Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857096838, 9780857096913

Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber

1st Edition

Editors: Shinzo Kohjiya Yuko Ikeda
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096838
eBook ISBN: 9780857096913
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 6th February 2014
Page Count: 528
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Introduction

Introduction to the unique qualities of natural rubber

The history of natural rubber

Types of rubber tree

Future trends

References

Part I: Properties and processing of natural rubber

1. Biosynthesis of natural rubber (NR) in different rubber-producing species

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Rubber biosynthesis

1.3 Rubber particles and rubber biosynthesis

1.4 Kinetic analyses of rubber transferase

1.5 Regulation of biosynthetic rate

1.6 Regulation of molecular weight

1.7 Identification and purification of rubber transferase

1.8 Conclusions

1.9 Acknowledgments

1.10 References

2. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Background on natural rubber (NR)

2.3 Synthetic polyisoprenes (PIPs)

2.4 Biosynthesis of NR

2.5 In vitro biosynthesis of NR

2.6 NR in health care

2.7 Future trends

2.8 Acknowledgments

2.9 References and further reading

3. Chemical modification of natural rubber (NR) for improved performance

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction: The role of chemical modification in creating high-performance natural rubber (NR)

3.2 The main types of chemical modification of NR

3.3 Chemical modification by changing the structure or weight of rubber molecules

3.4 Chemical modification of the carbon–carbon double bond

3.5 Chemical modification by grafting molecules of a different polymer type

3.6 Conclusions: Key issues in improving the properties of NR

3.7 Future trends

3.8 Sources of further information and advice

3.9 References

4. Understanding network control by vulcanization for sulfur cross-linked natural rubber (NR)

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction: The importance of sulfur cross-linking of rubber

4.2 Using small-angle neutron scattering to analyze the network structure of sulfur cross-linked cis- 1,4- polyisoprene

4.3 Network control in sulfur cross-linked cis- 1,4- polyisoprene

4.4 Effect of network structure on strain-induced crystallization of sulfur cross-linked cis-1,4- polyisoprene

4.5 Future trends: Key issues in improving the properties of natural rubber (NR)

4.6 Acknowledgments

4.7 References

5. The effect of strain-induced crystallization (SIC) on the physical properties of natural rubber (NR)

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Temperature-induced crystallization (TIC) and strain-induced crystallization (SIC)

5.3 Stress relaxation and SIC

5.4 Stress–strain relation and SIC

5.5 Tear resistance and SIC

5.6 Green strength and SIC

5.7 Conclusions

5.8 Acknowledgment

5.9 References

6. Generating particulate silica fillers in situ to improve the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR)

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction: Silica as a filler for rubber

6.2 Particulate silica generated in situ

6.3 Recent processes for adding filler to rubber

6.4 Applications of in situ silica

6.5 Conclusions: Key issues in improving the properties of natural rubber (NR)

6.6 Future trends

6.7 Acknowledgments

6.8 References

7. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber (NR): structure and properties

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction: Silica reinforcement of natural rubber (NR)

7.2 Testing hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica fillers: sample preparation

7.3 Methods for analyzing silica filler behavior in cross-linked NR matrix

7.4 Understanding the behavior of hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica fillers in cross-linked NR matrix

7.5 Comparing hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked NR

7.6 Conclusions

7.7 Future trends

7.8 Acknowledgments

7.9 References

8. Computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber (NR)

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Simulation methods for cold mastication of natural rubber (NR)

8.3 Simulation methods for vulcanization of NR

8.4 Summary

8.5 Future trends

8.6 Sources of further information and advice

8.7 Acknowledgement

8.8 References

8.9 Appendix: Basic concept of cascade theory

Part II: Applications of natural rubber

9. Eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber (NR) matrices and natural fiber reinforcements

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The importance of eco-friendly bio-composites from natural rubber (NR)

9.3 Natural fiber reinforcement materials for NR bio-composites

9.4 Factors influencing the effectiveness of fiber reinforcement

9.5 Methods to improve the properties of NR biocomposites

9.6 Physical properties of NR bio-composites

9.7 Processing of NR bio-composites

9.8 Applications of NR-based bio-composites with NR reinforcements

9.9 Future trends

9.10 Sources of further information and advice

9.11 References

10. Natural rubber (NR) composites using cellulosic fiber reinforcements

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction: The importance of natural rubber (NR)/cellulose composites

10.2 NR/cellulose composites

10.3 NR/natural cellulose nanocomposites

10.4 NR/regenerated cellulose nanocomposites

10.5 Applications

10.6 Future trends

10.7 References

11. Soft bio-composites from natural rubber (NR) and marine products

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Processes and materials for developing natural rubber (NR) composites

