Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123749840, 9780080961569

Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics

2nd Edition

Editors: Sydney Brenner Jeffrey Miller
eBook ISBN: 9780080961569
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123749840
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th February 2013
Page Count: 4368
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Institutional Access


Description

The explosion of the field of genetics over the last decade, with the new technologies that have stimulated research, suggests that a new sort of reference work is needed to keep pace with such a fast-moving and interdisciplinary field.  Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics, Second Edition, builds on the foundation of the first edition by addressing many of the key subfields of genetics that were just in their infancy when the first edition was published. The currency and accessibility of this foundational content will be unrivalled, making this work useful for scientists and non-scientists alike. 

Featuring relatively short entries on genetics topics written by experts in that topic, Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics provides an effective way to quickly learn about any aspect of genetics, from Abortive Transduction to Zygotes. Adding to its utility, the work provides short entries that briefly define key terms, and a guide to additional reading and relevant websites for further study. Many of the entries include figures to explain difficult concepts. Key terms in related areas such as biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology are also included, and there are entries that describe historical figures in genetics, providing insights into their careers and discoveries.

Key Features

  • This 7-volume set represents a 25% expansion from the first edition, with over 1600 articles encompassing this burgeoning field.
  • Thoroughly up-to-date, with many new topics and subfields covered that were in their infancy or not inexistence at the time of the first edition.  Timely coverage of emergent areas such as epigenetics, personalized genomic medicine, pharmacogenetics, and genetic enhancement technologies
  • Interdisciplinary and global in its outlook, as befits the field of genetics
  • Brief articles, written by experts in the field, which not only discuss, define, and explain key elements of the field, but also provide definition of key terms, suggestions for further reading, and biographical sketches of the key people in the history of genetics.

Readership

Intended for university libraries, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, instructors, and clinicians in genetics, genomics, molecular biology, biotechnology, systems biology, structural biology, evolutionary biology, microbiology, and related life science areas. It is likely to be of interest to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and government and private consulting agencies in related fields.

Table of Contents

Editors-in-Chief

Section Editors

Preface

Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2nd Edition

Permission Acknowledgments

A

Abortive Transduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Acentric Fragment

See also

Achondroplasia

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Acridines

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Acrocentric Chromosome

See also

Acrosome

See also

Active Site

See also

Adaptive Landscapes

Overview

Adaptive Landscapes as Described by Wright

Evolution on Rugged Adaptive Landscapes

Allele Frequency Landscapes

Maynard Smith’s (Protein) Sequence Space

Phenotypic Landscapes

Do Fitness Valleys Matter?

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Adaptive Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Adaptor Hypothesis

See also

Additive Genetic Variance

Variation and Its Components

Definition of the Additive Genetic Variance

The Correlation between Relatives

Evolutionary Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Adenine

See also

Adenocarcinomas

Introduction

Breast Adenocarcinoma

Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Adenoma

See also

Further Reading

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli

Introduction

Molecular Organization

Homologs

Function

Pathology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Adenosine Phosphates

See also

Adenoviruses

Introduction

Replication Cycle

Oncogenic Transformation

Adenovirus Transducing Vectors (Gene Therapy)

Adenovirus Genomics and Bioinformatics

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Adjacent/Alternate Disjunction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Advanced Glycation End-Products

End-Product Inhibition

Inhibitors of AGE Formation

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Advanced Intercross Lines

Introduction

Producing the AIL: The F2 Generation

Producing an AIL: The F3 and Subsequent Generations

Accumulation of Recombination Breakpoints in the AIL

Mapping Accuracy in an AIL

Variation in Allele Frequency and Recombination in AIL

The Phenotyped Population

Modified AIL Designs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Aflatoxins

Background

Introduction

Natural Occurrence

Favorable Environmental Conditions

Analysis Techniques for AF Determination in Food and Food Products

Toxicity of AFs

Regulations on AFs

Reduction Techniques

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Aging, Genetics of

Introduction

Evolutionary Origins of Aging

Molecular Mechanisms of Aging

Aging in Model Genetic Systems

Modulation of Aging by Nutrient Response Pathways

Human Aging

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Agouti

See also

Agrobacterium

General Properties of Agrobacteria

Agrobacterium as Phytopathogen

Agrobacterium as Genetic Engineering Tool

Agrobacterium as Experimental System for Fundamental Cell Biology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Agrobacterium and Ti Plasmids

Introduction

General Properties of Agrobacteria

Agrobacterium Ti Plasmid As Gene Vector for Plant Genetic Engineering

Agrobacterium Basic Research

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Alanine

See also

Albinism

Characteristics and History

Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alcoholism

Clinical Findings

Findings from Animal Models

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alignment Problem

Sequences

Alignment Is Important

Alignment Parameters

Alignment Methods

See also

References

Alkaptonuria

Introduction

HGD Gene

Metabolic Consequences of HGD Deficiency

Ochronosis

Clinical Manifestations

Therapy

Misdiagnosis of AKU

Animal Models

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alkyltransferases

See also

Allele Frequency

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alleles

See also

Further Reading

Allele Specificity

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Allelic Exclusion

See also

Allopatric

See also

Allostery

Introduction

Origins

Specific Examples

See also

Further Reading

Allotypes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

Introduction

Gene, Protein, and Mutations

Pulmonary Disease

Pulmonary Disease in Heterozygotes

Liver Disease

Therapy

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Alpha-Complementation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Alpha-Fetoprotein

History

Gene Structure and Regulation

Protein Structure and Function

Clinical Significance

Future Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alternation of Gene Expression

Introduction

Site-Specific Inversion and Alternation of Gene Expression

Reversible Insertion of IS Elements and Phase Variation of Gene Expression

Slipped-Strand Mispairing and Phase Variation of Gene Expression

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Alternative Splicing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Amber Codon

See also

Glossary

Amber Mutation

See also

Amber Suppressors

See also

Further Reading

Ames, Bruce

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ames Test

Principle of the Test and Bacterial Strains Used

Specific Techniques: Plate Incorporation versus Preincubation Assay; Standard Ames versus Ames II

Photomutagenicity

The Metabolizing System: Rat Liver S9 Mix

Interpretation of Ames Test Data: Guidelines

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Amino Acids

Introduction

Sources and Uses of Amino Acids

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Amino Acid Substitution

See also

Amino Terminus

See also

Aminoacyl-tRNA

See also

Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

See also

Aminopterin

See also

Glossary

Amniocentesis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Anagenesis

See also

References

Analogy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Anchor Locus

See also

Anchorage-Independent Growth

Introduction

Mesenchymal Cells

Epithelial Cells

Development, Cancer, and the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

Extracellular Matrix

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Androgenone

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Aneuploidy

Introduction

Causes and Consequences of Aneuploidy

Mosaicism

Somatic Aneuploidy and Multiple Outcomes

Partial Aneuploidy Reveals Critical Genes in Normal Development and Physiology

Proteins and Protein Complexes That Assure Proper Segregation of Chromosomes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Angiogenesis

Introduction

Tumor Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis Inhibitors

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Annealing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Anonymous Locus

See also

Antibiotic Resistance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Antibiotic-Resistance Mutants

Coumarins

Erythromycin

Fusidic Acid

Kasugamycin

Kirromycin

Quinolones

Rifampicin

Streptomycin

See also

Glossary

Antibody

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Anticodons

Transfer RNA

Code, Codons, and Codon Usage

The Anticodons

Fidelity

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Antigen

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Antigenic Variation

Introduction

Horizontal Sequence Transfer: Capsule Antigenic Variation in Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gene Conversion: Pilin Antigenic Variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Epigenetic Regulation of Transcription: Variant Surface Glycoprotein Coat Antigenic Variation in Trypanosomes

Random Mutation and Reassortment of Chromosome Segments: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift in Influenza Viruses

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Antimutator

See also

Anti-Oncogenes

Introduction

Two-Hit Model

Human Genome Project and Disease Gene Identification

Epigenetic Inactivation

Tumor Suppressor Pathway Discovery Using Animal Models

Protein Products

Clinical Implications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Antiparallel

See also

Antisense DNA in Eukaryotes

Mode of Action of AS ONs

Modification of AS ONs

Delivery

Applications of AS ONs

RNA Interference Rivals Antisense Approaches

Clinical Trials

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Antisense RNA

Introduction

Bacterial Antisense RNAs

Eukaryotic Antisense RNAs

RNA-Encoded Antisense RNAs

Trans-Acting RNAs

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Antitermination Factors

Two Classes of Antitermination Mechanisms

Antitermination at a Single Site

Antitermination over Long Distances

Bacteriophage Antiterminators

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Antitermination Proteins

See also

AP Endonucleases

See also

Apomorphy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Apoptosis

Introduction

The Extrinsic Pathway

The Intrinsic Pathway

ER-Stimulated Apoptosis

Proteins That Inhibit Apoptosis

Autophagy

Overlap or Antagonism? Coordinate Roles for Apoptosis and Autophagy

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Aporepressors

See also

Arabidopsis thaliana: Molecular Systematics and Evolution

See also

Arabidopsis thaliana: The Premier Model Plant

Arabidopsis: A Useful Model Species for Plant Genetics

A Brief History of Arabidopsis Genetics

Arabidopsis: Incremental Assembly of a Highly Resolved Map of the Genome

The DNA Sequence-Based Map of the Arabidopsis Genome

Genome Sequencing: The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative

Arabidopsis and Plant Biology: Genome-Enabled Research

Arabidopsis and Linkages to the Applied Sciences

Useful Genes from Population Genetics

Continued Importance of Arabidopsis Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Arabinose

See also

Arachnodactyly

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Arber, Werner

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Archaea

The Cryptic Diversity of Prokaryotic Organisms

The Biological Diversity of Archaea

Genomes of Archaea

Gene Expression

Natural Genetic Variation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Archaeal Flagella

Introduction

Distribution

Functions

Structure

Archaeal Flagella: Relationships to Bacterial Type IV Pili, Not Bacterial Flagella

Genetic Loci Involved in Archaeal Flagella Biosynthesis

Signal Peptide Removal

N-Linked Glycosylation of Flagellins

Model for Assembly of Archaeal Flagella

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Archaeal Genetics

Introduction

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Arginine

See also

Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Introduction: Copy-Number Variation

aCGH Methodology

Applications of CGH

Limitations

Perspectives and Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Artificial Chromosomes, Yeast

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Artificial Selection

Expected Response to Selection

Changes in Gene Frequency

Long-Term Response

Changes in Correlated Traits

Selection Experiments

Examples

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ascobolus

Introduction

Biology

See also

References

Ascobolus immersus

See also

Further Reading

Ascus

See also

Asilomar Conference

Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules

See also

Further Reading

ASO (Allele-Specific Oligonucleotide)

See also

Asparagine

See also

Aspartic Acid

See also

Aspergillus nidulans

History

Growth and Reproduction

Genetic System

Genetic Resources

Research Areas

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Assortative Mating

See also

References

Assortment

See also

Ataxia Telangiectasia

Introduction

Features of Classical A-T

ATM Protein

ATM Mutations and Phenotypic Variation in A-T Patients

A-T-Like Disorder Caused by Mutation in the MRE11 Gene

Comparison with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome

Malignant Disease in A-T Patients

Cancer Risks of ATM Mutation Carriers in A-T Families

ATM Mutation in Sporadic Tumors

Other A-T-Like Neurological Disorders: Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 1 and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

See also

att Sites

See also

Attached X and Other Compound Chromosomes

Introduction

Viability Considerations

Meiotic Segregation in Compound-Bearing Flies

Construction of Compounds

Types of Compounds

Isochromosomes

Genetic Consequences of Compound Chromosomes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Attachment Sites

The Function and Structure of the att Site

Location of att Sites in the Host Chromosomes

Other att Sites

See also

Attenuation

See also

AUG Codons

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Autocrine/Paracrine

Introduction

Autocrine Activation of Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

Paracrine Activation of Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

Juxtacrine Activation of Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Autogenous Control

See also

Autoimmune Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Autonomous Controlling Element

See also

Autoradiography

Autoregulation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Autosomal Inheritance

Autosomal Dominant Inheritance

Autosomal Recessive Inheritance

Autosomal Codominant Inheritance

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Autosomes

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Auxotroph

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

B

Bacillus subtilis

Ecology and Significance

Sporulation

Quorum Sensing

Motility

Biofilms

Competence and Transformation

Model System for Research

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Backcross

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Back Mutation

See also

BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes)

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Bacteria

Characteristics of Bacteria

Diversity of Bacteria

Bacterial Genomes

Gene Transfer in Bacteria

See also

Further Reading

Bacterial Chemotaxis

Adaptive Locomotor Behaviors in Prokaryotes

Swimming and Gradient Tracking in Thermokinetic Hell

Methods for Observing Bacterial Chemotaxis

Chemotaxis Signaling Components and Pathways

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bacterial Genes

Perspectives on Defining Bacterial Genes

Gene Structure

Genes in Databases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bacterial Genetics

Mutations and Mutagenesis

Genetic Exchange

Genetic Analysis of Bacterial Mutants

Complementation Analysis

Portable Regions of Homology

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Bacterial Transformation

Considerations

Measures of Transformation

Importance of Competence and Transformation

Artificial Competence

Natural Competence

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Bacterial Variable Number Tandem Repeats

Bacterial Genomes

VNTR Loci

Frequency of VNTRs among Bacteria

VNTR Mutation Processes and Rates

VNTRs as a Subtyping Tool

The Phenotypic Impact of VNTR Variation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Bacteriocins

Introduction

Mechanisms of Action

Immunity

Bacteriocin Produced by Gram-Negative Bacteria

Bacteriocins Produced by Gram-Positive Bacteria

Bacteriocins Produced by Archaea

Ecological Significance of Bacteriocins

Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bacteriophage

Introduction

Morphology and Classification

Multiplication

Isolation

Growth Characteristics

Evolution

Research and Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bakers’ and Brewers’ Yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Balanced Polymorphism

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

BALB/c Mouse

Synopsis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Basal Cell Carcinoma

See also

Glossary

Base Analog Mutagens

See also

Base Composition

See also

Base Pair

See also

Glossary

Base Pairing and Base Pair Substitution

See also

Further Reading

Base Substitution Mutations

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Bases

See also

Bateson, William

Early Career

Rediscovery of Mendel

Fight with the Biometricians

Chromosomes

Theories of Development

The Far-Seeing Controversialist

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Baur, Erwin

Youth, Education, and Scientific Career

Scientific Discoveries

Publications and Organizational Activities

Baur’s Role in Plant Breeding and Agricultural Politics

Baur and Eugenics

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Bayesian Analysis

Linkage Experiments

Microarray Experiments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bcl-2 Gene Family

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

BCR/ABL Oncogene

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bead Theory

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome

Introduction

Clinical Presentation

Etiology

Genetic Testing

Genetic Counseling

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Behavioral Genetics

Introduction

Modern Behavioral Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Benzer, Seymour

See also

Beta (β)-Galactosidase

Introduction

Structure

Substrates and Assays

Metal Requirements

Catalytic Mechanism

Biochemical and Biotechnological Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Bidirectional Replication

See also

Relevant Websites

BIME, ERIC, REP, RIME, and Other Short Bacterial Repeated Elements

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Binomial Distribution

See also

Glossary

Biochemical Genetics

Introduction

Classical Biochemical Genetics: One Gene–One Enzyme Hypothesis

Targeted Biochemical Genetics

When a Negative Result Is Informative, Modern Biochemical Genetics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Biofilms

Historical Perspective

The Process of Biofilm Formation

Components of a Biofilm

Biofilms in Human Infectious Diseases: The Parsek–Singh Criteria

The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections

Decreased Susceptibility of Sessile Cells to Antibiotics and Disinfectants

Decreased Metabolic Activity and Slow Growth

Expression of Biofilm-Specific Resistance Genes

Restricted Penetration of Antimicrobial Agents

Presence of Persister Cells

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bioinformatics

Introduction

Tools

Internet

Databases

Application

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Biosynthesis

Updated Classical Genetic Approaches

Using Mutants to Identify Genes in Biosynthetic Pathways

Determining the Function and Order of Steps in Biosynthetic Pathways

Regulation of Biosynthesis

New Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biotechnology

The Pedigree of Biotechnology

Biotechnology’s Contributions to Science and Society

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Blood Group Chimerism

Introduction

Naturally Occurring Blood Group Chimerism

Acquired Blood Group Chimerism

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Blood Group Systems

Introduction

Blood Group Antibodies

Structure of Blood Group Antigens

Function of Blood Group Antigens

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bloom’s Syndrome

Bloom’s Syndrome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Blunt-End Ligation

See also

Glossary

Bombay Blood Group

The Hh Blood Group System

Clinical Significance of Oh Phenotype

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bombyx mori

The Silkworm as a Genetic System

Cytogenetics and Synteny

Sex Chromosomes, Sex Determination, and Dosage Compensation

Molecular Genetics and the Genome Sequence

Gene Regulation and Functional Genomics

Transgenesis and Biotechnology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bottleneck Effect

The Bottleneck Effect

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Boveri, Theodor and Marcella O’Grady-Boveri

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Brachydactyly

Isolated Brachydactyly

Other Complex Genetic Syndromes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Brachyury Locus

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Branch Migration

See also

Glossary

Brassicaceae, Molecular Systematics and Evolution Of

Introduction

Family Delimitation

Phylogenetics of the Family

Evolutionary Implications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Brassinosteroids

Introduction

Natural Occurrence and Chemical Diversity

Physiological Responses of Exogenously Applied Brassinosteroids

Hormonal Functions of Endogenous Brassinosteroids

Biosynthesis and Metabolism

Brassinosteroid Perception at the Cell Surface

Signaling Mechanism

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

BRCA1/BRCA2

Introduction

BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes and Their Encoded Proteins

Genetics

BRCA1, BRCA2, and DNA Repair

BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutation and Cancer Outcome

New Therapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of BRCA1- and BRCA2-Associated Cancers

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Break–Copy, Break–Join

Pre-Watson–Crick Concepts

Post-Watson–Crick Concepts

Site-Specific Recombination

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Breast Cancer

Introduction

Genetic Factors

Breast Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis

High-Penetrance Genes

Genes of Moderate Effect

Susceptibility Alleles/GWAS

BRCA1/BRCA2 Pathological Features

Genetic Testing

Risk Assessment Tools

Treatment and Interventions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Breeding of Animals

See also

Brenner, Sydney

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Buoyant Density

Burbank, Luther

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Burkitt Lymphoma

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

C

C57BL/6

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

CAAT Box

See also

c-ABL Gene and Gene Product

Introduction

Gene Structure

Expression

Regulation

Growth Factor Signaling

Adhesion and Motility

Nuclear Roles

Immune System

Nervous System

Microbial Pathogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode)

Introduction

Life Cycle

Genetics and Genomics

The Nervous System

Experimental Malleability

Areas of Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cairns, John

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

cAMP and Cell Signaling

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Campbell Model

Introduction

Integration by Site-Specific Recombination

Integration by General Recombination

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cancer Genetics

Genetic Changes That Lead to Cancer Development

In Vitro Cancer Models

In Vivo Cancer Models

Cancer Gene Identification Using the Human Genome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cancer Susceptibility

Introduction

Familial Cancer Predisposition

Lower Penetrance Cancer Susceptibility Alleles

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Candidate Gene

Contexts in Which Candidate Genes Are Important

Identification of Candidate Genes

See also

Canine Genomics and Genetics

Origin of Domestication

Breeds and Population Structure

The Dog Genome Sequence

SNP Resources

Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Structure

Causes of Genomic Variation

Disease Predisposition

Behavior

Morphology

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cap

See also

CAP (CRP)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Capsid

See also

Carcinogens

Ionizing Radiation

UV Radiation

Viruses

Chemicals

See also

Further Reading

CA Repeats

See also

Carrier

Introduction

Frequency

Detection

Prospects for the Future

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cassette Model

Control of Cell Specialization by the Mating-Type Locus

Cell Signaling between Mating Partners Turns On the Final Differentiation of a and α Cells

Mating-Type Interconversion and the Cassette Mechanism

See also

Further Reading

Castle, William E.

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Catabolite Gene Activator Protein

History of Catabolite Activator Protein Identification

Catabolite Activator Protein Structure

Transcription Activation by CAP

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Catabolite Repression

Catabolite Repression and Related Regulatory Phenomena

The PTS, a Sensory System Central in Bacterial Catabolite Repression

Enteric Bacteria: IIACrr, the cAMP·Crp Activator, and the crp Modulon

Low [G + C] Bacteria: HPr, the CcpA Repressor, and the cre Modulon

The Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Complex Interplay between Protein Kinases and Gene Regulators

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cattanach’s Translocation

Introduction

X-Inactivation versus Position-Effect Variegation

Inheritance

Cattanach’s Translocation as a Tool for Research

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

cDNA

See also

Relevant Websites

Cell Cycle

Introduction

Timing: A Cell-Cycle Clock

Coordination: Stopping and Starting the Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle in Health and Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cell Determination

See also

Cell Differentiation

See also

Further Reading

Cell Division Genetics

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cell Division in Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System for Cell Division

Genetic Approaches to Studying Cell Division in C. elegans

Recent Advances in Understanding Cell Division in C. elegans

Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cell Lineage

Introduction

Overview of Biology of Cell Lineages

Genetics of Cell Lineage in Nematode C. elegans

Cell Lineages in Insects

Cell Lineage in Vertebrates

Cell Lineage in Plant Development

Evolution of Cell Lineages

Conclusions

See also

References

Cell Lines

Cell Line

Cell Culture and the Establishment of Cell Lines

Advantages of Cell Culture

Problem Areas

Conclusion

See also

Cell Markers: Green Fluorescent Protein

Origins of Green Fluorescent Protein

Cloning and Structure Determination of GFP

Color Change and Increased Brightness Mutants of GFP

Expressing GFP in Other Organisms

A Very Red-Shifted Fluorescent Protein

Photoactivatable and Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

Single-Molecule Imaging with Fluorescent Proteins

In Vivo Imaging with GFP

Color-Coded Cellular Imaging In Vivo with Fluorescent Proteins

In Situ Labeling of Fluorescent Tumors with GFP in the Living Animal and Fluorescence-Guided Tumor Surgery

Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy of Fluorescent Protein-Expressing cells In Vivo

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cell/Neuron Degeneration

Introduction

Overview of Cell Death

C. elegans as a Model System for the Study of Cell Death

A Conserved Apoptotic Death Mechanism in C. elegans

Degenerins and Neurodegeneration in C. elegans

Other Cellular Insults Can Also Induce Necrotic-Like Cell Death, Suggesting a Common Response to Cell Injury

Genetic Requirements for Degeneration

Parallels between Neurodegenerative Cell Death in C. elegans and Higher Organisms: A Common Degenerative Death Mechanism

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Cenancestor

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Centimorgan (cM)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Centric Fusion

Centric Fusions from an Evolutionary Perspective

Centric Fusions from the Clinical Perspective

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Centrioles

See also

Centromere

Introduction

Sequence and Size

Centromere Proteins

Centromeric Chromatin

Neocentromeres: Unusual, Variant Centromeres

Artificial or Synthetic Centromeres

Inactivated Centromeres

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

C Genes

See also

Chain Initiation, Elongation, Termination, and Recycling

Introduction

Initiation

Elongation

Termination

Recycling

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Character

See also

Character State

See also

Chargaff’s Rules

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chi Sequences

Discovery of Chi and Its Nucleotide Sequence

Genetic Properties of Chi

Interaction of Chi and RecBCD Enzyme

Distribution of Chi in the E. coli Chromosome

Similar Sites in Other Bacteria

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chiasma

Definition

Chiasma Formation

Chromosome Segregation in Meiosis I Depends on Chiasmata

Chiasma Maintenance and Resolution

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chimera

Use of Chimeras in the Analysis of Embryogenesis

Gene Targeting and Chimeras

Mosaics

See also

Further Reading

Chimeric Genes, Proteins

Evolution and Chimeric Proteins

Recombinant Fusion Proteins

Linker Regions

Areas of Application

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

The Organism

Three Genetic Systems

Biogenesis of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

Function and Assembly of the Flagellar Apparatus

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts and Chloroplast Genomes

Shared Coding and DNA Editing

Inheritance Mode

Variation among Species and DNA Barcoding

Variation within Species and Phylogeography

Genetic Transformation into the Chloroplast Genome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chloroplasts, Genetics of

Introduction

Evolutionary Origin of Chloroplasts and Their Relationship to Rhodoplasts and Cyanelles

Chloroplast Genomes

Dual Genetic Origin of Chloroplast Proteins

Variations on Genetic Code and Editing

Recombination of Chloroplast DNA and Transgenic Chloroplasts

Maternal Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Christmas Disease

Introduction

Factor IX (F9) Gene and Protein

Mutations in F9 Gene

Clinical Manifestation

Diagnosis

Management

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromatid

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chromatid Interference

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chromatin

Composition

Higher Order Structure

Role of Chromatin in Nuclear Architecture

Transcriptionally Active Chromatin

Chromatin Modification

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromomeres

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromosomal Walking

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromosome

See also

Chromosome Banding

Definition and Historical Perspective

Karyotypes and Banding Levels

Functional and Structural Significance of Chromosome Bands

Applications of Chromosome Banding

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromosome Break

See also

Chromosome Bridge

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chromosome Dimer Resolution by Site-Specific Recombination

Introduction

The Xer System

Control of Chromosome Dimer Resolution: FtsK

Roles of Xer in Mobile Genetic Elements

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromosome Mapping

Historical Perspectives

From Gene Mapping Conferences to the Human Genome Project

Modern Developments in Linkage Mapping

Other Forms of Linkage (Syntenic) Analysis

Physical Mapping

Mapping Human Genetic Disease Genes

Comparative Mapping Studies

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chromosome Movement

See also

Further Reading

Chromosome Number

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chromosome Painting

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chromosome Pairing

Introduction

Historical Background

The Bouquet Stage

Initiation of Pairing

Genetic Aspects

See also

Further Reading

Chromosome Scaffold

Chromosome Scaffold and Chromatin Packaging

The Scaffold–Loop Model

Scaffold-Associated Proteins

Functions of the Major Scaffolding Proteins

Scaffold-Associated Regions

Functions of the Scaffold and Scaffolding Proteins

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chromosome Structure

Introduction

Uninemy

Chromosomal Fibers

Chromosome Scaffolds

Chromatin Loops

Final Stages of Chromosome Condensation

Chromosome Periphery

See also

Circadian Rhythms

Introduction

Definition

Model Systems

The Nature of Clock Mutations

Neurospora as an Intensively Genetically Dissected System

Gene Homologues

Unicellular versus Multicellular Organisms

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Circular Linkage Map

Occurrence

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Circularly Permuted Proteins

Proposed Mechanisms

Hypothetical Roles

Detection

Artificial CPs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cis-Acting Locus

Cis-Acting DNA Regions

Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions

Locus Control Regions

Enhancers and Silencers

Promoters

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cis-Acting Proteins

Classification of Cis-Acting Proteins

What Purpose Does Cis Action Serve?

How Is Cis Action Achieved?

Localizing Protein Synthesis to the Vicinity of Its Gene

Mechanisms That Limit Protein Diffusion and Thereby Enhance Cis Preference

Protein Instability

Sequestration of Protein

Multiple Binding Sites

More Cis-Acting Proteins?

See also

Further Reading

Cis-Dominance

See also

Cis–Trans Configurations

See also

Cistron

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Clade

See also

Cladistics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cladogenesis

Introduction

‘Tree of Life’ and Evolutionary Biology

Darwin’s Finches

Birth–Death Model

Our Clade

Anthropogenic Cladogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cladograms

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Class Switching

Classical Genetics (History, Mouse)

The Beginning of an Era: From Plants to Mice

The Missing Links

Revolution of Recombinant DNA

Climbing the Genetic Ladder

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

Normal and Abnormal Lip and Palate Morphogenesis

Inheritance of Oral Clefts

Recurrence Risk

Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Lip and Palate

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Clever Mutant Isolation: Defining the Components of Cell Biological Processes

Protein Secretion, Gene Fusions, and Suppressor Mutations

Cell Division and Synthetic Lethal Mutations

Why Do Cytoplasmic Proteins Have No Disulfide Bonds?

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Clinical Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Clock Mutants

Introduction

Molecular Genetics of the Fly Clock

Mammalian Clockworks

Fungal and Bacterial Clocks

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Clone

See also

Cloned Organisms, Eukaryotic

Abnormalities of Cloned Animals

Uses of Animal Cloning

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cloning

Background and History

Nuclear Donor Cells

Recipient Cells

Cell Cycle Coordination

Culture of Reconstructed Embryos

Applications of SCNT

See also

Further Reading

Cloning Vectors

See also

Closed Reading Frame

See also

Coalescent

Introduction

The Ancestral Process – The Neutral Case

Robustness

Varying Population Size

Recombination

Selection

Population Subdivision

Approximations

Inference

Model-Based Analyses

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Coat Color Mutations, Animals

Background

Melanocyte Formation, Migration, and Proliferation

Mutations in Melanosome Biogenesis and Melanin Production

Pigment-Type Switching

Mutations in Melanin Transfer

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Coding Sequences

See also

Glossary

Coding Strand

See also

Codominance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Codons

See also

Codons, Invariable

See also

Codon Usage Bias

Introduction

Mutation Biases

Leading versus Lagging Strands

Intragenomic Regions

Fine-Scale Variations

Natural Selection

Applications

See also

Coevolution

Concepts of Coevolution

Methods of Studying Coevolution

Coevolution of Competing Species

Coevolution of Consumers and Victims

Costs of Adaptation

Pairwise and Diffuse Coevolution

Levels of Selection

Models of Consumer–Victim Coevolution

Evolution of Virulence

Evolution of Mutualism

Consequences of Coevolution

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cognate tRNAs

See also

Cohesive Ends

Introduction

Cohesive Ends in the Life Cycle of the Tailed Phages

Natural History of Phage Cohesive Ends

The Endonuclease Activity of Terminases

Another Class of Cohesive Ends

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Coincidence, Coefficient of

Introduction

Observations on the Coefficient of Coincidence

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cointegrate

Brief Definition

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Coisogenic Strain

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cold-Sensitive Mutant

See also

Cold Spot

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Col Factors

Introduction

Colicinogeny

Resistance to Colicins

Distribution of Col Factors

Colicin Invasion Dynamics

Colicin Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics

Colicin Plasmids

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Colinearity

The Nature of Gene–Protein Colinearity

Early History of the Colinearity Concept

Demonstration of Gene–Protein Colinearity

Beyond Colinearity

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Colony Hybridization

See also

Colony PCR

See also

Color Blindness

Red–Green Color Blindness – Deuteranopia and Protanopia

Nonhuman Primates

Tritanopia

Achromatopsia

Color Vision and Color Blindness in Nonprimate Mammals

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Colorectal Cancer

Epidemiology

Risk Factors

Genetic Basis of Colon Cancer

Clinical Applications and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Commaless Code

See also

Commensal

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Comparative Genomics

Definition and Development of Comparative Genomics

The Foundational Importance of Orthologous Protein Families

Comparing DNA Sequences Reveals the Molecular Basis of Individuality

Comparative Genomics Uncovers Novel Regulatory Mechanisms

Comparative Genomics Predicts an Organism’s Metabolic Capabilities

Integrated Comparative Genomic Approaches Enable Prediction of Gene Function

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Compartmentalization

Compartments Ensure Efficiency of Metabolic Processes

Compartmentalization Ensures Fidelity and Directionality of Transport

Maintenance of Compartmental Identity

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Compatibility Group

See also

Complementary DNA

See also

Glossary

Complementation

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Complementation Test

See also

Complement Loci

Overview

C1q and Lectins

Serine Proteases (Factor I, Factor D, C1r, C1s, MASP-1 and -2, C2, Factor B)

C3 and Relatives (C4 and C5)

Terminal Complement Components (C6–C9)

Regulators of Complement Activity (Complement Control Proteins: CR1, CR2, DAF, MCP, C4BP, Factor H)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Complex Locus

Complex Traits

Introduction

Analyzing Complex Traits

Experimental Approaches to Dissecting Complex Traits

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Concatemer

See also

Concatemer (Genomes)

See also

Concatenated Circles

See also

Concerted Evolution

Introduction

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Concerted Evolution

Concerted Evolution of Tandem Repeats

Concerted Evolution of Dispersed Repeats

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Concordance

See also

Conditional Alleles

See also

Glossary

Conditional Lethality

Conditional Lethality in Genetic Systems

Molecular Basis of Conditional Lethality

Temperature-Sensitive Mutants

Other Types of Conditional Lethal Mutants

Genetic Backgrounds Used for Conditional Lethality

Uses of Conditional Lethal Mutants

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Congenic Strain

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome)

Introduction

Enzymes Involved in Cortisol Biosynthesis

Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome

Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (StAR/P450SCC Deficiency)

Hypertensive Form without Virilism (17α-Hydroxylase Deficiency)

Deficiency of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

Virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (21-Hydroxylase Deficiency)

Hypertensive Form of CAH with Virilism (11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency)

Antley–Bixler Syndrome (POR Deficiency)

Aldosterone Deficiency (Synthetase Deficiency)

See also

Relevant Websites

Congenital Conditions

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Conjugation

Conjugation Systems

Overview of Events in the Bacterial Conjugative Process

Grouped Requirements for Bacterial Conjugation

Natural Diversity of Bacterial Conjugative Systems

Being a Recipient

Historical Aspects

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Conjugative Transposons and Integrative and Conjugative Elements

Conjugative Transposons

Integrative and Conjugative Elements

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Conplastic

Introduction

Definition, Derivation, and Nomenclature of Conplastic Strains

Mouse Conplastic Strains

Rat Conplastic Strains

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Consanguinity

Introduction

Coefficient of Consanguinity

Autosomal Recessive Alleles

Challenge for Fundamental and Medical Research

Gene Copy Number Variation in Healthy Consanguineous Individuals

Gene Identification of Autosomal Recessive Diseases in Consanguineous Patients

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Consensus Sequences

Introduction

Searching for Sequence Motifs

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Conservation Genetics

Introduction

What Causes Extinctions?

Genetics in Conservation Biology

Genetic Consequences of Small Population Size

Loss of Genetic Diversity

Accumulation of New Deleterious Mutations

Genetic Deterioration in Captivity

Island Populations

Resolving Taxonomic Uncertainties

Use of Genetic Markers to Understand the Biology of Endangered Species

Methodology in Conservation Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Conservative Recombination

See also

Consomic

Introduction

Consomic Nomenclature

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Constant Regions

See also

Constitutive Expression

See also

Constitutive Mutations

See also

Glossary

Continuous Variation

See also

Contractile Ring

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Controlling Elements

First Report of Transposable Genetic Elements

Other Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Convergent Evolution

Introduction

Examples

Distinction from Related Phenomena

Theoretical Issues

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Conversion Gradient

Meiotic Gene Conversion

Gradient

Origin of the Gradient

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cooperativity

Introduction

Hemoglobin Loads and Unloads Oxygen over a Narrow Range of Oxygen Partial Pressures

Cooperativity Amplifies External Signals

Hill Equation Provides a Convenient Mathematical Expression for Cooperativity in Estimation and Modeling

Cooperativity May Enhance Positive or Negative Feedback in Genetic Switches

Cooperative Genetic Switches Regulate Gene Expression

Cooperativity Contributes to Cell Fate Decisions and Sharp Boundaries in Development

Cooperativity Reduces Sampling of Protein-Folding Configuration Space

Cooperativity May Positively Assist Raft Assembly in Plasma Membranes

Engineered Cooperativity Is Used in Synthetic Biology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Coordinate Regulation

See also

Copy-Choice Hypothesis

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cordycepin

See also

Relevant Websites

Core Particle

See also

Corepressor

See also

Correlated Response

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Correns, Carl Erich

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cosmids

See also

Cotransformation

Dispersive Mechanisms

Genetic Mapping

Competent Population

Congression

See also

Counterselection

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Covarion Model of Molecular Evolution

Introduction

The Biochemical Basis for the Covarion Model

A Hidden Markov Model for Covarions

The Kimura Model

The Two Unobserved Parameters

Tests for the Covarion Model

Conclusion

See also

References

CpG Islands

Definition

Chromatin Structure of Unmethylated CGIs

Methylated CGIs

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Craniosynostosis, Genetics of

Introduction

Classification of Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis Syndromes

Mutations in Craniosynostosis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cre/loxP – Transgenics

Introduction

Cre/loxP Recombination

Removal of Selectable Marker Genes

Marker Recycling

Introduction of Point Mutations

Conditional Mutations or Knockouts

Gain of Function

Loss of Function

Chromosome Rearrangements

Deletions, Duplications, and Inversions

Translocations

Genomic Targeting of DNA

Modified Cre Proteins

Green Fluorescent Protein

Regulation by Steroids

See also

Further Reading

Crick, Francis Harry Compton

Key Concepts

Introduction

Crick as Biophysicist

Hemoglobin and DNA

Crick’s Career

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cri-du-chat Syndrome

Introduction

Physical Characteristics

Behavioral Characteristics

Management

Genetic Counseling

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cross

See also

Glossary

Crossing-Over

See also

Crossover Interference

Definition

Distance Dependence

Indicators of Interference

Indices of Interference

Mathematical Models for Interference

Two Pathways for Crossing Over

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Crossover Suppressor

See also

Further Reading

Crosstalk

Introduction

Metabolic Crosstalk

Complex Phenotypes Indicate Crosstalk

Uncovering Crosstalk with Suppressor Analysis

The Effects of Crosstalk on the Metabolic Network

Understanding Metabolic Crosstalk Facilitates Discovering Next-Level Paradigms

Metabolic Potential and Evolvability

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Crow, James F

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Crown Gall Tumors

Historical Background

Horizontal Transmission of T-DNA Genes

Activities of A. tumefaciens T-DNA Genes

Crown Gall Tumor Development

Spread and Control of Crown Gall Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

CRP

See also

Further Reading

Cruciform DNA

Introduction

Cruciform Extrusion and Stability In Vitro

Structure of a Cruciform and Its Similarity to a Holliday Junction

Detection Methods for Cruciform Structures In Vitro

Biological Roles of Cruciform DNA In Vivo

Cruciform Formation and Genomic Instability

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cryptic Satellite DNA

See also

Cryptic Splice Sites and Cryptic Splicing

Splicing Elements

Cryptic Splice Sites

Cryptic 5′Splice Site Activation

Newly Created De Novo 5′ Splice Sites

Cryptic 3′ Splice Site Activation

Newly Created De Novo 3′ Splice Sites

Detection of Cryptic Splicing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

ct DNA

See also

CTP (Cytidine Triphosphate)

See also

Culture Collections

Introduction

The Functions Carried Out by the Culture Collections

Current Issues That Affect the Operations of Culture Collections

Importance of the General Collections in Genetic Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cutis Laxa

Introduction

Autosomal Dominant Cutis Laxa

X-Linked Cutis Laxa

Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa

Differential Diagnosis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

C-Value Paradox

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)

See also

Further Reading

Cyclin-Dependent Kinases

Discovery

CDK Protein Family

CDKs 1 and 2

CDKs Involved in Cell Cycle Regulation

CDK5

CDKs Involved in Transcription

CDK Regulation

Protein Degradation

CDK Dysfunction and Role in Disease

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Cysteine, Chemical Structure

See also

Cystic Fibrosis

Introduction

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

CFTR Genetics

Clinical Features

The Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cytogenetics

Clinical Cytogenetics

Comparative Cytogenetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cytokinesis

See also

Cytoplasm

See also

Cytoplasmic Genes

See also

Cytoplasmic Inheritance

See also

Cytosine

See also

Glossary

Cytoskeleton

See also

Cytosol

See also

D

D-Amino Acids

Introduction

Physiology

Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Darlington, Cyril Dean

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Darwin, Charles

Introduction

The Life of Charles Darwin

Influences on Darwin and the Development of His Ideas

Experiences on the Voyage of the Beagle

The Work of the Geologist Charles Lyell

An Essay on Population by the Economist Thomas Malthus

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

The Major Ideas

The Argument for Natural Selection

Evidence Cited to Support the Idea of Evolution

The Response to On the Origin of Species

Philosophical Implications of Darwin’s Work

From Darwin to the ‘Evolutionary Synthesis’

Evolutionary Biology Today

See also

References

Further Reading

Databases, Sequenced Genomes

Introduction

Public Databases

Databases at Major Sequencing Centers

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Degenerate Code

See also

Degrees of Freedom

Introduction

Degrees of Freedom: How to Use

Degrees of Freedom and the Mean

Degrees of Freedom and the Hardy–Weinberg Law

Degrees of Freedom and R × C Contingency Tables

Degrees of Freedom and the Kinetic Energy of Atoms in Genetic Macromolecules

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Delbrück, Max

Delbrück, Max

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Deletion

See also

Deletion Mapping

See also

Relevant Website

Deletion Mapping, Mouse

Basic Information

Mapping Recessive Mutations: Pseudodominance and Complementation

Deletion Mapping of Codominant Genetic Markers

Deletion Complexes and High-Resolution Deletion/Functional Maps

See also

Further Reading

Deletion Mutation

See also

Demes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Denaturation (Proteins)

Introduction

Biological Consequences of Denaturation

Intrinsically Disordered or Unfolded Proteins

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Derepression

See also

Detoxification (SOD)

Developmental Genetics

See also

Developmental Genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans

Introduction

Genetic Dissection of C. elegans Development

Conclusions and Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

De Vries, Hugo

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

D’Herelle, Félix

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Dicentric Chromosome

See also

Dictyostelium

See also

Further Reading

Differential Segment

See also

DiGeorge Syndrome

Clinical Features Associated with DiGeorge Syndrome

Prevalence of Detection

Genetics of DiGeorge Syndrome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Diploidy

Introduction

Diploid and Haploid Phases in Life Cycles

Artificial Diploidy in Haploid Fungi

Bivalent Formation at Meiosis as a Criterion of Effective Diploidy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Direct Repeats

See also

Directed Evolution

Evolution and the Central Dogma – DNA, RNA, Proteins

The Central Dogma and ‘Undirected’ Evolution

The Central Dogma and ‘Directed’ Evolution through Selections In Vitro

The Future of Directed Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Directed Mutation

See also

Discontinuous Replication

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Discordance

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Disjunction

See also

Disruptive Selection

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Distal

See also

Divergent Evolution

See also

Divergent Transcription

See also

D-Loop

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

DNA

See also

Further Reading

DNA Amplification In Vivo

DNA Amplification In Vivo

Engineering Amplification of Specific Genome Regions

Identification and Artificial Selection of Strains Containing Amplifications or Deletions

Biological Role of DNA Amplification

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

DNAase

See also

DNA-Binding Proteins

Introduction

DNA-Binding Domains

Protein–DNA Recognition

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Cloning

Definition

History

Cloning Objectives

Strategies of Molecular Cloning

Conclusions

See also

References

DNA Denaturation

See also

References

Further Reading

DNA Fingerprinting

Introduction

Brief History

Genetic Markers and Technology

Lineage Markers

New Markers

DNA Database

The Next Future

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Footprinting

Introduction

DNase I Footprinting

Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

Footprinting with 1,10-Phenantroline-Copper

Potassium Permanganate Footprinting

Dimethyl Sulfate Footprinting

UV Laser Footprinting

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA, History Of

Introduction

Discovery

The Constitution of DNA

Changing Views on Biological Function

The Watson–Crick Structure

Confirming the Structure

DNA as Master Molecule

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Hybridization

DNA Hybridization Update

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Lesions

See also

DNA Ligases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Marker

See also

DNA Modification

See also

DNA Polymerase η (Eta)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Polymerases

Classification and Evolution of DNA Polymerases

Structure of DNA Polymerases

Enzymology of DNA Pols

Fidelity of DNA Pols

DNA Pols for DNA Replication

DNA Pols for DNA Repair

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Recombination

See also

Glossary

DNA Repair

Introduction

Mechanisms of DNA Repair

Defective DNA Repair and Human Disease

Repair of DNA Strand Breaks

Mouse Models for Defective DNA Repair and Other Cellular Responses to DNA Damage

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Repair Defects and Human Disease

Introduction

Types of DNA Repair

Relationships between DNA Repair and Human Hereditary Diseases

Other Genetic Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

DNA Replication

Importance of DNA Replication

The Replicon Model and the Problem of Origins

The Mechanism of DNA Replication

The Replication Fork and the Replisome

Regulation of DNA Replication

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Sequencing

See also

DNA Structure

Introduction

Historical Background

Structures

Analysis of Three-Dimensional Structure

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Supercoiling

DNA Topology

DNA Supercoiling

Mathematics of DNA Supercoiling

Enzymes That Regulate DNA Supercoiling: Topoisomerases

Physiological Regulation of DNA Supercoiling

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

DNA Synthesis

See also

Dobzhansky, Theodosius

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Dominance

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Dosage Compensation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Double-Minute (Chromosomes)

See also

Further Reading

Double-Strand Break Repair Model

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Downstream

Down Syndrome

Introduction

Clinical Aspects of Down Syndrome

Cytogenetics: Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome, Translocation Down Syndrome, and Mosaicism

Recurrence of Down Syndrome in Families

Research

The Near Future for Down Syndrome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Drug Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance

Drug Resistance in Viruses

Fungal Drug Resistance

Parasitic Drug Resistance

Drug Resistance in Tumors

Health Consequences and Economic Impact

Molecular Mechanisms and Genetics

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Overview

The Dystrophin Gene

The Dystrophin Protein and the Dystrophin–Glycoprotein Complex

Clinical Features

Pathology

Inheritance, Counseling, and Prenatal Diagnosis

Animal Models of DMD

Treatment

Challenges in Gene and Cell Therapies

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Duffy Blood Groups

History

Biochemistry and Genetics

Antibodies

Clinical Significance

The Clinical Value of Duffy Genotyping

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Dulbecco, Renato

Indiana

California Institute of Technology

The Salk Institute

Imperial Cancer Research Fund

Return to the Salk

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Dunn, Leslie Clarence

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Duplication

See also

Glossary

Dwarfism

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Dwarfism, Mouse

Introduction

Mouse Mutants

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Dynamic Mutations

Introduction

Mechanisms of Repeat Expansion

Pathway from Repeat Expansion to Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Dysmorphology

Introduction

Dysmorphology as Diagnosis

Measuring Dysmorphology

Intersection of Dysmorphology and Developmental Biology

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Dystrophin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

E

Early Genes (in Phage Genomes)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

EBNA

See also

Further Reading

Ectodermal Dysplasias

Introduction

X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: The Role of a Signaling Pathway (OMIM 305100)

Clouston’s Hidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: The Role of Structural Proteins (OMIM 129500)

Ectrodactyly–Ectodermal Dysplasia–Clefting Syndrome and the p63 gene: The Role of a Transcription Factor (OMIM 129900)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Editing and Proofreading in Translation

Introduction

Editing in Aminoacylation

Editing at Ribosome

See also

Effective Population Number

Census Size and Effective Size

Variance in Reproductive Success

Multiple Generations

Two Kinds of Effective Size

Overlapping Generations

Metapopulation Ne

The Ne/N Ratio

Estimating Ne

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Electron Microscopy of Biological Materials

Properties of Electron Microscopes

The Fruits of Biological EM

Fixation by freeze-substitution

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Electroporation

Elongation Factors: Translation

Factors Related to Aminoacyl-transfer RNA Binding in Bacteria

Factors Related to Translocation in Bacteria

Other Factors in Bacteria

Elongation Factors in Archaea and Eukaryotes

Genetics and Evolution of Elongation Factor Genes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Embryonic Development of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Introduction

Anatomy of the C. elegans Embryo

Timing of C. elegans Embryonic Development

Polarity and Establishment of the A/P Axis

Cytokinesis

Developmental Plasticity

Cell–Cell Interactions Define the Dorsoventral and the Left–Right Axes

Mechanisms Used to Generate Tissues and Organs

Cell Biology of Morphogenesis

Methods Used to Examine C. elegans Embryos

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Embryonic Development, Mouse

Early Embryonic Development Is Highly Plastic

Embryonic Differentiation and Postimplantation Development

See also

Embryonic Stem Cells

The Isolation and Properties of Embryonic Stem Cells

The Potential Exploitation of Pluripotence

Maintaining ES Cells in Culture

The Core Modulators of Pluripotence

The Epigenetic Regulation of ES Cells

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

End Labeling

See also

Endonucleases

See also

Endosymbiotic Theory

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Enhancers

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Enzymes

See also

References

Epidermal Growth Factor

Cell Biology of EGF

Clinical Application: Anti-EGF Therapy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Epigenetics

Introduction

Epigenetic Control in Eukaryotes

Epigenetic Control in Bacteria

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Episome

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Epistasis

Introduction

Biochemical Epistasis

Statistical Epistasis

Epistasis in Population Genetics

Future of Epistasis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Epstein–Barr Virus

Introduction

Viral Expression Phenotypes

Immune Responses

Disease Association

Further Reading

Equilibrium

Introduction

Mathematical Criteria

See also

Equilibrium Population

Populations in the Absence of Selection

Populations Undergoing Selection

Stationarity in Finite Populations

Applicability of Equilibrium Concepts

Applicability of This Type of Equilibrium Points

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

erbA and erbB in Human Cancer

erbA

erbB

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Error Catastrophe

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Escherichia coli

Introduction

E. coli and Its Life

How E. coli Became a Paradigm for Genetic Studies

Inheritance in E. coli

Current Genetic Studies in E. coli

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Ethics and Genetics

Introduction

Should Genetic Information Be Treated Differently from Other Medical Information?

