Pathological Problems
        • Youth Suicide
        • Specific Study Results
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Further Reading
    • T
      • Tactical Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction: Defining Tactical Emergency Medical Support
        • History of Tactical Emergency Medical Support
        • Benefits of Tactical Emergency Medical Support
        • Emergency Medical Services and Tactical Emergency Medical Support: Major Differences in Medical Care
        • Tactical Emergency Medical Support Models
        • Responsibilities of the Tactical Medial Officer
        • Preventive Medicine
        • Fitness for Duty
        • Medical Threat Assessments
        • Medical Intelligence
        • Clearance for Incarceration
        • References
      • Tattoos: Medicolegal Significance – Forensic Issues
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Reasons for Tattooing
        • Complications
        • Removal
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Terrorism: Nuclear and Biological Terrorism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nuclear Terrorism
        • Effects of Nuclear Weapons
        • Acute Radiation Syndrome
        • Considerations of the Dead
        • Forensic Considerations
        • Bioterrorism
        • Forensic Considerations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Terrorism: Suicide Bombing – Investigation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of Bombings
        • History of Suicide Terrorism and Suicide Bombings
        • Prominent Leaders as Victims of Suicide Bombings
        • Profile of a Suicide Bomber and Modes of Deployment
        • Types of Explosives and Explosive Devices Used by Suicide Bombers
        • Explosion Physics
        • Site of Explosion – Forensic Investigations and Emergency Measures
        • Crime Scene Investigations and Reconstruction of the Explosion
        • Thanatological Examination
        • Identification – Disaster Victim Identification and Disaster Perpetrator Identification
        • Psychological Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
      • Terrorism: Terrorism – Medicolegal Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Terrorist Bombings
        • Narcoterrorism
        • Underwater Terrorism
        • After-Effects
        • Medicolegal Aspects
        • Forensic Investigation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Torture, History of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Torture in the Past
        • Medieval and Renaissance Periods
        • Enlightenment Thinkers
        • Torture in the Recent Past
        • Anticolonialism and Algeria
        • Latin America
        • United Kingdom versus Ireland and the ‘Five Techniques’
        • Israel and ‘Moderate Physical Pressure’
        • Torture in the Twenty-First Century
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Torture: Child Torture
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview of Child Torture
        • Definition of Child Torture
        • Signs and Types of Torture in Children
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Torture: Physical Findings
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Torture Methods
        • Medical Examination
        • Blunt-Force Injuries
        • Falanga
        • Suspension
        • Burning and Electrical Torture
        • Asphyxia
        • General Findings
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Torture: Psychological Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Defining Torture
        • Torture Methods
        • Psychological Impact of Torture
        • Legal Framework
        • Aims
        • Setting and Interview
        • Content
        • The Process
        • Documentation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology, History of
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ancient Rome
        • Medieval Period
        • Modern Era
        • Antidotes through the Ages
        • See also
        • References
      • Toxicology: Methods of Analysis, Antemortem
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Specimens
        • Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology: Methods of Analysis, Postmortem
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Specimens
        • General Techniques
        • Recommended Techniques for Postmortem Analysis
        • Redistribution
        • Metabolism and Bioconversion
        • Reports
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Toxicology: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Applications of Forensic Toxicology
        • Initial Tests and Confirmation
        • Common Drugs and Poisons
        • Scope of Testing Protocols
        • Specimens
        • Chain of Custody
        • General Techniques
        • Quality Assurance and Validation
        • Postmortem Artifacts in Analysis
        • Estimation of Dose
        • Interpretation of Toxicological Results
        • Problems in Court Testimony
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • V
      • Venom
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • Venomous Animals
        • Overview of Epidemiology of Envenoming
        • Venom Delivery
        • Venom Activity
        • Clinical Effects
        • Venomous Snakes
        • Scorpion Sting
        • Spider Bite
        • Ticks
        • Insects
        • Venomous Stinging Fish
        • Blue-Ringed Octopus
        • Cone Snails
        • Jellyfish
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Veterinary Aspects of Forensic Medicine: Wild Animals – Wildlife Forensic Pathology
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Introduction
        • Techniques
        • Trauma
        • Industrial Mortality
        • Toxicosis
        • Legal Note
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Victim Support
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Support for Victims of Crime
        • The Immediate Crisis
        • The Fundamental Steps to Supporting Victims of Crime
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • W
      • War Crimes: International Criminal Court
        • Abstract
        • A Historical Overview of the International Criminal Court
        • The International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • War Crimes: Pathological Investigation
        • Abstract
        • Development
        • Scope of the Pathology Investigation
        • Contribution of the Pathology Evidence
        • Negative Autopsy
        • Future Contribution
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • War Crimes: Site Investigation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Social and Political Environments
        • Personnel
        • Archeologists
        • The Role of the Lead Archeologist
        • The Role of the Archeological Team and Subsequent Investigation
        • Bodies Deposited on the Surface
        • Locating a Grave
        • Survey of Mass Graves
        • Protocols
        • Public Relations and the Media
        • Physical and Mental Health of the Team Members
        • See also
        • References
      • War Crimes: War Crime Law and Tribunals
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Definition of the Law of War Crimes
        • History of Internationally Recognized War Crime Law
        • International War Crime Tribunals
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • War Injuries
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Injury Statistics
        • Nature of Weapons Deployed
        • Injuries
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
  • Authors
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
3120
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128000342
eBook ISBN:
9780128000557

About the Editor-in-Chief

Roger Byard

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Adelaide, Australia

Jason Payne-James

Affiliations and Expertise

Director - Forensic Healthcare Services Ltd; Forensic Medical Examiner - Metropolitan Police Service, City of London Police; Consultant - National Crime Faculty & National Injuries Database

Awards

2016 PROSE Awards - Winner, Multivolume Reference - Humanities & Social Sciences: Association of American Publishers, Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine

Reviews

Praise for the first edition:

Winner of The Society of Authors and the Royal Society of Medicine Minty Book Prize 2006

2006 British Medical Association Medical Book Competition - HIGHLY COMMENDED

"Truly encyclopaedic and is a 'must have' reference work." --Dr. Neville Davis, President of the Medico-Legal Society

"The Encyclopaedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine provides a valuable reference tool for professionals of all disciplines.... This work will be heavily relied upon by those working in forensic and legal medicine and related fields." - Dr. Anthony Bleetman, Consultant in Accident and Emergency Medicine, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer in Surgery, University of Birmingham, Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer, Centre for Primary Health Care Studies, University of Warwick

"An excellent resource for professionals working in forensics, lawyers, or medical/graduate students interested in forensic training. Summing Up: Highly recommended." --CHOICE Library Journal

"Highly authoritative, comprehensive, and diverse.... The Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine is a veritable forensic library. I would recommend it to forensic pathologists, general pathologists, pediatric pathologists, forensic physicians, forensic scientists, coroners, forensic investigators, emergency department physicians, police surgeons, homicide detectives, prosecutors, judges, legal practitioners, pediatricians, primary care physicians, and psychiatrists." - Journal of the American Medical Association

This impressive four-volume VADE MECUM (reference manual) ... is both comprehensive and timely." --Michael M. Baden, MD, New England Journal of Medicine

"This book is an ambitious undertaking and on the whole I (as a forensic physician) am going to find it very useful." --Dr. Lesley Lord, Science and Justice, 2006