Elementary Medical Biophysics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780409082715, 9781483141657

Elementary Medical Biophysics

1st Edition

Authors: G. G. Járos B. J. Meyer
eBook ISBN: 9781483141657
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 250
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Description

Elementary Medical Biophysics deals with the basic principles involved in the physical sciences, such as the application of mathematical methods involving scientific problems, the production of electricity in electrical and living cells, as well as light, sight, and radioactivity. The book reviews the graphical and mathematical representation of scientific problems, and the use of units to measure temperature, time, force, energy that are commonly employed in experiments and research work. The text describes the forces involved in diffusion and osmosis that occur during the movement of molecules or other particles when these are unevenly dispersed in a fluid medium. The force in diffusion causes a particle to move from an area of high concentration of particles into one with a low concentration, until there is equilibrium. Osmosis involves the force or movement of a solvent from an area of low concentration of the solute to an area with a high concentration of the solute. The book also explains the production of electricity in living cells of the body, as well as the possible special affinity or preference that tumors or cancerous cells can have with radioactive substances. The text is intended for nursing and paramedical students with courses in physiology, biophysics, and other programs related to the medical sciences.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Introduction

Section I — Basic Principles

Chapter 1 — Graphical and Mathematical Representation of Scientific Problems

Introduction

Straight Line

Limitations of Physical Laws

Hyperbola

Parabola

Inverse Square Equation

Equations with more than Two Variables

Chapter 2 — Units

Introduction

The SI Units

Derived Units of the SI

Multiples and Submultiples of the SI Units

Conversion of Subunits

Rules for the Usage and Writing of the SI System

Calibration

Errors in Measurement

Measurement of Temperature

Chapter 3 — Forces

Introduction

Gravitational Force

Centrifugal Force

Equilibrium Between the Gravitational Force and the Centrifugal Force

Electrical Forces

Magnetic Forces

Forces Caused by Differences in Chemical Concentration

Chemotactic Forces

Frictional Forces

Resultant Forces

Work, Energy and Power

Section II — Electricity

Chapter 4 — The Origin of Electricity and the Flow of Electricity in Conductors

Introduction

Atoms and Molecules

Ions

Isotopes

Free Electrons in a Metal

'Flow' of Electrons

Electromotive Force

Opposing Electrical Force

Electrical Current Intensity and Resistance

Resultant Resistance

The Flow of Electricity through Liquids

Movement of Ions in Liquids

Equipotential Lines and Surfaces

Chapter 5 — Production of Electricity in Electrical and Living Cells

Introduction

Production of Electricity in an Electrical Cell

Production of Electricity by the Living Cells of the Body — Resting Membrane Potential

Action Potential

Transmission of the Action Potential Along Nerves

Resultant Dipoles in Different Tissues

The Electrical Activity of the Heart

Chapter 6 — Variation and Measurement of Electrical Currents

Introduction

Capacitors

Time Constant

Electromagnetism

Production of an Alternating Current

Semiconductors

The Oscilloscope

Chapter 7 — Bio-Electronic Equipment

Introduction

Classification of Bio-Electronic Apparatus on the Basis of Functional Principles

Input Devices

Output Devices

Electrical Pacemakers and Defibrillators

Compound Apparatus

Synchronised Pacemaker and Defibrillator

Section III — Liquids Gases and Heat

Chapter 8 — Common Properties of Liquids, Gases and Heat

Introduction

States of Matter

The Flow of Fluids and of Heat

Application of the Laws of Flow to the Human Body

Pressures in Fluids Caused by Gravitational Forces

Measurement of Pressures

Chapter 9 — Gases and Respiration

Introduction

Pressures Caused by Intermolecular Forces

Principles of Pulmonary Function

Partial Gas Pressures and the Exchange of Gases Between the Lungs and the Blood

Artificial Respirators

Chapter 10 — Liquids and the Circulatory System

Introduction

'Hydromotive Force'

The Heart as a Pump

Heart Valves

Chapter 11 — Fluid Mixtures

Introduction

Solutions

Other Mixtures

Diffusion

Osmosis

Filtration

Exchange of Fluids Between the Capillaries and the Tissues

Active Transport

Principles of Kidney Function

Dialysis and the Artificial Kidney

Chapter 12 — Heat and the Regulation of Body Temperature

Introduction

Quantity of Heat and Temperature

The Production of Heat

Heat Loss

Regulation of Body Temperature

Diathermy

Section IV — Rays and Waves

Chapter 13 — Electromagnetic Radiation

Introduction

General Aspects

Heat Waves

Light Waves

Ultraviolet Radiation

X-rays

Radio Waves

Gamma Radiation

Lasers

Chapter 14 — Light and Sight

Introduction

Laws of Light

Lenses

Optical Apparatus

The Eye

Faulty Image Formation in the Eye

Chapter 15 — Radioactivity

Introduction

Principles of Radioactivity

Diagnostic Uses of Radioactivity

Therapeutic Uses of Radioactivity

Precautions Concerning the Use of Radioactive Isotopes

Chapter 16 — Sound and Hearing

Introduction

Properties of Sound

Production of Sound

Perception of Sound by the Ear

Hearing Abnormalities

Sound Amplifiers

Ultrasonics

Section V — Mechanics

Chapter 17 — Machines

Introduction

Simple Machines of the Body

Levers

Pulleys

Body Mechanics

Appendix A: The Elements and their Symbols

Appendix B: Examples of Examination Questions

Details

No. of pages:
250
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483141657

About the Author

G. G. Járos

B. J. Meyer