Genetics and Privacy

Genetics and Medical Care

Nonmedical Use of Genetic Information

DTC Genetic Testing

Population Biobanks

Intellectual Property and Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ets Family

Introduction

Evolutionary Relatedness

Biological Importance

Regulation of Ets Transcription Factors

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Euchromatin

See also

Eukaryotes

See also

Eukaryotic Genes

See also

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

Introduction

DNA Binding

Activation of Transcription

Repression of Transcription

Coactivators and Corepressors

Regulation of Transcription Factors

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Euploid

See also

Glossary

Evolution

Introduction: Descent with Modification and Darwinian Fitness

The Modern Theory: An Expanded Synthesis

Modes of Speciation

Mass Extinctions and Evo-Devo

Evolutionary Biology: A System of Theories

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Evolutionarily Stable Strategy

See also

References

Evolutionary Rate

Genotypic Change

Molecular Clock

Phenotypic Change

Is the Rate of Evolution Constant?

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Evolutionary Trees

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Evolution: Bacteria

Mutation: The Raw Material of Evolution

The Dynamics of Evolution

Parallelism and Chance

The Evolution of Evolvability

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Evolution: Eukaryotes

The Puzzle of Eukaryote Complexity

Eukaryotes: Archaeal Molecular Biology with Eubacterial Biochemistry

Endosymbiotic-Derived Organelles Are a Hallmark of Eukaryotic Cells

Mitochondrion or Phagocytosis First?

Were All Eukaryote Features Associated with a Single Transitional Event?

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Evolution of Altruism

The Paradox of Altruism

Individualist versus Collective Representations of Altruism

The Definitions of Altruism

The Conditions for the Evolution of Altruism

The Self-Recognition of Altruism

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Evolution of Gene Families

Genomic Complexity Increases by Gene Duplication

Three Main Ways of Gene Duplication

How Duplicated Genes Diverge?

Concerted Evolution via Genetic Exchange between Duplicated Gene Copies

Interplay between Gene Conversion and Natural Selection

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Evolution: Viruses

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

EWS

EWS Is Encoded by the Ewing’s Sarcoma Breakpoint Region 1

EWS Is Part of a Family of Genes Frequently Rearranged in Sarcoma and Leukemia and Predisposing to Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

EWS Plays a Role in Transcription and Posttranscriptional RNA Processing

EWS Functions in Recombination, Repair, and Cellular Longevity

Structure–Function Relationship of EWS

see also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Exchange

See also

Excision Repair

DNA Damage

General Comments on DNA Repair

Excision Repair in E. coli

Excision Repair in Mammalian Cells

See also

Further Reading

Exonucleases

See also

Expression Vector

See also

Expressivity

See also

F

F1 Generation

See also

F1 Hybrid

Introduction

Genetic Basis of F1 Hybrids

Production of F1 Hybrids in Plants and Animals

Advantages

Disadvantages

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

FAB Classification of Leukemia

Introduction

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Chronic Myeloid Leukemias

Chronic Lymphoid Leukemias

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fabry Disease (α-Galactosidase A Deficiency)

Overview, Inheritance, and Frequency

Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis

Molecular Genetics

Treatment

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

1-, 2-, 3-Factor Crosses

1-Factor Crosses

2-Factor Crosses

3-Factor Crosses

Tetrad Analysis

Variations on Mendel’s Rules

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Introduction

FH – Treatment and CHD Risk

FH Diagnosis Using Molecular Methods

Cascade Testing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fanconi Anemia

General Description

Prognosis and Treatment

Genetic Basis, Prevalence, and Carrier Frequencies

Cellular Features

Molecular Basis

Animal Models of FA

Major Unanswered Questions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fate Map

See also

Favism

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

F-Duction

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Feline Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Female Carriers

Introduction

Pedigree Analysis

Pitfalls in Pedigree Analysis

Gonadal Mosaicism

Carrier Tests

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Feral

See also

Fertilization

Introduction

In Vitro Fertilization

See also

Fertilization, Mammalian

Introduction

Egg Development

Sperm Development

Eggs and Sperm in the Oviduct

Binding of Sperm to Unfertilized Eggs

The Acrosome Reaction

Penetration of the ZP by Sperm

Fusion of Sperm and Egg

Prevention of Polyspermy

Final Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Filamentous Bacteriophages

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Filial Generations

See also

Filter Hybridization

See also

First and Second Division Segregation

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization)

See also

Fisher, Ronald A.

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Fitness

Definition

Historical Overview

Components of Fitness: Inclusive Fitness

Adaptation, Adaptedness, and the Propensity Interpretation of Fitness

On Population Fitness

See also

References

Fix Genes

Introduction

Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation

The FixL–FixJ Regulatory Cascade

The FixK Transcriptional Regulator

The FixT Repressor

Variations in the Fix Regulatory Pathway

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fixation Probability

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Flagella

Number of the Flagellar Genes

Flagellar Gene Clusters

Gene Regulation for Peritrichous Flagella

Gene Regulation for Polar Flagella

Lateral Flagella

Substrate Specificity Switching

Multiple Genes for Flagellin

Perspective and Prospect for Future Research

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

FLI1 Oncogene

Characteristics of Transcription Factor Fli1

Fli1 Functions as a Proto-oncogene in ESFT

Role of Fli1 in Hematopoietic Cells

Role of Fli1 in Autoimmune Diseases

Impact of Fli1 on Endothelial Integrity

Role of Fli1 in Fibrosis

Impact of Fli1 Deficiency on the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Flower Development, Genetics of

Essentials of Flower Developmental Genetics

Floral Induction

Floral Meristem Formation

Flower Formation and Floral Organ Development

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Flp Site-Specific Recombination System

Flp Site-Specific Recombinase

The Biological Source of Flp and Its Functions

The Flp Active Site and Recombination Mechanism

Structures of Flp in Association with DNA in a Recombination Synapse

Half-of-the-Sites Activity; Holliday Junction Isomerization

Geometry, Topology, and Chirality of Recombination

Difference Topology

Chemistry and Stereochemistry of Flp Recombination

Extra Catalytic Roles of the Flp Active Site

Cryptic RNase Activities within the Flp Active Site

Applications of Flp in Basic Biology and Biotechnology

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Fluctuation Test

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

FMS Oncogene

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Foldback DNA

Follicular Lymphoma

Introduction

Epidemiology

Clinical Symptoms

Pathogenesis

Pathology and Histological Diagnosis

Prognosis

Therapy

Clinical Management

Laboratory Assessment of Therapy Response: Analysis of Minimal Residual Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Footprinting

See also

Ford, Charles

See also

References

Forward Mutations

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forward Mutation Tests

Forward Mutation Tests, Determining the Origin of Mutations

Using Forward Mutation Tests to Study How Mutations Are Produced

Descriptions of Useful Forward Mutation Tests

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fosmid

See also

Relevant Websites

Founder Effect

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Fragile Chromosome Sites

Introduction

Common Sites

Rare Fragile Sites

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fragile X Syndrome

Genetics and Inheritance

Clinical Features

Pathophysiology

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Frameshift Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Frequency-Dependent Selection

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Frequency-Dependent Selection as Expressed in the Rare Male Mating Advantages

See also

Further Reading

Fruiting Body

Why Do Myxobacteria Construct Fruiting Bodies?

Starvation Induces Production of Fruiting Bodies

Sensing the Starvation Signal

Starving Cells Construct FBs by Coordinating Their Movements and Communicating Their Positions to One Another

The Quiescent Myxospore

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Functional Genomics

See also

Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection

Introduction

The ‘Classical’ Interpretation of the Theorem

The Modern Interpretation

The Biological Relevance of the Theorem

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Fungal Genetics


Introduction

Reproduction and Genetic Recombination in Fungi

Genes and Genomics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fungi

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fusion Gene

Introduction

History

Current Uses

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Fusion Protein

Introduction

History

Uses of Fusion Proteins

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

G

G1

See also

G2

See also

Galactosemia

Introduction

Transferase-Deficiency Galactosemia

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Galton, Francis

Introduction

Heredity: Conceptual

Methods in Population Studies

Galton’s Influence

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Galton’s Law of Ancestral Heredity

Ancestral Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gametes

Animals

Variations in the Form of Gametes in Other Organisms

See also

Gametes, Mammalian

Introduction

Gametogenesis

Mammalian Gamete Diversity

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gametic Disequilibrium

Introduction

Measures of Gametic Disequilibrium

Haplotype Homozygosity as a Measure of Gametic Disequilibrium

Gametic Disequilibrium Is Not a Monotonic Function of Physical Length

Applications of Measurement of Gametic Disequilibrium

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gametogenesis

Introduction

Gametogenesis in Animals

Gametogenesis in Plants

Gametogenesis in Simple Eukaryotes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gamma Distribution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gastroenteropancreatic and Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms, Genetics of

Background

Origin of GEP and BP NENs

Mechanisms of Transformation

Molecular Analyses

Family Cancer Studies and Genetic Syndromes

Concluding Comments

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gaucher’s Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

G-Banding

See also

Gel Electrophoresis

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gene

See also

Gene Action

See also

Gene Amplification

See also

Relevant Website

Glossary

Gene and Operon Fusions

Introduction

Monitoring lac Gene Expression

LacZ as a Reporter

Transcriptional or Operon Fusions

Translational or Gene Fusions

Methods of Constructing Fusions

Uses of Fusions

Variations on a Theme

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Cassettes

Gene Cassettes and Integrons

Structure of Gene Cassettes

Cassette Movement

Cassettes Congregate in Integrons

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Conversion

Related Aberrant Segregation Ratios

Conversion Results in Nonreciprocal Recombination

Conversion Gradient

Aberrant Segregation and Crossing-Over

DSBs and Conversion

Conversion Initiated by Single-Strand Gaps?

Meiotic Conversion Separable from Crossing-Over

Other Occurrences of Conversion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Gene Dosage

See also

Gene Duplication

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Expression

Transcription

Translation

Posttranslation Steps in Gene Expression

See also

Gene Family

Origins and Examples

Tandem Families of Identical Genetic Elements

See also

Gene Flow

Introduction

Elaboration

Some Generalizations Concerning Gene Flow

Direct Measurement of Gene Flow

Inference from Genetic Data

Caveats Concerning the Relationship of Fst to Nm

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Frequency

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gene Insertion

Gene Interaction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gene Library

See also

Gene Mapping

The Detection of Recombination within Genes

Mapping by Recombination Frequency

The Use of Flanking Markers

Deletion Mapping

The Principle of Collinearity

See also

References

Gene Number

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gene Pool

Gene Pool and Natural Populations

Gene Pool, Supraspecific Grouping, and Plant Breeding

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Product

See also

Gene Rearrangement, Eukaryotic

The Genome Architecture of Ciliates

Genome Arrangement in Plants

Generation of Diversity in the Vertebrate Immune System

Karyotype Variability: Giardia

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Rearrangements, Prokaryotic

Stochastic Rearrangements

Developmentally Regulated Gene Rearrangements in Bacteria

See also

Further Reading

Gene Regulation

Introduction

Eukaryotic Gene Transcription

Enhancer cis-Acting Elements and Transcription Factors

Chromatin Modification and High-Order Chromatin Structure

Posttranscriptional Regulation of Gene Expression

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Silencing

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Substitution

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gene Therapy, Human

See also

References

Gene Trapping

Introduction

Enhancer Trapping

Exon Trapping

PolyA Trapping

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gene Trees

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetic Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

β-amyloid

APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2

APOE

Modifier or Risk Genes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Code

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Colonization

Genetic Colonizations Associated with Climate Change

Genetic Colonizations by Invading Species

Genetic Colonizations in Species with Metapopulations

Founder Effect

See also

Further Reading

Genetic Correlation

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetic Counseling

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Covariance

An Introduction to Genetic Covariance

Why Should the Molecular Biologist Care about Covariance?

The Relationship between Site-Specific Covariance and Molecular Structure

How Is Covariance Measured?

Covariance in RNA Molecules: A Success Story

Covariance in Proteins

Covariance of Full-Length Genes

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetic Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Distance

Commonly Used Distance Measures

Genetic Distance and Phylogenetic Trees

Evolutionary Relationships of Human Populations

Software

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Drift

Introduction

Example

Genetic Drift and Population Size

Bottleneck and Founder Effects

Minimal Viable Population Size

Genetic Drift and Gene Flow

Genetic Drift and Evolutionary Theory

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Engineering

See also

Genetic Enhancement Technologies

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Equilibrium

Introduction

Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium

Mutation–Selection Balance

Overdominance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Homeostasis

What Is Homeostasis?

Populations as well as Individuals Can Be Homeostatic

Organisms May Achieve Homeostasis via Heterozygosity

Inbreeding Leads to Genetic Uniformity but Not Phenotypic Uniformity

Fluctuating Asymmetry Is Another Indicator of Poor Homeostasis

Increased Variability among Inbreds Has Practical Implications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetic Load

Introduction – Definitions of a Genetic Load

The Mutational Load

The Segregational Load

The Substitutional Load

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetic Marker

See also

Genetic Material

See also

Genetic Migration

See also

Further Reading

Genetic Nomenclature, Bacteria

Nomenclature

Genotypes

Phenotype

Transposon Insertions

Chromosome Rearrangements

Strain Collections

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetics Nomenclature, Mouse

Background

Guidelines

Genes

Expressed Sequence Tags

Gene-Trap Loci

Mapped Genomic DNA Fragments

Chromosomal Anomalies

Mitochondrial Genes

Nuclear tRNA and rRNA Genes

MicroRNAs

Mutant Alleles

Mutant Phenotypes

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

Spontaneous Mutations in Structural Genes

Induced Mutations in Structural Genes

Controversy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Ratios

See also

Genetic Recombination

Definitions

Genetic Mapping

Recombination and DNA Structure

DNA Repair by Recombination

Genome Engineering by Recombination

See also

Glossary

Genetic Redundancy

Introduction

Mechanisms of Genetic Redundancy

Genetic Interactions Provide an Experimental Framework for Genetic Redundancy

Genetic Redundancy as a Tool for Biology Discovery

See also

Further Reading

Genetics (as a Discipline)

Introduction

Transmission Genetics

Physiological Genetics

Population Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genetic Translation

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genetic Variation

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genome Analysis, YACs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genome Organization

Introduction

Whole-Genome DNA Sequencing

Genomes of Bacteria

Genomes of Placental Mammals

Genomes of Fish, Plants, Yeasts, Ciliates, Crustaceans, and an Ant Species

Localized Repetitive DNA Sequences in Rats, Humans, and Flies

Organization of Centromeres in Fungi, Worms, Flies, and Humans

Organization of Telomeres in Humans, Ciliates, Yeasts, and Flies

Dispersed Transposable Sequences in Humans, Flies, Plants, Worms, Yeasts, and Bacteria

Gene Numbers in Bacteria, Yeasts, Worms, Flies, Plants, Fish, and Humans

Gene Families

Pseudogenes

Orphan Genes

Gene Sizes

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Genome Relationships: Maize and the Grass Model

See also

References

Genome Size

What Is Genome Size?

C-Value Paradox

Extragenic DNA

C-Value Enigma

Phenotypic Correlates of Genome Size: The Nucleotype

Evolution of Genome Size

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genomic Libraries

Introduction

Fragmentation

Vectors for Small Inserts

Vectors for Medium Inserts

Vectors for Large Inserts

Next-Generation Libraries

The Future of Genomic Libraries

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genomics

Introduction

DNA Sequencing and Genomics

Understanding Genomics

Whole-Genome Studies

Advantages of Genomics Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Genotoxic Stress

Introduction

Characteristics of Genotoxic agents

Types of Genetic Damage

DNA Mutation in Cancer

Mechanisms of Genetic Damage and Carcinogenesis

DNA Repair Mechanisms

Test Systems for GS Evaluation

DNA Damage and Human Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genotype

See also

Genotypic Frequency

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Genotyping (Subtyping) Bacteria

History of Genotyping

History of Bacterial Genotyping

Genotyping versus Subtyping

Molecular Methods

Data Analysis and Inferences

Future of Genotyping Bacteria

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Germ Cell

Overview

Germline Development

Meiosis

Gametogenesis

Imprinting in Germ Cells

Immortality and Totipotency

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker Disease

History and Characterization

Epidemiology and Genetics

Clinical Course

Neuropathology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Giemsa Banding, Mouse Chromosomes

See also

References

Further Reading

Gilbert, Walter

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gliomas

Introduction

Childhood Gliomas

Common Adult Gliomas

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Globin Genes, Human

Introduction

Hemoglobin Genes Are Organized in Clusters

Structure of Globin Genes and Their Clusters

How Globin Genes Are Regulated

How Human Hemoglobin Genes Evolved

Normal Variation of Structure of Globin Genes

Mutations of Globin Genes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase’s Role in Red Blood Cell Metabolism

G6PD: Biochemistry

G6PD Deficiency: Necessary But Not Sufficient Condition for Clinical Manifestations

Biochemical Evaluation of G6PD Deficiency

G6PD: Genetics

Molecular Diagnosis of G6PD Deficiency

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glutamic Acid

See also

Glutamine

See also

Glycine

See also

Glycolysis

The Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas Pathway

The Entner–Doudoroff Pathway

Nonglycolytic Energy Generation from Glucose

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Glycosylase Repair

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Goldschmidt, Richard Benedict

See also

Further Reading

Grasses, Synteny, Evolution, and Molecular Systematics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana

Introduction

A. thaliana as a Model for the Study of Gravitropism

Gravity Sensing and Signal Transduction

Signal Transmission to the Responding Zone

The Curvature Response

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Group Selection

The Origin of Group Selection

The Modern Theory of Group Selection

Group Adaptation

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Growth Factor and Signaling Networks

Introduction

History and Background

GF and Cancer

EGFR

HER2

IGF

VEGF

GF and Stem Cells

Cross talk between GFR and Other Membrane-Bound Receptors

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

GT–AG Rule

See also

GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate)

See also

Guanine

See also

Relevant Website

Gynogenone

See also

Gyrase

Introduction

Gyrase Reaction Mechanism

Drug Inhibition of Gyrase

DNA Replication

Chromosome Segregation

DNA Compaction

Transcription

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

H

H19 Locus

Introduction

Isolation and Characterization

Expression Profile

Genomic Imprinting

Biological Functions

Molecular Mechanisms of H19-Mediated Regulation

Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Infertility

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hadulins

See also

Reference

Hairpin

See also

Hairy Cell Leukemia

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Haldane, J. B. S.

Introduction

Population Genetics

Metastable Populations

Cost of Natural Selection

Human Genetics

India

Science and Ethics

Science Popularization

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Haldane–Muller Principle

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Handedness, Left/Right

Introduction

Molecular Handedness

Developmental Handedness

Behavioral Handedness

See also

Haploid Number

See also

Haploinsufficiency

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Haplotype

See also

Hardy–Weinberg Law

Introduction

Deriving Hardy–Weinberg Proportions

Importance of Hardy–Weinberg Proportions

Applications of the Hardy–Weinberg Law

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Harlequin Chromosomes

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heat Shock Proteins

Introduction

Twenty-Five Years from the Thermally Induced Puffs in Polythene Chromosome to the Chaperone

Molecular Chaperones

Heat Shock Response

Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

The World of ‘Stress Proteins’

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Helicases

Helicases Participate in All Aspects of Nucleic Acid Metabolism

Biochemical Properties of Helicases

Helicases Are Nucleic Acid-Dependent ATPases but Can Be Distinguished from Translocases

Helicases Are Classified into Superfamilies but Share Core Domains

Further Classification of Helicases

Studying the Mechanism of Action of Helicases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Helicobacter pylori

Background

Genetics of H. pylori

The Vacuolating Cytotoxin

cagA

oipA

Combinations of Virulence Factors

Evolution of H. pylori

Adaptive Evolution of H. pylori

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Helix-Turn-Helix Motif

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Helper Phages

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hematopoiesis

Introduction

Hematopoiesis – The ‘Hematopoietic Tree’

Hematopoiesis – The Hematopoietic ‘Niche’

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hemizygote

See also

Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn

Pathophysiology

Molecular Basis

Clinical Practice

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hemophilia

Introduction

Population Genetics

Factor VIII Gene (F8)

Factor IX Gene (F9)

Factor VIII and Factor IX

Mutations Causing Hemophilia A

Mutations Causing Hemophilia B

Genotype–Phenotype Correlations

Mutational Heterogeneity and Its Relevance to Genetic Counseling

Treatment of Hemophilias A and B

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hereditary Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hereditary Neoplasia

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heritability

Introduction

Magnitude

Discrete Traits

Estimation

Uses and Possible Abuses

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hershey, Alfred

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heteroallele

Definition

Heteroallelic Complementation

Heteroallelic Recombination

History

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Heterochromatin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heterochronic Mutation

Heterochronic Mutation

Developmental Timing in C. elegans

Molecular Analysis of Heterochronic Genes Led to the Discovery of MicroRNAs

Coordination of Developmental Time throughout the Organism

Developmental Timing Mutants in Other Organisms

Heterochronic Abnormalities in Humans

Relationship to Heterochrony

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heteroduplexes

Introduction

Natural Occurrence of Heteroduplex

Making Heteroduplex in the Laboratory

Mismatch Repair

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heterogenote

See also

Heterokaryon

See also

Heteropyknosis

See also

Heterosis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Heterotrimeric G Proteins

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Heterozygote and Heterozygosis

Alleles and Heterozygotes in Populations

Allelic Origins in a Heterozygote

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

Phenotypic Effects of Alleles in Heterozygotes

Reproductive Fitness of Heterozygotes

Heterozygote Advantage

See also

Hfr

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hin/Gin-Mediated Site-Specific DNA Inversion

DNA Inversion Systems

DNA and Protein Requirements for DNA Inversion

Assembly of the Invertasome and DNA Cleavage

DNA Exchange by Subunit Rotation

Regulation of the Hin/Gin DNA Inversion Reaction

Current and Future Research

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hirschsprung’s Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Histidine

See also

Histidine Operon

The Histidine Biosynthetic Pathway

Origin and Evolution of the Histidine Genes

Organization of the Histidine Genes

Regulation of the Histidine Biosynthesis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Histocompatibility

See also

Histone Genes

Background

Organization

Transcriptional Control of Histone Genes

Posttranscriptional Control of Histone mRNA

Importance of Histone Gene Sequences for Transcriptional Control in Eukaryotic Nucleus

See also

Further Reading

Histones

See also

Hitchhiking Effect

See also

Further Reading

HIV Genetics

HIV Evolutionary Tree

HIV Mutagenesis and Evolutionary Genetics

Viral–Host Coevolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Introduction

Classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hogness Box

Introduction

Structures of the Hogness Box

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Holliday Junction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Holliday’s Model

See also

Further Reading

Relevant websites

Glossary

Holocentric Chromosomes

Introduction

Mitotic Behavior

Meiotic Behavior

Chromosome Rearrangements

Evolutionary Implications

Outstanding Questions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Holophyly

See also

Homeobox Genes

Structure of the Homeodomain

Classes of Homeobox Genes

Plant Homeobox Classes

Evolution

Function

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Homeotic Genes

See also

Homeotic Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Homogeneously Staining Regions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Homologs

See also

Homology

Introduction

Homology at the Taxon Level

Origin of Homologous Characters

Homology and Homoplasy at Different Levels of Organization

Independence of Different Homologues

Recognition and Testing of Homologues

Similarity Test

Conjunction Test

Congruence Test

Homology Issues in Molecular Genetics

Issues of Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Homoplasy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Homozygosity

Homozygosity

Genomic Runs (Blocks) of Homozygosity Record Population History and Consanguinity

Homozygosity of the MHC, HLA Class II in Alloreactivity

Homozygosity of Immunoglobulin Allotypes and Natural Killer Functions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hordeum Species

Introduction

Origins and Phylogeny

Uses of Barley

Cytogenetics of Barley

Genetic Markers and Genetic Maps of Barley

Sequencing the Barley Genome

The Breeding of Barley

Pests and Diseases

Genetic Engineering of Barley

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Horizontal Gene Transfer

Introduction

Frequency of Horizontal Transfer

Mechanisms of Horizontal Transfer

Detection of Horizontal Transfer

Trans-Domain Horizontal Transfer

Horizontal Gene Transfer between Eukaryotes

Significance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Host-Lethal Gene

See also

Host-Range Mutant

See also

Hot Spot of Recombination

Basic Properties of Meiotic Hot Spots

Molecular Basis of Meiotic Hot Spots

Hot Spots in Prokaryotes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hot Spots

See also

Housekeeping Gene

See also

Hox Genes

Introduction

Hox Gene Expression Pattern

Regulation of Hox Gene Expression in the Hindbrain

Epigenetic Regulation of Hox Expression

Hox Gene Function

Hox Genes and Human Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

HTLV-1

HTLV-1-Associated Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Human Chromosome Aberrations

Introduction

Numerical Chromosome Aberrations

Structural Chromosome Aberrations

Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Human Chromosomes

Human Chromosomes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Human Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Human Genome Project

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Human Mitochondrial Genetics and Evolution

Mitochondrial DNA: Characteristics

Molecular Variation in Human mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography

Pseudo-Mitochondrial Genome

Phylogeny as a Tool for Data Quality Control

Human Population Considerations in Biomedicine

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Human Prion Diseases

Introduction

Clinical Syndrome in Genetic Prion Diseases

Epidemiology

Genes

Mutations

Diagnostic Principles

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Human Sex Reversal Loci

Introduction

Genes Implicated in Both 46,XY and 46,XX DSDs

Genes Implicated in 46,XY DSDs

Genes Implicated in 46,XX DSDs

Androgen-Related Genes Implicated in DSDs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hunter Syndrome

Introduction

Clinical Picture

Genetics and Epidemiology

Treatment

Future Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Huntington’s Disease

Introduction

Epidemiology and Clinical Features

Genetics

Pathology

Pathological Mechanisms

Relationships with Other Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases

Treatment Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Huxley, Julian Sorell

Introduction

Family

Career

Research in Embryology

Huxley as Popularizer

The Evolutionary Synthesis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Huxley, Thomas Henry

See also

Hybrid

See also

Hybrid Dysgenesis

Introduction

Nonreciprocal Induction

Hybrid Dysgenesis in Nature

Hybrid Dysgenesis-Induced Sterility

Hybrid Dysgenesis in Taxa Other Than Drosophila

Evolutionary Implications and Genetic Engineering Applications

Mechanism of Nonreciprocal Induction

Evolutionary Implications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Hybrid Sterility

What Is Hybrid Sterility?

Why Is Hybrid Sterility Important?

What Causes Hybrid Sterility?

What Causes Haldane’s Rule?

What Is the Mechanism for Hybrid Sterility?

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hybrid Sterility, Mouse

What Does the Mouse Contribute to Hybrid Sterility Studies?

Hybrid Sterility Loci and the Dobzhansky–Muller Model

Hybrid Sterility 1 Locus Encodes the Histone Methyltransferase, PRDM9

Large X-Effect and the Role of Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hybrid Vigor

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hybrid Zone, Mouse

What Is a Hybrid Zone?

Tension Zones

A Case Study: The House Mouse

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hybrid-Arrested Translation

See also

Hybridization

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hybridization, Organismal

Introduction

Hybridization Rates

Hybridization and Hybrid Zones

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hydatidiform Moles

Introduction

Partial Hydatidiform Mole

Complete Hydatidiform Mole

Imprinting in Hydatidiform Moles

Molar Tissue Coexisting with a Normal Fetus

Familial Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Hyperchromicity

See also

Hypervariable Region

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

I

Ichthyosis

Introduction

Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis

Congenital Ichthyosis with Other Inheritance Patterns

Syndromic Ichthyoses

Discussion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Identity-by-Descent

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Idiogram

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

IGF2 Locus

The Biological Function of IGF2

Genomic Structure and Organization of the IGF2 Locus

The Regulatory Control of Genomic Imprinting

The IGF2 Locus and Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Igf2r Locus

The IGF2R Locus

Gene Nomenclature

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Illegitimate Recombination

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Imaginal Disks

General Overview

Developmental Origin and Larval Development of the Imaginal Disks

Cellular Structure of Imaginal Disks

Genetic Regulation of Imaginal Disk Development

Imaginal Disks as a Developmental Models of Epithelial Development and Biomedical Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Immunity: Phage, Plasmids, Transposons

See also

Immunogenetics

Introduction

Genetic Defects that Affect Lymphocyte Development or Function

Genetic Defects That Impact Development or Function of Phagocytic Cells

Defects in Cytokine Signaling

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Immunoglobin Superfamily

The Origins of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily

What Is an IgSF Domain?

How Did IgSF Domains Evolve?

What Are the Functions of IgSF Domains?

IgSF Domains and Immunity

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Immunological Tolerance

An Overview of Immunological Tolerance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Imprinting, Genomic

Developmental Consequences of Imprinting

Genetic Studies of Imprinting in the Mouse

Imprinting in Disease

Mechanism of Imprinting

Function and Evolution of Imprinting

See also

Further Reading

In Situ Hybridization

DNA Probes Used in FISH

Other Applications of FISH

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

In Vitro Evolution

Introduction

The History of In Vitro Evolution

In Vitro Evolution: Basic Insights

In Vitro Evolution: Applied Research

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

In Vitro Fertilization

The Early History of In Vitro Fertilization

IVF and Genetics Today

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

In Vitro Mutagenesis

Nonselective Mutagenesis

Site-Directed Mutagenesis

Primer-Directed Mutagenesis

Libraries of Mutations

Prospects

See also

Further Reading

In Vitro Packaging

See also

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

See also

Inbred Strain

Introduction

The Generation of Inbred Strains

See also

129 Inbred Strain

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Inbreeding Depression

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Incompatibility

See also

Incomplete Dominance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Incross

See also

Indel

See also

Independent Assortment

See also

Independent Segregation

See also

Inducer

See also

Induction of Prophage

See also

Induction of Transcription

History and General Principles

The Example of the lac Operon

Some Other Inducible Systems

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Infertility

Introduction

Genetic Infertility: Problems with Egg and Sperm Production

Infertility Associated with Reproductive Tract Abnormalities

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Influenza

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Influenza Virus

See also

Relevant Websites

Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Inherited Rickets in Humans and Domestic Animals

Background

Defects in Vitamin D Metabolism

Renal Tubular Defects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Initiation Factors

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Insertion Sequences

Discovery

General Structure

Occurrence and Variety

Role of ISs in Gene Transfer and Expression

ISs as Part of Transposons

IS Ends: Terminal IRs

IS Ends: Terminal Secondary Structures

Tpases: Domain Structure and Catalytic Site

Transposition Strategies

Target Specificity

Control of Transposition Activity

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Insulinoma

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Integrase

Integrase

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Integrase Family of Site-Specific Recombinases

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Integration

Integrons

Many Different Classes of Integrons

Integrons Capture Gene Cassettes

The Recombination System

Expression of Cassette-Associated Genes

Class 1 Integrons: A Special Case

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Intelligence and the ‘Intelligence Quotient’

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Intelligent Design

Introduction

The Argument of Design

The Bacterial Flagellum

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Intercross

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Interference, Genetic

See also

Interphase

See also

Intersex

See also

Further Reading

Interspecific, Intraspecific Cross

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Intervening Sequence

See also

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

New Look at Protein Structure and Function

Brief Structural Classification of IDPs

Amino Acid Determinants of Intrinsic Disorder

Abundance of Intrinsic Disorder

Biological Functions of IDPs

Functional Disorder-to-Order Transitions

Fuzzy Complexes and Binding Staccato

Modification of IDP Function via Posttranslational Modifications

Intrinsic Disorder and Alternative Splicing

IDPs and Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Intron Homing

Overview of Mobile Introns

Group I Introns: Intron Homing

HE Genes

Group II Introns: Retrohoming

Intron Mobility by Reverse Splicing and Retrotransposition

Applications and Biotechnology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Introns and Exons

Diversity and Distribution

Role in Gene Expression

Mutation and Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Inversion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Inverted Repeats

See also

Glossary

Inverted Terminal Repeats

See also

Isochromosome

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Isolation by Distance

See also

Further Reading

Isoleucine, Chemical Structure

See also

Isomerization (of Holliday Junctions)

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Isotype

J

Jacob, François

Introduction

One of the Main Founders of Bacterial Genetics

The Later Work of François Jacob

Some Characteristics of François Jacob’s Work

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Jukes–Cantor Correction

Jukes–Cantor Correction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Junk DNA

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

K

Karyotype

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

kb (Kilobase)

See also

α-Ketoacids

Introduction

Structure and Biochemistry

Physiology

Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Kimura Corrections

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Kimura, Motoo

Introduction

The Life of the Pioneering Scientist

The Selectionist–Neutralist Controversy

Kimura’s Dream: The Four-Step Scenario

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Kin Selection

Introduction

Kin Selection Optimizes Inclusive Fitness

Kin Selection and Social Behaviors

How Does Kin Selection Operate in Nature?

General Application of Kin Selection

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Kin Selection: Hamilton’s Theory

Exploitation and Cooperation

Kin Selection

Hamilton’s Rule and the Social Insects

Multilevel Selection

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Kinases (Protein Kinases)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Kinetochore

Introduction

Structure

DNA Composition of Kinetochore-Associated Chromatin

Centromere-Associated Proteins

Role in Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Klinefelter Syndrome

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Knockout

See also

Khorana, Har Gobind

See also

Further Reading

Koelreuter, Joseph Gottlieb

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Kornberg, Arthur

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Kuru

Kuru

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

L

lac Mutants

See also

lac Operon

See also

Lactose

See also

Lagging Strand

See also

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste

Life and Career

Theory of Evolution

The Inheritance of Acquired Characters

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Lamarckism

J.-B. Lamarck (1744–1829)

Nineteenth- to Early Twentieth-Century Lamarckism

Late Twentieth- to Early Twenty-First-Century Lamarckian Perspective

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Lampbrush Chromosomes

Evidence for the Read-Through Hypothesis for LBCs

Other Questions We Should Ask about Lampbrushes

See also

Glossary

Relevant Websites

Late Genes

Definition

Cascade of Viral Gene Expression and Regulation

Function

Late Gene Positions and Arrangements within the Viral Genome

Late Gene Promoters

Mechanisms Coupling Viral DNA Replication and Late Gene Transcription

‘Late’ Genes in RNA Viruses

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lateral Signaling

Lateral Inhibition/Lateral Specification

Classic Studies of Bristle Patterning Suggested the Existence of Lateral Specification

LIN-12/Notch Signaling Mediates Lateral Specification

The Importance of Feedback Mechanisms in Lateral Specification

LIN-12/Notch Signal Transduction

Biased Lateral Signaling: Modulation of LIN-12/Notch

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Leader Peptide

See also

Leader Sequence

Transcription in Bacteria

Translation in Bacteria

Translation in Eukaryotes

Transcription and Translation of Viral mRNAs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Leading Strand

DNA Replication Is Semiconservative

DNA Polymerases Replicate DNA in the 5′ to 3′ Direction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Least Squares

See also

Lederberg, Joshua

Introduction

Lederberg’s Early Life and Education

Focusing on Microbial Genetics

Exobiology and Studies on Biological Weapons

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Leguminosae

Introduction

Origin and Domestication of Legumes

Phylogeny and Evolution in Legumes

Cytogenetics of Legumes

Legumes: Functional Genomics to Molecular Breeding

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lejeune, Jérôme

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Lesch–Nyhan Syndrome

Introduction

Etiology

Clinical Description

Epidemiology

Diagnostic

Genetics

Genetic Counseling

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lethal Locus

See also

Lethal Mutation

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Leucine

Leukemia

Introduction

Diagnosis

Therapy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Leukemia, Acute

Introduction

Acute Myeloid Leukemias

Lymphoblastic Leukemias

Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Leukemia, Chronic

Normal Hematopoiesis

Chronic Leukemias of the Lymphoid Lineage

Chronic Leukemias of the Myeloid Lineage

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Levan, Albert

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lewis, Edward B.

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Library

See also

LIM-domain Proteins

Introduction

Classifications of LIM Domains and LIM Domain Proteins

Structures of LIM Domains

Mechanisms of Action

Group 1 LIM Proteins

Group 2 and 3 LIM Proteins

Group 4 LIM Proteins

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Line

Introduction

The Human LINE-1 Retrotransposon

LINE-1 Replication and the Mechanism of Target-Primed Reverse Transcription

Potential Beneficial Effects of LINE-1 Activity

Host-Encoded Mechanisms of Defense against LINE-1 Retrotransposition

LINE-1-Mediated Genome Manipulation in Vertebrates

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Linkage

Introduction

Detection of Linkage

Linkage to a Centromere

Linkage Maps

Linkage in Prokaryotes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Linkage Disequilibrium

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Linkage Group

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Linkage Map

Introduction

Construction of Linkage Maps

Composite Linkage Maps

Utilizing Human Linkage Maps

Integration of Human Linkage Maps with Genes and Physical Maps

Utilizing Mouse Linkage Maps

Using Linkage Maps for Defining Homology Relationships

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Linker DNA

See also

Lipomas and Leiomyomas

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Little, Clarence Cook

See also

Further Reading

Relevant websites

LMO Family of LIM-Only Genes

Discovery of the LIM-Only Genes

The LIM-Only Gene Family and Proteins

LIM-Only Protein Structures

LMO Proteins Function as Transcriptional Regulators in Development

LMO Proteins and Cancer

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Locus

See also

Glossary

LOD Score

See also

Long-Period Interspersion

See also

Long Terminal Repeats

See also

Glossary

Loss of Heterozygosity

Genetic Alterations and Tumorigenesis

Sources of Heterozygosity and their Detection

LOH and the Location of Tumor Suppressor Genes

LOH Analysis and Clinical Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lotus japonicus: A Model Plant for the Legume Family

The Model Plant Features

Symbiosis

Genetics of Symbiotic Pathways

Translational Genetics and Genomics

Genome and Proteome Resources

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lung Cancer, Chromosome Studies

Introduction

Cytogenetic Analysis

Common Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Lung Cancer

Clinical Relevance of Chromosomal Abnormalities

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Luria–Delbrück Experiment

Luria–Delbrück Experiment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Luria, Salvador

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lutheran Blood Groups

Introduction

The Lutheran Gene (BCAM) and the Lutheran Glycoproteins (CD239)

The Lutheran Antigens

Lutheran Deficiency Phenotypes

Lutheran Antibodies

Functional Aspects of the Lutheran Glycoproteins

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lysenko, T. D./Lysenkoism

Lysenko

Lysenkoism

Soviet Genetics and Politics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lysine

Lysis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Lysogeny

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Lysozyme

See also

Further Reading

M

Macronuclear Development, Ciliates

Conjugation

DNA Rearrangements during Macronuclear Differentiation

The Control of Macronuclear Differentiation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Macronucleus, Ciliates

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mammalian Genetics (Mouse Genetics)

Mice Are the Ideal Mammalian Model Organism

Beyond Genetic Similarities: Mice as Ideal Genetic Model Organisms

High-Resolution Genetic Maps

Mapping of New Mutations

Loss of Function of a Gene through Homologous Recombination

Conditional Deletion of a Gene Can Overcome Early Lethality

From LoF to GoF: A Necessary Step to Verify the Function of a Gene

Analyzing Gene Networks through Mutagenesis and Expression Profiles

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Map Distance, Unit

See also

Glossary

Map Expansion

Introduction

Explanations for Map Expansion

Misuse of ‘Map Expansion’

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mapping Function

Haldane’s Mapping Functions

Haldane’s No-Interference Function

Haldane’s Interference Function

Other Mapping Functions

Circular Functions

Functions and Chromosomes

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Mapping Panel

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Marfan Syndrome

Introduction

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis

Prevalence

Cause

Management

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Marker

See also

Glossary

Marker Effect

See also

Glossary

Marker Rescue

See also

Masked mRNA

See also

Maternal Effect

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Maternal Inheritance

What Is Maternally Inherited?

How Is It Inherited?

Maternal Inheritance versus Maternal Effects

Evolutionary Consequences of Maternal Inheritance

Medical Implications of Maternal Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Mating Types

See also

Mating-Type Genes and Their Switching in Yeasts

The Homothallism Phenomenon of Yeast

The Pattern of Switching in Cell Pedigrees Is Highly Regulated

Site-Specific DNA Transposition Mechanism of Cell-Type Switching

The DSB Initiates MAT/mat1 Gene Transposition

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Maximum Likelihood

Maximum Likelihood Estimator

Hypothesis Testing Using Maximum Likelihood

Profile Likelihood

Application to Linkage Analysis

Application to Population-Based Genetic Association Studies

Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

MC29 Avian Myelocytomatosis Virus

MC29 Avian Myelocytomatosis Virus

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

McClintock, Barbara

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Medicago truncatula

Medicago truncatula: A Model Legume

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Meiosis

Why Meiosis?

Initiation of Meiosis

Meiotic Cell Division

Evolution of Meiosis

Meiosis in Mammals

Meiotic Errors

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Meiotic Drive, Mouse

Mouse t Haplotypes

Other Examples of Meiotic Drive

Deviation from Mendelian Inheritance

See also

Glossary

Meiotic Product

See also

Melanoma, Cytogenetic Studies

General Overview of Cytogenetic Abnormalities Detected in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

Differences in Cytogenetic and Molecular Genetic Findings among Various Types of Cutaneous Melanoma

Cytogenetic Findings in Intraocular Uveal Melanoma

Clinical Usefulness of Cytogenetics in Melanoma

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Melting Temperature (Tm)

See also

Mendel, Gregor

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mendelian Genetics

See also

Mendelian Inheritance

See also

Mendelian Population

See also

Mendelian Ratio

See also

Mendel’s Laws

Introduction

Gregor Mendel: The Father of Genetics

Influences on Mendel

Mendel’s Early Life

Mendel’s Paper

Choosing Traits to Follow

The First Generation from the Hybrids, and Beyond

Tracking More Than One Trait

Mendel’s Conclusions

Mendel Is Ignored, Then Rediscovered

Influences on Mendelian Ratios

A Molecular View of the Traits Mendel Studied

Mendel’s Laws Today

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Meselson–Radding Model

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Meselson–Stahl Experiment

See also

Glossary

Messenger RNA

The Genetic Code

Transcription

Processing of the Transcribed RNA

mRNA Binding to Ribosomes

Reading Frame and Usage of the Genetic Code

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

MET

Discovery of MET and Its Ligand, HGF

MET Signaling Transduction Regulated by Down-Streamed Adaptor Molecules

Organogenesis and Tissue Homeostasis via Endogenous HGF–MET Pathway

Gain of MET Function by HGF for Regeneration Therapy

Loss of MET Function by HGF Antagonists for Antitumor Therapy

Summary and Perspective

Further Reading

Glossary

Metabolic Disorders, Mutants

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Metacentric Chromosome

See also

Glossary

Metagenomics

Samples

DNA/RNA Isolation

Sequencing

Special Cases

Data Analysis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Methionine

See also

Metric, Manhattan

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Metric, Ultra

See also

Further Reading

Metrics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

MIC and MIC-M Classifications of Leukemia

See also

Microarrays

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Microbial Genetics

The Power of Microbial Genetics

The Activities of Microbial Genetics

Genetics Beyond E. coli

Mutagenesis and Phenotype

Mapping

Complementation

Reversion and Second-Site Suppression

Epistasis and Pathway Analysis

Analysis of Regulons and Regulatory Circuits

Genomics

See also

Further Reading

Microbial Genetics: F Factor

Introduction and Early History

General Features of the F Plasmid

Conjugative F Plasmid Transfer

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Microbial Genomics

Introduction

Microbial Genome Sequencing and Annotation

Current Applications of Genomic Data

Future Applications for Genomics

Conclusions

See also

References

Relevant Websites

Microchromosomes

Introduction

Evolution of Microchromosomes

Microchromosome Genomics and Dynamics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Microcomplement Fixation

See also

Further Reading

Microinjection

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Micronucleus, Ciliates

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Microsatellite

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Microtubules

See also

Minicells

See also

Minichromosome

See also

Minimal Residual Disease

Introduction

Hematological Malignancies

Solid Tumors

Implications for Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Minimum Change

See also

References

Minisatellite

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mismatch Repair, Long/Short Patch

Introduction

Escherichia coli Long-Patch MMR

Human Long-Patch MMR

MMR and DNA Damage Response

MutY (MYH) Repair Pathway

Repair of Deaminated 5-Methylcytosine

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mistranslation

Errors in Translation

Antibiotics and Mutations Which Influence Error Frequency

Alternative Readings of Standard Code

See also

Mitochondria

Structure

Function

Biogenesis

Evolutionary Origin

Varieties of Mitochondria: Mitochondria-Related Organelles

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitochondria, Genetics of

Cellular Basis of Life

Mitochondrial Genomes

Inheritance

Unusual Features

Mitochondrial Proteins

Evolution

Cellular Communication

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitochondrial DNA

Isolation

Form

Size and Copy Number

Gene Organization

Evolutionary Origin

Inheritance and Usage

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitochondrial Genetics/Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitochondrial Genome

Function

Mitochondrial Genes

Genetic Code

Gene Expression

Evolutionary Origin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitochondrial Inheritance

Introduction

Mitochondrial Bottleneck

Evolution of Organelle Uniparental Inheritance

Doubly Uniparental Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mitochondrial Mutants

Fungi

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

Humans

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitosis

Overview of Mitosis

NEBD Marks the Onset of Mitosis

Chromosomes

Microtubules

Centrosomes

Regulation of the Mitotic Cell Cycle Phases

Mitotic Asymmetry

Mitotic Abnormalities in Disease Like Cancer

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

MLL

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Molecular Chaperones

Introduction

Protein Folding by Chaperonins

Protein Remodeling by Hsp70/DnaK

Protein Activation by Hsp90

Protein Unfolding and Disaggregation by Clp/Hsp100 Chaperones

Protection from Irreversible Protein Aggregation by sHsps

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Molecular Clock

Discovery

Global Clock and Local Clocks

Molecular Clock and Neutral Theory

Controversy over the DNA Clock

The Extended Concept of the Molecular Clock

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Molecular Drive

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Molecular Genetics

See also

Monochromosomal Somatic Cell Hybrids

See also

Monocistronic mRNA

See also

Monoclonal Antibodies

Background

Monoclonal Antibodies from Plasmacytomas

Monoclonal Antibodies from Epstein–Barr Virus-Transformed cells

Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal Antibodies from Libraries of Genes and Gene Segments

Monoclonal Antibodies from Synthetic Libraries

See also

References

Monod, Jacques

See also

Further Reading

Monomorphic Locus

See also

Monophyly

See also

References

Monosomy

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Morgan, Thomas Hunt

Further Reading

Morpho-Agronomic Traits

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

MOS

See also

Further Reading

Mosaicism in Humans

Origins of Mosaicism

Timing of Mosaicism

Development of Mosaic Embryos

Chromosome Specific Factors

Mosaicism in Pre-Implantation Embryos

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mouse

The Strategy

Inbred Strains

Crosses

Selection

Chromosomal Aberrations

A Specific Disease Analogy

Specific Gene Homologies or Analogies

Other Models

Advanced Protocols

Nomenclature

Breeding Systems

Record Keeping and Colony Management

Cryobiology

Informatics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Mouse Genetics

Historical Overview

Transgenesis and Targeted Mutagenesis

Forward Genetic Screens

Sequence of the Mouse Genome and Inbred Strains

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mouse Leukemia Viruses

Basic Virology

Host–Virus Interactions

MLV and Neoplasia

MLVs as Genetic Vectors

Vaccination against MLV

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Mouse Sex-Reversed Rearrangement

Introduction

Sxr Mutation

Ods Mutation

An Atypical Sex Determination System

Mouse Genetic Background Impact

Mouse Transgenic Models

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

mtDNA

See also

Mucopolysaccharidosis

Introduction

Mechanism of Disease in MPS

Features of Specific Types of MPS

Treatment for MPS

Clinical Manifestations of Neurological Disease

Clinical Manifestations of Bone and Joint Disease

Clinical Manifestations of Cardiovascular Disease

Other Clinical Manifestations

Therapies under Development

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mule

See also

Muller, Hermann J.

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Muller’s Ratchet

Introduction

A Broader View of Muller’s Ratchet

Using the Ratchet Idea with Asexual Recombination and Assortment

Further Reading

Multicopy Plasmids

See also

Multifactorial Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Multiplicity of Infection

MOIinput, an Estimation of Limited Utility

MOIactual, a Better but More Complicated Calculation

Poisson Distribution

Experimental Determination of MOI

Killing Titers

The Problem of Clumping

More Problems with MOI, Particularly MOIinput

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Multisite Mutation

See also

Murine Plasmacytomas

Introduction and Objectives

Characterization of Human and Murine Plasma Cells

Mechanisms of Transformation and Cellular Origin of PCNs

Identification of Cellular Origins of PL, APCT, and Plasmacytic PCT

Summary and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mus musculus

Origin and Differentiation

Evolution in Association with Humans: Secondary Expansion

Secondary Admixture, Hybridization, and Reproductive Isolation

Laboratory Strains and the Wild Reservoir of Genetic Variability

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mus musculus castaneus

Taxonomy and Phylogeography

Secondary Expansion and Admixture

Contribution to Laboratory Strains

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mus spretus

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Muscular Dystrophies

Introduction

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

Distal Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

Myotonic Dystrophy

Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mutagenic Specificity

Introduction

DNA Damage

Replication Fidelity at DNA Damage

DNA Repair as a Source of Specific Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mutagens

Mutagens Damage DNA, Nucleotides (dNTPs), and Inhibit DNA Repair Enzymes

Endogenous Mutagens: Oxygen, Water, and Alkylating Agents

Exogenous (Environmental) Mutagens

Detecting Mutagens

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mutant Allele

See also

Mutation

What is a Mutation?

What Kinds of Mutations Occur and What are their Consequences?