11.3 Effects of marine product fillers on rubber composites

11.4 Conclusion

11.5 Future trends

11.6 Sources of further information and advice

11.7 References

12. Natural rubber (NR) for the tyre industry

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Tyre types, manufacture and requirements

12.3 Natural rubber (NR) properties required in tyre manufacture

12.4 NR properties required in tyre products

12.5 Examples of NR use in demanding tyre applications

12.6 Quality standards for NR as a raw material

12.7 Future trends

12.8 References

13. Application of epoxidized natural rubber (NR) in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs)

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs)

13.2 Processing of natural rubber (NR) and NR-based PSAs

13.3 Assessing the performance of a PSA

13.4 The use of epoxidized NR as an adhesive

13.5 Effect of coating thickness

13.6 Effect of tackifier and filler

13.7 Effect of molecular weight

13.8 Effect of testing rate

13.9 Other factors affecting performance

13.10 Future trends

13.11 Sources of further information and advice

13.12 References

14. Use of natural rubber (NR) for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 The concept of vibration isolation and earthquake protection

14.3 Vibration isolation and earthquake protection systems

14.4 Characteristics of natural rubber (NR) for vibration isolation and earthquake protection

14.5 Conclusion

14.6 References

Part III: Environmental and safety issues

15. Improving the sustainable development of natural rubber (NR)

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Supply and demand of natural rubber (NR) in the twenty-first century

15.3 Biodiversity

15.4 Applications of state-of-the-art biotechnology

15.5 Biosafety

15.6 Conclusion and future trends

15.7 References

16. Recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Approaches to the reuse and recycling of natural rubber (NR)

16.3 Reuse of NR

16.4 Recycling of NR

16.5 Recycling of synthetic isoprene rubber

16.6 Future trends

16.7 Conclusions

16.8 Acknowledgements

16.9 References

17. Recycling of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber (NR) using supercritical carbon dioxide

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction: Key problems in recycling sulfur cross-linked natural rubber (NR)

17.2 Advantages of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) for the devulcanization of sulfur cross-linked rubber

17.3 Devulcanization of sulfur cross-linked NR in scCO2

17.4 Devulcanization of carbon black-filled sulfur cross-linked NR

17.5 Devulcanization of an NR-based truck tire vulcanizate

17.6 The role of scCO2 in the devulcanization of sulfur cross-linked rubber

17.7 Conclusion: Key issues in ensuring effective recycling of sulfur cross-linked NR

17.8 Future trends

17.9 Acknowledgements

17.10 References

18. Recent research on natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction: The problem of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy

18.2 Medical background to NRL allergy

18.3 Mechanisms of development and clinical presentation of NRL allergy

18.4 Recent trends in the prevalence of NRL allergy

18.5 Key issues in reducing NRL allergy

18.6 Future trends

18.7 Conclusion

18.8 Sources of further information and advice

18.9 References

18.10 Appendix: Abbreviations

Index


Description

The growing demand for more sustainable materials has led to increased research on the properties of natural rubber. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber summarizes this research and its significance for the industrial applications of natural rubber.

Chapters in part one explore the properties and processing of natural rubber, including the biosynthesis of natural rubber in different rubber-producing species, chemical modification of natural rubber for improved performance, and the effect of strain-induced crystallization on the physical properties of natural rubber. Further chapters highlight hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber and computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber. Part two focusses on applications of natural rubber, including eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber matrices and reinforcements, soft bio-composites from natural rubber and marine products, natural rubber for the tire industry, the application of epoxidized natural rubber in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), and the use of natural rubber for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures. Finally, chapters in part three consider environmental and safety issues associated with natural rubber, including improving the sustainable development of natural rubber, the recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers and of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber, and recent research on natural rubber latex allergy.

Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber is a comprehensive resource for academics, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the rubber industry, as well as those industries, including automotive, civil, and medical engineering, using natural rubber products.

Key Features

  • An updated review with systematic and comprehensive coverage of natural rubbers
  • Covers a broad range of topics, including the chemistry, processing, sustainability, and applications of natural rubbers
  • Coverage of the best international research, including key experts from Asia, the United States, South America, and Europe

Readership

Rubber researchers in academics and companies; Professional in tire, rubber, and elastomers industries; Natural rubber producers; Policymakers and experts of natural rubber producing countries; Natural rubber researchers; Chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals/practitioners in the rubber industry and other industries using natural rubber products


Details

No. of pages:
528
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857096913
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857096838

About the Editors

Shinzo Kohjiya Editor

Shinzo Kohjiya is a Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University, Japan.

Yuko Ikeda Editor

Yuko Ikeda is an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan