Descriptive Physical Oceanography - 6th Edition - ISBN: 9780750645522, 9780080939117

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

6th Edition

An Introduction

Authors: Lynne Talley
eBook ISBN: 9780080939117
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750645522
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th April 2011
Page Count: 560
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Description

Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Sixth Edition, provides an introduction to the field with an emphasis on large-scale oceanography based mainly on observations. Topics covered include the physical properties of seawater, heat and salt budgets, instrumentation, data analysis methods, introductory dynamics, oceanography and climate variability of each of the oceans and of the global ocean, and brief introductions to the physical setting, waves, and coastal oceanography.

This updated version contains ocean basin descriptions, including ocean climate variability, emphasizing dynamical context; new chapters on global ocean circulation and introductory ocean dynamics; and a new companion website containing PowerPoint figures, lecture and study guides, and practical exercises for analyzing a global ocean data set using Java OceanAtlas.

This text is ideal for undergraduates and graduate students in marine sciences and oceanography.

Key Features

  • Expanded ocean basin descriptions, including ocean climate variability, emphasizing dynamical context
  • New chapters on global ocean circulation and introductory ocean dynamics
  • Companion website containing PowerPoint figures, supplemental chapters, and practical exercises for analyzing a global ocean data set using Java OceanAtlas

Readership

Advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the marine sciences and oceanography.

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction to Descriptive Physical Oceanography

1.1. Overview

1.2. Space and TimeScales of Physical Oceanographic Phenomena

Chapter 2. Ocean Dimensions, Shapes, and Bottom Materials

2.1. Dimensions

2.2. Plate Tectonics and Deep-Sea Topography

2.3. Seafloor Features

2.4. Spatial Scales

2.5. Shore, Coast, and Beach

2.6. Continental Shelf, Slope, and Rise

2.7. Deep Ocean

2.8. Sills, Straits, and Passages

2.9. Methods for Mapping Bottom Topography

2.10. Bottom Material

2.11. Ocean Basins

Chapter 3. Physical Properties of Seawater

3.1. Molecular Properties of Water

3.2. Pressure

3.3. Thermal Properties of Seawater: Temperature, Heat, and Potential Temperature

3.4. Salinity and Conductivity

3.5. Density of Seawater

3.6. Tracers

3.7. Sound in the Sea

3.8. Light and the Sea

3.9. Ice in the Sea

Chapter 4. Typical Distributions of Water Characteristics

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Temperature Distribution of the Oceans

4.3. Salinity Distribution

4.4. Density Distribution

4.5. Dissolved Oxygen

4.6. Nutrients and Other Tracers

4.7. Age, Turnover Time, and Ventilation Rate

4.8. Optical Properties of Seawater

Chapter 5. Mass, Salt, and Heat Budgets and Wind Forcing

5.1. Conservation of Volume and Mass

5.2. Conservation of Salt

5.3. Three Examples of the two Conservation Principles

5.4. Conservation of Heat Energy; the Heat Budget

5.5. Geographic Distribution and Temporal Variation of the Heat-Budget Terms

5.6. Meridional Heat Transport

5.7. Buoyancy Fluxes

5.8. Wind Forcing

Chapter 6. Data Analysis Concepts and Observational Methods

6.1. Oceanographic Sampling

6.2. Observational Error

6.3. Basic Statistical Concepts

6.4. Variation in Space: Profiles, Vertical Sections, and Horizontal Maps

6.5. Variation in Time

6.6. Multidimensional Sampling

6.7. Water Property (Water Mass) Analyses

Chapter 7. Dynamical Processes for Descriptive Ocean Circulation

7.1. Introduction: Mechanisms

7.2. Momentum Balance

7.3. Temperature, Salinity, and Density Evolution

7.4. Mixing Layers

7.5. Response to Wind Forcing

7.6. Geostrophic Balance

7.7. Vorticity, Potential Vorticity, Rossby and Kelvin Waves, and Instabilities

7.8. Wind-Driven Circulation: Sverdrup Balance and Western Boundary Currents

7.9. Wind-Driven Circulation: Eastern Boundary Currents and Equatorial Circulation

7.10. Buoyancy (Thermohaline) Forcing and Abyssal Circulation

Chapter 8. Gravity Waves, Tides, and Coastal Oceanography

8.1. Introduction

8.2. General Properties of Waves

8.3. Surface Gravity Waves

8.4. Internal Gravity Waves

8.5. Large-Scale Continental Shelf and Coastal-Trapped Waves

8.6. Tides

8.7. Water Properties in Coastal Regions: River Runoff

8.8. Estuaries

8.9. Coral Reefs

8.10. Adjacent Seas

Chapter 9. Atlantic Ocean

9.1. Introduction and Overview

9.2. Forcing

9.3. North Atlantic Circulation

9.4. Tropical Atlantic Circulation

9.5. South Atlantic Circulation

9.6. Depth Dependence of the Atlantic Ocean Circulation

9.7. Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Atlantic

9.8. Atlantic Ocean Water Masses

9.9. Climate and the Atlantic Ocean

Chapter 10. Pacific Ocean

10.1. Introduction and Overview

10.2. Wind and Buoyancy Forcing

10.3. North Pacific Circulation

10.4. South Pacific Circulation

10.5. Pacific Ocean Mesoscale Eddy Variability

10.6. Depth Dependence of the Pacific Ocean Circulation and Meridional Overturn

10.7. Tropical Pacific Circulation and Water Properties

10.8. El Niño/ La Niña and The Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

10.9. Pacific Ocean Water Masses

10.10. Decadal Climate Variability and Climate Change

Chapter 11. Indian Ocean

11.1. Introduction and Overview

11.2. Wind and Buoyancy Forcing

11.3. Monsoonal and Tropical Ocean Circulation

11.4. South Indian Ocean Subtropical Circulation

11.5. Indonesian Throughflow

11.6. Red Sea and Persian Gulf Outflows

11.7. Intermediate and Deep Circulation

11.8. Water Masses

11.9. Climate and the Indian Ocean

Chapter 12. Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas

12.1. Introduction

12.2. The Nordic Seas

12.3. Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay

12.4. Arctic Ocean: Circulation and Ice Drift

12.5. Arctic Ocean Water Masses

12.6. Arctic Ocean Transports and Budgets

12.7. Sea Ice in the Arctic

12.8. Climate Variations and the Arctic

Chapter 13. Southern Ocean

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Forcing

13.3. Southern Ocean Fronts and Zones

13.4. Southern Ocean Circulation and Transports

13.5. Southern Ocean Water Masses

13.6. Eddies in the Southern Ocean

13.7. Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean

13.8. Climate Variability in the Southern Ocean

Chapter 14. Global Circulation and Water Properties

14.1. Global Circulation

14.2. Global Mass Transports and Overturning Circulation

14.3. Heat and Freshwater Transports and Ocean Circulation

14.4. Global Property Distributions

14.5. Eddy Variability and Diffusivity

14.6. Climate and the Global Ocean

Chapter S1. Brief History of Physical Oceanography

S1.1. Scientists on Ships

S1.2. Organized Expeditions Prior to the Twentieth Century

S1.3. Scandinavian Contributions and the Dynamic Method

S1.4. The Meteor Expedition

S1.5. World War II and Mid-Twentieth Century Physical Oceanography

S1.6. A Brief History of Numerical Modeling in Physical Oceanography

Chapter S4. Typical Distributions of Water Characteristics

Chapter S5. Mass, Salt, and Heat Budgets and Wind Forcing

Chapter S6. Data Analysis Concepts and Observational Methods

Chapter S7. Dynamical Processes for Descriptive Ocean Circulation

7.1. Introduction: Mechanisms

7.2. Momentum Balance

7.3. Temperature, Salinity, and Density Evolution

7.4. Mixing Layers

7.5. Response to Wind Forcing

7.6. Geostrophic Balance

7.7. Vorticity, Potential Vorticity, Rossby and Kelvin Waves, and Instabilities

7.8. Wind-Driven Circulation: Sverdrup Balance and Western Boundary Currents

7.9. Wind-Driven Circulation: Eastern Boundary Currents and Equatorial Circulation

7.10. Buoyancy (Thermohaline) Forcing and Abyssal Circulation

Chapter S8. Gravity Waves, Tides, and Coastal Oceanography

S8.7. Water Properties in Coastal Regions: River Runoff

S8.8. Estuaries

S8.9. Coral Reefs

S8.10. Adjacent Seas

Chapter S9. Atlantic Ocean

Chapter S10. Pacific Ocean

Chapter S11. Indian Ocean: Supplementary Materials

Chapter S12. The Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas

Chapter S13. Southern Ocean

Chapter S14. Global Circulation and Water Properties

Chapter S15. Climate and the Oceans

S15.1. Introduction

S15.2. Climate and the Atlantic Ocean

S15.3. Climate and the Pacific Ocean

S15.4. Climate and the Indian Ocean

S15.5. Climate and the Arctic Ocean

S15.6. Climate and the Southern Ocean

S15.7. Global Ocean Climate Change

Chapter S16. Instruments and Methods

S16.1. The Impact of Space and Timescales on Sampling and Instrumentation

S16.2. Platforms

S16.3. Depth and Pressure Measurements

S16.4. Water Property Measurements (Temperature, Salinity, Density, and Tracers)

S16.5. Current Measurements

S16.6. Acoustic Methods for Observing Changes in Temperature or Density

S16.7. Sea-Level Measurement

S16.8. Radiation and Optical Measurements

S16.9. Satellites

s16.10. Data Archives and Data Centers

References

Color Plates

Index

Added Refs from Supplemental Material

Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080939117
Hardcover ISBN:
9780750645522

About the Author

Lynne Talley

Lynne Talley is a Professor of Oceanography at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California San Diego. Lynne is a seagoing oceanographer with research interests in the water mass distributions and circulation of the world ocean. She is a graduate of Oberlin College (B.A. in physics) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program (Ph.D. in physical oceanography). She has been an editor of the Journal of Physical Oceanography and has served on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4 and AR5), many committees of the National Academy of Sciences, and planning and steering committees for major field programs, including the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) of the 1990s and the U.S. Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society, and the American Meteorological Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, CA, USA

Reviews

"This book and ancillary web-based appendices are a valuable reference for the modern-day seabird ecologist, providing a wealth of baseline information and serving as a language guide for describing physical oceanography…I highly recommend this updated classic text on descriptive physical oceanography."--Marine Ornithology Volume 40, No. 1, 2012