Base-Substitution Mutations

Addition or Deletion Mutations

Inversions and Complex Mutations

Large Deletion/Addition Mutations

Chromosomal Mutations

How Frequently Do Mutations Occur?

Why Mutations Occur

Examples of How Mutations Can Occur

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mutational Analysis

Mutational Analysis of Identified Sequence Variants

Mutational Analysis to Examine Protein Structure and Function

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mutational Site

See also

Further Reading

Mutation, Back

See also

Mutation Frequency

See also

Mutation, Leaky

See also

Mutation Load

See also

Mutation, Missense

See also

Mutation, Nonsense

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mutation, Null

See also

Mutation Rate

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mutation, Silent

Traditional Interpretation of Silent Mutations

Synonymous Mutations Are Not Always Silent

Evolutionary Significance

Application of Silent Mutations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mutation, Spontaneous

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Mutator Phenotype

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mutators

See also

Myb Oncogene

Myb Family Proteins

c-Myb Is a Critical Regulator of the Hematopoietic Hierarchy

c-Myb Is Directly Linked to Leukemogenesis

Other Tissues in which c-Myb Normally Plays a Role and Can Be Implicated in Oncogenesis

Altered c-Myb Activity Is Linked to Many Diseases in Addition to Cancer

Regulation of c-Myb Functional Activity

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Myxococcus Genetics

Genetic Tools

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma

Definition

Characteristics

Genetics

Etiology

Diagnostics

Treatment

Prognosis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

N

N2, N3, N4, etc.

See also

Nägeli, Carl von

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nathans, Daniel

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Natural Selection

Darwin, Wallace, and the Theory of Natural Selection

Genetic Consequences of Natural Selection

Selection on Continuous Traits

Detecting Natural Selection

Levels of Selection

See also

Further Reading

Nature–Nurture Controversy

Introduction

Roots of the Controversy

Polarization in the Political and Policy Arenas

Dialectic Reconciliation

Cancer: A Prototype for a Complex Systems Approach

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Nearly Neutral Theory

History

Verification of the Nearly Neutral Theory by Comparison of Nonsynonymous and Synonymous Substitutions

DNA Polymorphisms

Robustness of Gene Regulation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Negative Complementation

See also

Negative Interference

Bacteriophage Crosses

Meiosis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Negative Regulators

See also

Negative Supercoiling

See also

Neoteny

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Network

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Neu Oncogene

Neu Oncogene

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Neurofibromatosis Type 2

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Neurogenetics

Introduction

Animal Models in Neurogenetics

Integrative Neurogenetics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neurogenetics in Drosophila

Introduction

Early Years

Behavioral and Developmental Genes

An Example of the Neurogenetic Approach to Complex Behavior

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neurogenetics of Neurotransmitter Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

Using a Free-Living Nematode to Study Neurobiology

Genetic Dissection of Neurotransmission

Neurotransmitters

Trafficking of Vesicles

Synaptic Vesicle Cycle

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

Propagation of the Electrical Signal along Axons

Future

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Neuronal Guidance

Introduction

The Structure of Growth Cones

Attractive and Repulsive Guidance Forces

Guidance Molecules

Guidance Cues in Brain Repair and Genetic Disorders

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neurosensory Specification and Development

Bmp’s and Fgf’s Transform Ectodermal Cells into Competent Neuroectoderm

Regional Expression of Transcription Factors Defines Neurosensory Domains

Identity of Neurosensory Compartments Depend on Cell Cycle Dynamics

Proliferation Can Be Divided into Three Phases

The bHLH Transcription Factors Play a Key Role in the Balance between Proliferation and Differentiation That Is Essential for Proper Cell Fate Decision Making

Dynamic Interplay among bHLH Transcription Factors both in a Given Cell and between Cells Defines and Refines Cell Fate

Transformation of Naïve Ectoderm to Neurosensory Cell Fate Decision Marks the Start of Functional Differentiation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neurospora crassa

Life Cycle

History

Genome Structure and Genome Defense Systems

Heterokaryons

Other Features of the Organism

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Neutral Drift

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neutral Mutation

Dynamics within Populations

Evolutionary Dynamics

Empirical Evidence for Neutral Evolution

Related Theories

See also

Further Reading

Neutral Theory

History

Behavior of Mutants in Populations

Selective Constraint

Molecular Clock

The Neutral Theory as a Null Hypothesis for Detecting Selection

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Nick

See also

Nick Translation

See also

nif Genes

See also

Further Reading

Nirenberg, Marshall Warren

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nod Factors

Introduction

Signal Exchange in Early Stages of Rhizobium–Legume Interaction

NF Perception and Signaling Pathway

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Nodulins

See also

Nomenclature of Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Nomenclature of Human Genes

Background

Symbols and Names

Current Issues

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Nonautonomous Controlling Elements

See also

Non-coding

Noncoding DNA

Noncoding RNA

See also

Glossary

Noncoding RNA

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Non-Darwinian Evolution

History of the Term ‘Non-Darwinian Evolution’ as Popularized by King and Jukes

The King and Jukes Argument

Responses to King and Jukes

A More Literal Definition

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nondisjunction

Consequences of NDJ

Molecular Mechanisms of NDJ

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Introduction

Diagnosis

Therapy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Non-Mendelian Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nonreciprocal Exchange

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nonrepetitive DNA

See also

Nonsense Codon

See also

Nonsense Suppressor

See also

Nontranscribed Spacer

See also

Northern Blotting

The History of Northern Blotting

Use and Current Manifestations of Northern Blotting

Principle of the Northern Blotting Method

An Example of a Northern Blot

Interpretation of Northern Blotting Results

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nuclear Envelope, Transport

Structure of the Nuclear Envelope

Functions of the NE

NE and Inherited Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nuclear Pores

See also

Nuclear Transfer

Somatic Cell Hybridization

Nuclear Transfer into Egg Cytoplasm

Nuclear Transfer as a Tool to Study Nuclear Reprogramming

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nuclease

Nucleases Function in Many Processes that are Important for Life

Nuclease Classification

Nucleases in DNA Replication

Nucleases in DNA Repair and Recombination

RNases

Nucleases Used for Biotechnology

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Nucleic Acid

See also

Glossary

Nucleolar Organizer

See also

Nucleolus

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nucleomorph Genomes

Nucleomorph Genomes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Nucleoside

See also

Glossary

Nucleosome

See also

Nucleosome Remodelling

Changing the Chromatin Structure

Mechanisms of Nucleosome Remodeling

SNF2 Family of Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes

SWI/SNF Class

ISWI Complexes

INO80 Family

CHD/Mi-2 Family

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nucleotide

See also

Glossary

Nucleus

See also

Glossary

Nude Mouse

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Null Hypothesis

See also

Further reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Nullisomy

See also

Nutritional Mutations

Introduction

Mutations Effecting the Utilization of Organic Compounds for the Supply of Major Elements (Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus) and Energy

Mutations Effecting Central Fueling Pathways

Mutations Effecting Biosynthesis of Amino Acids, Lipids, Nucleotides, and Cofactors

Occurrence of Nutritional Mutations

Selection of Auxotrophic Mutations

Screening for Nutritional Mutants after Saturation Mutagenesis of Genomes

Intersection with Recombinant DNA Technology and Biotechnology

Expanding the Analysis of Nutritional Mutants in Humans

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

O

Ochoa, Severo

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ochre Codon

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Ochre Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Ochre Suppressor

See also

Ohno’s Law

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Okazaki Fragment

DNA Replication Is Semiconservative

DNA Polymerases Replicate DNA in the 5′ to 3′ Direction

Discontinuous Replication Generates Okazaki Fragments

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Olfaction

Introduction

Olfaction in Mammals

Olfactory Receptors

Organization of Olfactory Receptors

Olfactory Signal Transduction

Genetic Approaches to Studying Olfaction – C. elegans as Model System

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Oncogenes

Genetic Basis of Cancer

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

OncoMouse®

OncoMouse® Biology

OncoMouse® Policy Ramifications

See also

Oogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Oogenesis, Mouse

See also

Opal Codon

See also

Open Reading Frame

See also

Operators

Definition and History

Current Use of the Term and Some Examples

Multiple Operators

Some Properties of Operators

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Operon

The lac Operon

lac Regulation

The Tryptophan Operon in E. coli

Operons on a Catabolic Plasmid of Pseudomonas putida

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Organelles

Types of Organelles

Organelles of Energy Production and Oxygen Metabolism

Other Organelles

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Origin (ori)

See also

Origin of Life, Theories Of

Origin of Life: A Brief Historical Overview

Origin of Life: A Survey of Possible Scenarios

Synthetic Biology and the Empirical Approach to the Origin of Life

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Orphan Receptor

Orthology

See also

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Introduction

Clinical Presentations and Features

Nondeforming OI with Blue Sclerae (OI Type I)

Common Variable OI (OI Type IV)

Progressively Deforming OI with Normal Sclerae (OI Type III)

Perinatally Lethal OI Syndromes (OI Type II)

OI with Calcification in Interosseous Membranes (OI Type V)

Syndromes with Bone Fragility or Osteoporosis Plus Additional Features

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Outbreeding

Definition

Mechanism of Outbreeding

Genetic Effect and Utilization of Outbreeding

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Outcross

See also

Overdominance

See also

Further Reading

Overwinding

See also

Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Development (Hermaphroditism)

Ovotesticular Disorders of Sexual Development

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ovulation

Further Reading

Glossary

P

p120RasGAP

Introduction

Structure and Biochemistry

Aberrant Function and Human Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Paedomorphosis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Painter, Theophilus Schickel

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Palindrome

See also

Panmixis

See also

Paralogy

See also

Paramecium Molecular Evolution

Introduction

Cell Structure and Genetics

Molecular Genetics

Molecular Evolution

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Parapatric

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Paraphyly

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Parasegment

See also

Parental

See also

Parsimony

Motivation of Parsimony

Generalizations of Parsimony

Potential for Systematic Error

Applications of Parsimony

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Parthenogenesis

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Paternal Inheritance

Paternally Inherited Nuclear Factors

Paternally Inherited Cytoplasmic Components

Paternal Contributions as Revealed by Paternal Effect Mutations

Summary

See also

Glossary

Pathogenicity and Other Genomic Islands

Horizontal Gene Transfer

Pathogenicity Island Definition

PAI-Carried Virulence Genes

PAIs as Mediators of ‘Quantum Evolution’

Genomic Islands

New General Definition

Island Origins

PAI Mobility

SaPIs and Their Transfer

Conjugative Mobilization of PAIs

Converting Phages

Future Work

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Pattern Formation: An Integument Paradigm

Spatial Patterns

Temporal Patterns

Regeneration and Engineering of Patterns

Recognition of Patterns

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Pax Genes

Introduction

Protein Structure

Expression Pattern during Development

Expression Pattern during Development

Mutations, Phenotypes, and Function

Cell Differentiation and Oncogenesis

Pax Genes in Adult Tissue and Regeneration

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

pBR322

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Pearson, Karl

Karl Pearson (1857–1936)

Pearson’s Early Life and Education

Pearson’s German Wanderlust

Mechanics and University College London

Gresham Lectures and a New Statistical Methodology

Correlation, Regression, and Heredity

Pearson’s Early Hereditarian Ideas

 

Homotyposis and the Biometric Teas

Mendelian Distributions and The Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

Pearson and Mendelism

Yule’s Synthesis of Mendelism and Biometry

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pedigree Analysis

See also

P Elements

A Genetic Element in Drosophila

Transposition

The P Transposase Gene

P Repressor Polypeptides

Hybrid Dysgenesis

Cytotype Regulation

A P Invasion

Research Applications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Penetrance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Peptide Bond

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Perinuclear Space

See also

Permissive Cells

See also

Petite

See also

Glossary

P-Glycoprotein

Relationship to Other ABC Transporters

Substrate Profiles and Binding

Normal Tissue Distribution and Physiological/Pharmacological Relevance

Pgp in Cancers and Regulation of MDR Gene Expression

Mechanisms of Action

Pgp Inhibitors and Strategies for Modulating Resistance

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Phage (Bacteriophage)

See also

Relevant Websites

Phage Crosses

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Phage Mu

The Mu Life Cycle

The Mature Phage

The Genetic Map and Expression of the Mu Genome

The Decision: Lysis or Lysogeny

Transposition: Conservative and Replicative

Nonrandom Integration and Transposition Immunity

Mom Modification

G Segment Inversion and Host Range Specificity

Mu as a Genetic Tool

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Phage Receptor

Introduction

Receptors, Antireceptors, and the Infection Process

Antireceptor Evolution

Receptor and Phage-Based Applications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Phage λ Integration/Excision

Introduction

Integrase

Accessory Proteins

Tetramer Structure

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Pharmacogenomics

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phase Variation

Overview

Mechanisms of Phase Variation

Alterations in DNA Sequence (Genetic)

Methylation of DNA (Epigenetic)

Biological Significance of Phase Variation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phaseolus vulgaris (Beans)

Taxonomy and Genetic Resources

Production

Genetics and Genomics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phenetics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phenocopy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Phenogram

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phenotype

See also

Phenotypic Lag

See also

Phenotypic Mixing

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Phenylalanine, Chemical Structure

See also

Phenylketonuria

Introduction

Classification of PKU

Biochemistry

Genetics

Diagnosis

Clinical Outcome

Treatment

Nondietary Treatments

Monitoring the Diet

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Phi (φ)X174, Genetics of

Introduction

The Genetic Map and Its Evolution

The Genetics of Genome Replication and Packaging

The Genetics of Gene Expression

The Genetics of Particle Morphogenesis

Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Philadelphia Chromosome

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Photomorphogenesis in Plants, Genetics of

Overview

Mutants with Defective Light Responses

The Phytochromes: A Class of Dichromic Red/FR Photoreceptors

The Cryptochromes

Phototropins and Other Light Oxygen Voltage-Domain Photoreceptors

General Themes in Plant Photoreceptor Signaling

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Photoreactivation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Photorepair

See also

Photosynthesis, Genetics Of

Photosynthesis

The Chloroplast and Its Genome

Model Organisms

Chloroplast Genetics

Photosynthesis Mutants and Their Phenotypes

The Genes of Photosynthesis

Regulation

Concluding Remarks and Perspective

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phylogenetic Invariants

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phylogeny

Tree Searching

Tree Construction

Networks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Phylogeography

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Physical Mapping

See also

Piebald Trait

Human Piebald Trait

Related Disorders: Waardenburg Syndrome and Hirschsprung’s Disease

Unrelated Pigmentation Disorders: Albinism and Vitiligo

Mice and the Piebald Trait

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pigmentation, Mouse

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pim Family of Proto-Oncogenes

Identification

Regulation of Pim Expression

Physiological Functions of Pim Kinases

Pim Role in Tumorigenesis

Pim Kinases in Human Malignancies: Targets for Cancer Therapy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Pisum sativum (Peas)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Plant Development, Genetics of

Introduction

Embryonic Development

Shoot Development

Root Development

Flower Development

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Plant Embryogenesis, Genetics of

The Unique Nature of Plant Embryogenesis

Establishing the Embryo Body Plan: Formation of the Apical–Basal Axis

Establishment of the Shoot Apical Meristem

Establishing the Embryo Body Plan: Formation of the Radial Pattern

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Plant Hormones

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Plant Root Development, Genetics and Genomics Of

Root Architecture and Development

Genetic Dissection of Root Formation

Genomic Dissection of Root Development

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

The Rhizosphere

The Rhizosphere Effect on Soil Microorganisms

Effect of Rhizobacteria on Plant Growth

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

Mechanisms of Growth Promotion by PGPR

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Plaques

Introduction

General Characteristics of Plaque

Plaque Formation

Enumeration Using Plaques

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Plasmid Replication

Introduction

Control by Negative Feedback

Control by Antisense RNA

Control by Limiting Initiators

Control by Iterons

Plasmid Incompatibility

Ensuring Replication

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Plasmids

General Concepts

Inheritance

Incompatibility

Conjugation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pleiotropy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Plesiomorphy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ploidy

See also

Pluripotent Stem Cells

A Brief History of Pluripotency

Defining Traits of Human PSCs

Human PSC Characterization

Induced PSCs

Human PSC Culture

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pneumonia Bacteria

Medical Significance

DNA Uptake

Competence and Quorum Sensing

Understanding the Capsule

Antibiotic Resistance

Model System for Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Point Mutations

See also

Polarity, Developmental

Cell Polarity: A Universal Feature of Development

Cell Polarity in Yeast

Anterior–Posterior Polarity in Animals: Early Patterning of ‘the Worm’

