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2 DEPOSITION PROCESSES AND COATING STRUCTURES 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Gaseous state processes 2.2.1 General 2.2.2 Chemical vapour deposition 2.2.3 Physical vapour deposition 2.2.4 Ion- and laser-beam assisted deposition and surface treatment 2.3 Solution state processes 2.3.1 Chemical solution deposition 2.3.2 Electrochemical deposition 2.3.3 Sol gel processing 2.3.4 Plasma electrolysis 2.4 Molten and semi-molten state processes 2.4.1 Laser surface treatments 2.4.2 Thermal spraying 2.4.3 Welding 2.4.4 Other developments 2.5 Surface hardening treatments 2.6 Process effects on coating structures 2.6.1 Morphological growth structures 2.6.2 Composite structures
3 TRIBOLOGY OF COATINGS 3.1 Friction, wear and lubrication 3.1.1 General 3.1.2 Surface characteristics 3.1.3 Friction 3.1.4 Wear 3.1.5 Lubrication 3.2 Surface stresses and response to loading 3.2.1 Response of materials to loading 3.2.2 Material parameters E, óY, H, G and Kc 3.2.3 Analytical solutions of contact stresses and deformations at surfaces of solid materials 3.2.4 Criteria for plastic yield 3.2.5 Criteria for material fracture 3.2.6 Analytical solutions of stresses and deformations in normally loaded coated surfaces 3.2.7 Analytical solutions of stresses and deformations in normally and tangentially loaded coated surfaces 3.2.8 Finite element method modelling and simulation of stresses and deformations 3.2.9 Influence of surface roughness 3.2.10 Residual stresses 3.2.11 Influence of interface cracks 3.3 Surface fracture and wear products 3.3.1 Crack nucleation 3.3.2 Surface crack propagation 3.3.3 Crack growth in coated surfaces 3.3.4 Toughness and fracture toughness in coated surfaces 3.3.5 Crack patterns 3.3.6 Coating to substrate adhesion 3.3.7 Debris generation and particle agglomeration 3.3.8 Transfer layers 3.3.9 Tribochemical reaction layers 3.4 Tribological mechanisms of coated surfaces 3.4.1 Scales of tribology 3.4.2 Macromechanical friction mechanisms 3.4.3 Macromechanical wear mechanisms 3.4.4 Micromechanical tribological mechanisms 3.4.5 Tribochemical mechanisms 3.4.6 Nanophysical tribological mechanisms 3.4.7 Lubricated coated contacts
4 TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF COATINGS 4.1 General 4.2 Soft coatings 4.2.1 Polymer coatings 4.2.2 Soft metal coatings 4.3 Lamellar coatings 4.3.1 Properties of molybdenum disulphide 4.3.2 Burnished and bonded molybdenum disulphide coatings 4.3.3 PVD deposited molybdenum disulphide coatings 4.4 Hard ceramic coatings 4.4.1 Titanium nitride 4.4.2 Other nitride coatings 4.4.3 Carbide coatings 4.4.4 Oxide coatings 4.4.5 Boride coatings 4.5 Carbon and carbon based coatings 4.5.1 Diamond as a coating material 4.5.2 Diamond coatings 4.5.3 Diamond-like carbon coatings 4.6 Combined coatings 4.6.1 Multicomponent coatings 4.6.2 Nanocomposite coatings 4.6.3 Multilayer coatings 4.6.4 Duplex treatments 4.6.5 Adaptive coatings
5 COATING CHARACTERISATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 5.1 The requirements 5.2 Coating characterisation 5.2.1 The surface 5.2.2 Thickness 5.2.3 Adhesion 5.2.4 Morphology 5.2.5 Composition 5.2.6 Wettability 5.2.7 Residual stresses 5.3 Property characterisation and evaluation 5.3.1 Roughness 5.3.2 Thickness 5.3.3 Mechanical evaluation 5.3.4 Physico-chemical evaluation 5.3.5 Tribological evaluation 5.3.5 Accelerated testing 5.3.7 Industrial field testing 5.3.8 Standardisation
6 COATING SELECTION 6.1 Problems of selection 6.2 Traditional approaches 6.3 A method for coating selection 6.4 Selection rules 6.5 Design gudelines 6.6 Expert systems 6.7Closing knowledge gaps
7 APPLICATIONS 7.1 General 7.2 Sliding bearings 7.2.1 Description of the application 7.2.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.3 Rolling-contact bearings 7.3.1 Description of the application 7.3.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.4 Gears 7.4.1 Description of the application 7.4.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.5 Tools for cutting 7.5.1 Description of the application 7.5.2 Tool wear 7.5.3 Improvements by surface coatings 7.5.4 Cutting test results 7.6 Tools for forming 7.6.1 Description of the application 7.6.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.7 Erosion and scratch resistant coatings 7.7.1 Description of the application 7.7.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.8 Oscillating contacts 7.8.1 Description of the application 7.8.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.9 Magnetic recording devices 7.9.1 Description of the application 7.9.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.10 Microcomponents 7.10.1 Description of the application 7.10.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.11 Biomedical applications 7.11.1 Description of the application 7.11.2 Improvements by surface coatings 7.12 Future issues
The surface coating field is a rapidly developing area of science and technology that offers new methods and techniques to control friction and wear. New coating types are continually being developed and the potential applications in different industrial fields are ever growing, ranging from machine components and consumer products to medical instruments and prostheses.
This book provides an extensive review of the latest technology in the field, addressing techniques such as physical and chemical vapour deposition, the tribological properties of coatings, and coating characterization and performance evaluation techniques. Eleven different cases are examined in close detail to demonstrate the improvement of tribological properties and a guide to selecting coatings is also provided.
This second edition is still the only monograph in the field to give a holistic view of the subject and presents all aspects, including test and performance data as well as insights into mechanisms and interactions, thus providing the level of understanding vital for the practical application of coatings.
- An extensive review of the latest developments in the field of surface coatings
- Presents both theory and practical applications
- Includes a guide for selecting coatings
Materials science and engineering students, teachers and research scientists at universities and institutes worldwide. Engineers and scientists in industry involved in developing coating deposition techniques, surface design, material consultation, machine design, material and construction-related engineering. Those involved in technology strategy planning, business development, etc.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 2009
- 18th March 2009
- Elsevier Science
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
VTT Industrial Systems, Finland
University of Sheffield, UK