Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber

Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber

1st Edition - February 6, 2014

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  • Editors: Shinzo Kohjiya, Yuko Ikeda
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096838
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096913

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Description

The growing demand for more sustainable materials has led to increased research on the properties of natural rubber. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber summarizes this research and its significance for the industrial applications of natural rubber. Chapters in part one explore the properties and processing of natural rubber, including the biosynthesis of natural rubber in different rubber-producing species, chemical modification of natural rubber for improved performance, and the effect of strain-induced crystallization on the physical properties of natural rubber. Further chapters highlight hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber and computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber. Part two focusses on applications of natural rubber, including eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber matrices and reinforcements, soft bio-composites from natural rubber and marine products, natural rubber for the tire industry, the application of epoxidized natural rubber in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), and the use of natural rubber for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures. Finally, chapters in part three consider environmental and safety issues associated with natural rubber, including improving the sustainable development of natural rubber, the recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers and of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber, and recent research on natural rubber latex allergy. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber is a comprehensive resource for academics, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the rubber industry, as well as those industries, including automotive, civil, and medical engineering, using natural rubber products.

Key Features

  • An updated review with systematic and comprehensive coverage of natural rubbers
  • Covers a broad range of topics, including the chemistry, processing, sustainability, and applications of natural rubbers
  • Coverage of the best international research, including key experts from Asia, the United States, South America, and Europe

Readership

Rubber researchers in academics and companies; Professional in tire, rubber, and elastomers industries; Natural rubber producers; Policymakers and experts of natural rubber producing countries; Natural rubber researchers; Chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals/practitioners in the rubber industry and other industries using natural rubber products

Table of Contents

  • Part I: Properties and processing of natural rubber
    1. Biosynthesis of natural rubber (NR) in different rubber-producing species
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Rubber biosynthesis
    1.3 Rubber particles and rubber biosynthesis
    1.4 Kinetic analyses of rubber transferase
    1.5 Regulation of biosynthetic rate
    1.6 Regulation of molecular weight
    1.7 Identification and purification of rubber transferase
    1.8 Conclusions
    1.9 Acknowledgments
    1.10 References

    2. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Background on natural rubber (NR)
    2.3 Synthetic polyisoprenes (PIPs)
    2.4 Biosynthesis of NR
    2.5 In vitro biosynthesis of NR
    2.6 NR in health care
    2.7 Future trends
    2.8 Acknowledgments
    2.9 References and further reading

    3. Chemical modification of natural rubber (NR) for improved performance
    3.1 Introduction: The role of chemical modification in creating high-performance natural rubber (NR)
    3.2 The main types of chemical modification of NR
    3.3 Chemical modification by changing the structure or weight of rubber molecules
    3.4 Chemical modification of the carbon–carbon double bond
    3.5 Chemical modification by grafting molecules of a different polymer type
    3.6 Conclusions: Key issues in improving the properties of NR
    3.7 Future trends
    3.8 Sources of further information and advice
    3.9 References

    4. Understanding network control by vulcanization for sulfur cross-linked natural rubber (NR)
    4.1 Introduction: The importance of sulfur cross-linking of rubber
    4.2 Using small-angle neutron scattering to analyze the network structure of sulfur cross-linked cis- 1,4- polyisoprene
    4.3 Network control in sulfur cross-linked cis- 1,4- polyisoprene
    4.4 Effect of network structure on strain-induced crystallization of sulfur cross-linked cis-1,4- polyisoprene
    4.5 Future trends: Key issues in improving the properties of natural rubber (NR)
    4.6 Acknowledgments
    4.7 References

    5. The effect of strain-induced crystallization (SIC) on the physical properties of natural rubber (NR)
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Temperature-induced crystallization (TIC) and strain-induced crystallization (SIC)
    5.3 Stress relaxation and SIC
    5.4 Stress–strain relation and SIC
    5.5 Tear resistance and SIC
    5.6 Green strength and SIC
    5.7 Conclusions
    5.8 Acknowledgment
    5.9 References

    6. Generating particulate silica fillers in situ to improve the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR)
    6.1 Introduction: Silica as a filler for rubber
    6.2 Particulate silica generated in situ
    6.3 Recent processes for adding filler to rubber
    6.4 Applications of in situ silica
    6.5 Conclusions: Key issues in improving the properties of natural rubber (NR)
    6.6 Future trends
    6.7 Acknowledgments
    6.8 References

    7. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber (NR): structure and properties
    7.1 Introduction: Silica reinforcement of natural rubber (NR)
    7.2 Testing hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica fillers: sample preparation
    7.3 Methods for analyzing silica filler behavior in cross-linked NR matrix
    7.4 Understanding the behavior of hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica fillers in cross-linked NR matrix
    7.5 Comparing hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked NR
    7.6 Conclusions
    7.7 Future trends
    7.8 Acknowledgments
    7.9 References

    8. Computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber (NR)
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Simulation methods for cold mastication of natural rubber (NR)
    8.3 Simulation methods for vulcanization of NR
    8.4 Summary
    8.5 Future trends
    8.6 Sources of further information and advice
    8.7 Acknowledgement
    8.8 References
    8.9 Appendix: Basic concept of cascade theory

    Part II: Applications of natural rubber
    9. Eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber (NR) matrices and natural fiber reinforcements
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 The importance of eco-friendly bio-composites from natural rubber (NR)
    9.3 Natural fiber reinforcement materials for NR bio-composites
    9.4 Factors influencing the effectiveness of fiber reinforcement
    9.5 Methods to improve the properties of NR biocomposites
    9.6 Physical properties of NR bio-composites
    9.7 Processing of NR bio-composites
    9.8 Applications of NR-based bio-composites with NR reinforcements
    9.9 Future trends
    9.10 Sources of further information and advice
    9.11 References

    10. Natural rubber (NR) composites using cellulosic fiber reinforcements
    10.1 Introduction: The importance of natural rubber (NR)/cellulose composites
    10.2 NR/cellulose composites
    10.3 NR/natural cellulose nanocomposites
    10.4 NR/regenerated cellulose nanocomposites
    10.5 Applications
    10.6 Future trends
    10.7 References

    11. Soft bio-composites from natural rubber (NR) and marine products
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Processes and materials for developing natural rubber (NR) composites
    11.3 Effects of marine product fillers on rubber composites
    11.4 Conclusion
    11.5 Future trends
    11.6 Sources of further information and advice
    11.7 References

    12. Natural rubber (NR) for the tyre industry
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Tyre types, manufacture and requirements
    12.3 Natural rubber (NR) properties required in tyre manufacture
    12.4 NR properties required in tyre products
    12.5 Examples of NR use in demanding tyre applications
    12.6 Quality standards for NR as a raw material
    12.7 Future trends
    12.8 References

    13. Application of epoxidized natural rubber (NR) in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs)
    13.1 Introduction to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs)
    13.2 Processing of natural rubber (NR) and NR-based PSAs
    13.3 Assessing the performance of a PSA
    13.4 The use of epoxidized NR as an adhesive
    13.5 Effect of coating thickness
    13.6 Effect of tackifier and filler
    13.7 Effect of molecular weight
    13.8 Effect of testing rate
    13.9 Other factors affecting performance
    13.10 Future trends
    13.11 Sources of further information and advice
    13.12 References

    14. Use of natural rubber (NR) for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 The concept of vibration isolation and earthquake protection
    14.3 Vibration isolation and earthquake protection systems
    14.4 Characteristics of natural rubber (NR) for vibration isolation and earthquake protection
    14.5 Conclusion
    14.6 References

    Part III: Environmental and safety issues
    15. Improving the sustainable development of natural rubber (NR)
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Supply and demand of natural rubber (NR) in the twenty-first century
    15.3 Biodiversity
    15.4 Applications of state-of-the-art biotechnology
    15.5 Biosafety
    15.6 Conclusion and future trends
    15.7 References

    16. Recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Approaches to the reuse and recycling of natural rubber (NR)
    16.3 Reuse of NR
    16.4 Recycling of NR
    16.5 Recycling of synthetic isoprene rubber
    16.6 Future trends
    16.7 Conclusions
    16.8 Acknowledgements
    16.9 References

    17. Recycling of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber (NR) using supercritical carbon dioxide
    17.1 Introduction: Key problems in recycling sulfur cross-linked natural rubber (NR)
    17.2 Advantages of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) for the devulcanization of sulfur cross-linked rubber
    17.3 Devulcanization of sulfur cross-linked NR in scCO2
    17.4 Devulcanization of carbon black-filled sulfur cross-linked NR
    17.5 Devulcanization of an NR-based truck tire vulcanizate
    17.6 The role of scCO2 in the devulcanization of sulfur cross-linked rubber
    17.7 Conclusion: Key issues in ensuring effective recycling of sulfur cross-linked NR
    17.8 Future trends
    17.9 Acknowledgements
    17.10 References

    18. Recent research on natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy
    18.1 Introduction: The problem of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy
    18.2 Medical background to NRL allergy
    18.3 Mechanisms of development and clinical presentation of NRL allergy
    18.4 Recent trends in the prevalence of NRL allergy
    18.5 Key issues in reducing NRL allergy
    18.6 Future trends
    18.7 Conclusion
    18.8 Sources of further information and advice
    18.9 References
    18.10 Appendix: Abbreviations

Product details

  • No. of pages: 528
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: February 6, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096838
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096913

About the Editors

Shinzo Kohjiya

Shinzo Kohjiya is a Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University, Japan

Yuko Ikeda

Yuko Ikeda is an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan

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