Elementary Medical Biophysics

Elementary Medical Biophysics

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Authors: G. G. Járos, B. J. Meyer
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483141657

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Elementary Medical Biophysics deals with the basic principles involved in the physical sciences, such as the application of mathematical methods involving scientific problems, the production of electricity in electrical and living cells, as well as light, sight, and radioactivity. The book reviews the graphical and mathematical representation of scientific problems, and the use of units to measure temperature, time, force, energy that are commonly employed in experiments and research work. The text describes the forces involved in diffusion and osmosis that occur during the movement of molecules or other particles when these are unevenly dispersed in a fluid medium. The force in diffusion causes a particle to move from an area of high concentration of particles into one with a low concentration, until there is equilibrium. Osmosis involves the force or movement of a solvent from an area of low concentration of the solute to an area with a high concentration of the solute. The book also explains the production of electricity in living cells of the body, as well as the possible special affinity or preference that tumors or cancerous cells can have with radioactive substances. The text is intended for nursing and paramedical students with courses in physiology, biophysics, and other programs related to the medical sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    Section I — Basic Principles

    Chapter 1 — Graphical and Mathematical Representation of Scientific Problems


    Straight Line

    Limitations of Physical Laws



    Inverse Square Equation

    Equations with more than Two Variables

    Chapter 2 — Units


    The SI Units

    Derived Units of the SI

    Multiples and Submultiples of the SI Units

    Conversion of Subunits

    Rules for the Usage and Writing of the SI System


    Errors in Measurement

    Measurement of Temperature

    Chapter 3 — Forces


    Gravitational Force

    Centrifugal Force

    Equilibrium Between the Gravitational Force and the Centrifugal Force

    Electrical Forces

    Magnetic Forces

    Forces Caused by Differences in Chemical Concentration

    Chemotactic Forces

    Frictional Forces

    Resultant Forces

    Work, Energy and Power

    Section II — Electricity

    Chapter 4 — The Origin of Electricity and the Flow of Electricity in Conductors


    Atoms and Molecules



    Free Electrons in a Metal

    'Flow' of Electrons

    Electromotive Force

    Opposing Electrical Force

    Electrical Current Intensity and Resistance

    Resultant Resistance

    The Flow of Electricity through Liquids

    Movement of Ions in Liquids

    Equipotential Lines and Surfaces

    Chapter 5 — Production of Electricity in Electrical and Living Cells


    Production of Electricity in an Electrical Cell

    Production of Electricity by the Living Cells of the Body — Resting Membrane Potential

    Action Potential

    Transmission of the Action Potential Along Nerves

    Resultant Dipoles in Different Tissues

    The Electrical Activity of the Heart

    Chapter 6 — Variation and Measurement of Electrical Currents



    Time Constant


    Production of an Alternating Current


    The Oscilloscope

    Chapter 7 — Bio-Electronic Equipment


    Classification of Bio-Electronic Apparatus on the Basis of Functional Principles

    Input Devices

    Output Devices

    Electrical Pacemakers and Defibrillators

    Compound Apparatus

    Synchronised Pacemaker and Defibrillator

    Section III — Liquids Gases and Heat

    Chapter 8 — Common Properties of Liquids, Gases and Heat


    States of Matter

    The Flow of Fluids and of Heat

    Application of the Laws of Flow to the Human Body

    Pressures in Fluids Caused by Gravitational Forces

    Measurement of Pressures

    Chapter 9 — Gases and Respiration


    Pressures Caused by Intermolecular Forces

    Principles of Pulmonary Function

    Partial Gas Pressures and the Exchange of Gases Between the Lungs and the Blood

    Artificial Respirators

    Chapter 10 — Liquids and the Circulatory System


    'Hydromotive Force'

    The Heart as a Pump

    Heart Valves

    Chapter 11 — Fluid Mixtures



    Other Mixtures




    Exchange of Fluids Between the Capillaries and the Tissues

    Active Transport

    Principles of Kidney Function

    Dialysis and the Artificial Kidney

    Chapter 12 — Heat and the Regulation of Body Temperature


    Quantity of Heat and Temperature

    The Production of Heat

    Heat Loss

    Regulation of Body Temperature


    Section IV — Rays and Waves

    Chapter 13 — Electromagnetic Radiation


    General Aspects

    Heat Waves

    Light Waves

    Ultraviolet Radiation


    Radio Waves

    Gamma Radiation


    Chapter 14 — Light and Sight


    Laws of Light


    Optical Apparatus

    The Eye

    Faulty Image Formation in the Eye

    Chapter 15 — Radioactivity


    Principles of Radioactivity

    Diagnostic Uses of Radioactivity

    Therapeutic Uses of Radioactivity

    Precautions Concerning the Use of Radioactive Isotopes

    Chapter 16 — Sound and Hearing


    Properties of Sound

    Production of Sound

    Perception of Sound by the Ear

    Hearing Abnormalities

    Sound Amplifiers


    Section V — Mechanics

    Chapter 17 — Machines


    Simple Machines of the Body



    Body Mechanics

    Appendix A: The Elements and their Symbols

    Appendix B: Examples of Examination Questions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483141657

About the Authors

G. G. Járos

B. J. Meyer

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