Planar Cell Polarity in Animals: Wing Hairs in Fly

Apical–Basal Polarity in Animals: Epithelial Cells

Epithelial Cell Polarity: Organized Joint Venture

Apical–Basal Polarity in Plants: Plant Embryogenesis

Planar Cell Polarity in Plants: Plant Root Hairs

Perspective

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Polaron

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Poly(A) Tails

Introduction

Poly(A) Tails in Eukaryotes

Functional Importance of Eukaryotic Poly(A) Tails

Fate of Eukaryotic Poly(A) Tails

Substrates for Polyadenylation in Eukaryotes

Poly(A) Tails in Prokaryotes

Substrates for Polyadenylation in Prokaryotes

Function of Prokaryotic Poly(A) and Polynucleotide Tails

Polyadenylation Signals in Prokaryotes

Polyadenylation Complexes in Prokaryotes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Polyadenylation

See also

Polycistronic mRNA

See also

Polymerase

Introduction

Polymerase Structure and Function

The Replisome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary terms

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Polymerase Chain Reaction, Real-Time Quantitative

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Polymorphism

Introduction

Blood Group Polymorphism

Inversion Polymorphism

Protein Polymorphisms

DNA Polymorphisms

Uses of Polymorphisms

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Polymorphisms, Tree Reconstruction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Polypeptides

See also

Polyploidy

Types of Polyploidy and Nomenclature

Detection of Polyploidy

Palaeopolyploidy in Evolution

Origin of Polyploidy

Polyploidy in Crop Plants

Polyploid Cell Types

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Polysome (Polyribosome)

See also

Polytene Chromosomes

Endoreplication

Organization of Polytene Chromosomes of D. melanogaster

Gene Localization

Gene Isolation and Cloning

See also

References

Relevant Websites

Population Genetics

Definition and Scope

Population Genetics Theory

Applications

Future Developments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Population Genomics/Macro vs Microevolution

Genomic Perspectives on Human Origins

Footprints of Human Migrations in Genome-Wide Data

Insights into Adaptation and Speciation

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Population Substructure

Origins of Population Substructure

Genetic Consequences of Population Substructure

Wright’s F Statistic

Migration between Subpopulations

Inferring Population Structure

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Position Effects

Introduction

Variegated Position Effects

Genomic Position Effects

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Positive Regulator Proteins

See also

Positive Supercoiling

See also

Relevant Websites

Postmeiotic Segregation

Normal Meiotic Segregation

Definition of Postmeiotic Segregation

Origin of Postmeiotic Segregation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Posttranscriptional Modification

See also

Posttranslational Modification

Chemical Extension of the Genetic Code

Major Types of PTMs

Expanding Structural and Functional Repertoires of Proteins via PTMs

Classification of PTMs

Intrinsic Disorder and PTMs

PTMs and Diseases

Experimental Tools for PTM Finding and Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

(p)ppGpp

Introduction

Structure

Differential Effects on pppGpp/ppGpp Ratios

Chemical Properties

Permeability and Cellular Localization of (p)ppGpp

Biological Synthesis and Degradation

Identification of (p)ppGpp Synthetase and/or Hydrolase Activities Arising from a Gene of Interest

Tests to Determine Sensitivity of Regulatory Targets to (p)ppGpp

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Predator–Prey and Parasite–Host Interactions

Introduction

Sequential Structure of Enemy–Victim Interactions

Monogenic Control of Simple Defense Traits

Polygenic Control of Complex Defense Traits

Host–Parasite Coevolution

Gene-for-Gene Interactions between Plants and Pathogens

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, Preimplantation Genetic Screening, and the Transfer of In Vitro Fertilized Embryos

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pre-mRNA Splicing

Precursor Messenger RNA

The Pre-mRNA Splicing Reaction

Spliceosomal Small Nuclear RNAs and Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Particles

Assembling the Spliceosome on Pre-mRNA

Proteins Involved in Pre-mRNA Splicing

Molecular Switches in the Spliceosome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Prenatal Diagnosis

Prenatal Diagnosis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Primary Transcript

See also

Primase

Discovery

Bacterial Primases

Biochemical Properties

Essential Physiological Properties

Macromolecular Synthesis Operon

Archaeal/Eukaryotic Primases

Primase Genes

Genetic Control of Primase Expression

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Primer

The Initiation of DNA Replication: In Vitro Reactions

The Initiation of DNA Replication In Vivo

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Primer RNA

Definition

Discontinuous DNA Synthesis and the Primer RNA Hypothesis

The Sequence of Primer RNA

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Primitive Character

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Primosome

See also

Probe

See also

Processed Pseudogene

See also

Progenote

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Progeny Testing

Overview

Testing for Recessive Genes

Selection Based on Progeny Performance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Prokaryotes

See also

Glossary

Proline

See also

Prolymphocytic Leukemia

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Promoters

Promoters in Escherichia coli

Promoters of Eukaryotic Protein-Encoding Genes

Future Research on Promoters

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Proofreading

See also

Prophage

See also

Protein Interaction Domains

See also

Protein Microarrays

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip) Technology: DNA Bound Proteins

RNA–Protein Translation Microarray

Enzyme–Substrate Microarray

Antibody Sandwich ELISA microarray

Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Protein Secretion Systems

Signal Hypothesis: Directing Proteins to Membranes

Secretion in Bacteria

Bacterial General Secretory Pathway

Assembly of a Complex Organelle in the Periplasm and Outer Membrane

Type III Secretion Systems

Secretion in Eukaryotic Cells

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Vesicle Loading and Transport to the Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Apparatus

Diseases Caused by the Misfolding of Secretory Proteins

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Protein Splicing

Discovery of Inteins

Intein Organization

Chemical Mechanisms of Intein Action

Intein Applications in Modern Biotechnology/Molecular Biology

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Protein Synthesis

See also

Proteins and Protein Structure

Proteins Are Polymers of Amino Acids

Levels of Protein Structure

Features of Secondary Structures

Combinations of Secondary Structure Form Motifs

Globular Proteins Form Structural Domains at the Level of Tertiary Structure

Quaternary Structure

Protein Complexes and Networks

Fibrous Proteins

Posttranslational Covalent Modification of Proteins

Structural Genomics

See also

References

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Proteolysis

Regulatory Mechanisms and Biological Function of Proteases

Tools for Studying Proteases

Proteases as Tools for Cell Biology Research

Proteases as Drug Targets

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Proteome

Introduction

Biomarker Discovery: Winners and Losers

Mass Spectrometry

Bioinformatics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Proteomics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Proto-Oncogene

See also

Provirus

See also

Proximal

See also

Pseudoautosomal Linkage, Region

Introduction

How Do PARs Evolve?

PAR Function

How Similar Are PARs across Species?

Human PARs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pseudogene

See also

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Psoriasis

Introduction

Immunopathogenesis

Genetics

Changes in the Transcriptome in Psoriasis

MicroRNA Expression in Psoriasis

Epigenetic Alterations in Psoriasis

Conclusion

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Puff

See also

Pulse–Chase

See also

Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

The Principle of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

Types of PFGE

Running Conditions for PFGE

Pulsed-Field Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Punnett Square

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Punnett, Reginald Crundall

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Purine

Pyrimidine

See also

Pyrimidine Dimers

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Q

Q-Banding

Introduction

Mechanism of Q-banding

Application of Q-banding

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus)

Introduction

QTL Mapping via Linkage

Results of QTL Analyses

From QTL to the Underlying Causal Variation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

QTL Mapping

Introduction

One-Marker Analysis

Interval Mapping

Composite Interval Mapping

Multiple Interval Mapping

See also

References

Quantitative Genetics

Definition

Classical Quantitative Genetics

Molecular Quantitative Genetics Based on Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping

Molecular Quantitative Genetics Based on Genomics

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Quantitative Inheritance

Quantitative Trait and Quantitative Inheritance

Historical Hypotheses on Quantitative Inheritance

A Further Hypothesis: Gene Network of Quantitative Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Quantitative Trait

Phenotypic and Genetic Variation

Resemblance between Relatives

Effectiveness of Selection

Direct Evidence of Polygenic Inheritance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Quorum Sensing

What Is Quorum Sensing?

What Constitutes a QS Signal?

QS and Communication between Bacterial Species and Higher Organisms

Evolutionary Implications of QS

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

R

RAD Genes (in Yeast)

See also

Radiation Genetics, Mouse

See also

References

Random Mating

Definition

Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium in Random Mating Population

Factors Breaking the Equilibrium in Random Mating Population

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Ras Gene Family

Protein Function

RAS Signaling Pathways

Functional Diversity within the RAS Family

Transcriptional Control via RAS

Oncogenic Mutations

Cancer

Protein Structure

Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitors

X-Ray Structural Studies of RAS

See also

References

Rats: Genetic and Functional Genomic Analyses of Complex Phenotypes

Background

Genetic Mapping of Complex Phenotypes in the Rat

Rat Genetic and Genomic Resources

Disease Gene Identification in Rat Models

Transgenesis and Gene Targeting

Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

rDNA Amplification

See also

Glossary

Reading Frame

Glossary

Rearrangements

Rearrangements

Genesis of Rearrangements by Non-Allelic Homologous Recombination

Genomic Rearrangements Occur in Healthy Individuals

Prediction, Identification, and Purification of Genomic Rearrangements

Natural Genomic Design

Genomic Rearrangements as a Powerful Evolutionary Force

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Rec Genes

See also

References

Further Reading

RecA Protein and Homology

RecA Monomer Structure

RecA Filament Structure

RecA Protein-Mediated DNA Strand Exchange Reaction

ATP and the RecA-Mediated Strand Exchange Reaction

Eukaryotic RecA Homologs

Function of Homologous Genetic Recombination: DNA Repair

RecA and the E. coli SOS Response to DNA Damage

See also

Further Reading

RecBCD Enzyme and Pathway

Composition of RecBCD Enzyme and Its Encoding Genes

Activities of the Purified Enzyme

Atomic Structure of RecBCD

Control by Chi Sites in DNA

recBCD Mutations

Roles in Recombination and DNA Break Repair

The RecBCD and Other Pathways of Recombination

Additional Roles in DNA Metabolism

Related Enzymes of Other Bacterial Species

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recessive

See also

Recessive Inheritance and Recessiveness

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recessive Lethal

See also

Reciprocal Cross

Definition

Genetic Effect and Utilization of Reciprocal Cross in Plants

Genetic Effect and Utilization of Reciprocal Cross in Animals

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Reciprocal Recombination

Reciprocal Recombination in Meiosis

Relationship to Gene Conversion

Site-Specific Recombination is Often Reciprocal

Nonreciprocal Recombination in Prokaryotes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Reciprocal Translocation

See also

Reciprocality

See also

Reckless DNA Degradation

General Description of the Phenomenon

Molecular Mechanism of Reckless DNA Degradation

Biological Significance of Reckless DNA Degradation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Recombinant

See also

Recombinant Congenic Strains

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Recombinant DNA

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recombinant DNA Guidelines

See also

Relevant Websites

Recombinant Inbred Strain

Introduction

Production

Nomenclature

Genetics

History

Applications

Extensions of RI Families

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recombination Hot Spots, Mouse

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Recombination in the Immune System

The Antigen Receptor Repertoire

V(D)J Recombination and Lymphocyte Development

The V(D)J Recombination Pathway

Allelic Exclusion

Regulation of V(D)J Recombination

Antigen Receptor Diversity

Secondary Diversification: Somatic Hypermutation and CSR of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain

The CSR Pathway

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recombination Nodules

Definition

EN Functions

LN Functions

Relationship between ENs and LNs

Detection of RNs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recombination Pathways

RecBCD Recombination Pathway

RecF Recombination Pathway

Interaction between RecBCD and RecF Recombination Pathway

RecE Recombination Pathway

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Recombination Suppression

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Recombination, Models of

The Nature of Homologous Recombination

The Three Possible Outcomes of HR

The DNA Formalism of HR

ssDNA Generation and Intermediate Resolution

Two Types of Recombinases

The Elemental Models

Complex Models

Systems to Detect HR

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Recombinational Repair

Detection of Homologous Recombination in E. coli

Pathways of Homologous Recombination in E. coli

Two-Strand DNA Lesions and the Idea of Recombinational Repair

Chromosomal Lesions and Their Physical Detection

The Inferred Pathways of Recombinational Repair

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Recombineering: A Modern Approach to Genetic Engineering

What Is Recombineering?

Recombineering with dsDNA

Recombineering with ssDNA

On the Mechanism of ssDNA Recombination

Moving Recombineering to Other Systems

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Reed–Sternberg Cells

Description and Associated Pathologies

Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg Cell Lines

Cellular Origin

Immunophenotype

Deregulated Signaling Pathways

Genetic Lesions in Reed–Sternberg Cells

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Reeler Locus

See also

Further Reading

Regulation of DNA Repair

See also

Regulatory Genes

Why Do Organisms Need Regulatory Genes?

Definition of a Regulatory Gene

History

An Effector Can Make or Break a Regulator

Superimposed Controls

Autoregulatory Genes

Specific versus Global Regulators

Some Regulators May Both Repress and Activate Transcription

Regulators May Perform Other Cellular Functions

DNA-Binding Properties

Allosteric Modification

Interaction of Regulators with RNA Polymerase

Mechanistic Details of the Action of Regulators

Complex Regulatory Structures: DNA Loops

Epilog

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Regulatory RNA

Introduction

The World of Regulatory RNAs

Widespread Functionality of Regulatory RNAs

Medical Significance of Regulatory RNAs

Concluding Remarks – Multifaceted RNAs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Rel Oncogene

Introduction

The Retroviral Oncogene v-rel

The Normal Function of the Proto-oncogene c-rel

Associations of REL with Human Cancer

Associations of REL with Other Human Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Release (Termination) Factors

See also

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Pathology, Classification, and Clinical Behavior of RCC

Neuroblastoma-Associated RCC

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Renaturation

See also

Repair Mechanisms

Correction of Errors and Damage in DNA

Types and Sources of Errors and Damage

Biological Effects of DNA Damage and Errors

Direct Reversal of Damage

Indirect Reversal of Errors and Damage

Recombinational Repair

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Repair of Oxidatively-Modified DNA

Base Excision Repair

Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription-Coupled Repair

Nucleotide Incision Repair

Strand Break Repair

Mismatch Repair

Interstrand Cross-link Repair

Nudix Hydrolases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Repeat Induced Point Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Repetitive Sequences

The Discovery History

Classification

The Biological Function

Utilities of Repetitive Sequences

Repetitive Sequences and Diseases

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Replication

Replication Errors

See also

Replication Eye

See also

Replication Fork

DNA Replication Forks Are Sites of Ongoing DNA Replication

Coordinating DNA Replication Fork Activities

Sister Chromatid Cohesion

Blocked Replication Forks

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Replication Origin Sequences

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Replicon

See also

Replisome

See also

Reporter Gene

See also

Repression

See also

Repressor

See also

Reproductive Isolation

The Relationship between Selection and Reproductive Isolation

Forms of Reproductive Isolation

Cause of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

Genetic Basis and Rate of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

Genomics and the Genic View of Reproductive Isolation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Resistance Plasmids

See also

Resistance to Antibiotics, Genetics of

See also

Resolvase

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Resolvase Mediated Deletion

Introduction

Resolvase and Its Resolution Site

The Resolution Process

Evolutionary Advantages of Resolvase-Mediated Deletion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Restriction and Modification

See also

Further Reading

Restriction Endonuclease

Types of Restriction Endonucleases

Adenosine Triphosphate Dependent Restriction Endonucleases

Type II Restriction Endonucleases

Applications of Type II Restriction Endonucleases

Mechanisms of DNA Recognition and Cleavage

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

Introduction

Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Restriction Map

See also

RET Proto-Oncogene

See also

Glossary

Reticulation

Examples of Reticulation

Different Types of Phylogenetic Networks

Spit Networks as an Example for Unrooted Implicit Phylogenetic Networks

Hybridization Networks as an Example for Rooted Explicit Phylogenetic Networks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Introduction

Genetics

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Retinoblastoma

Presentation and Diagnosis

Clinical Aspects

Treatment

Genetics

Molecular Aspects

Gene Product

Families with Retinoblastoma

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Retroposon

See also

Retroregulation

See also

Retrotransposons

Definition

Classification of Retrotransposons

Structure and Retrotransposition Mechanism

Distribution and Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Retroviruses

Overview

Genetic Structure of Retroviruses

Molecular Description of the Retroviral Life Cycle

Control of Gene Expression

Retroviruses and Cancer

Human Retroviruses

Retroviral Restriction Mechanisms

Retroviruses and Genetic Manipulation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Reverse Genetics

Background

Virus

Yeast

Caenorhabditis elegans

Drosophila

Mouse

Arabidopsis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Reverse Mutation

Introduction

True Reversion and Pseudoreversion

Selection

Forward Mutations Are More Frequent and Less Biased

Specific Useful Reversion Assays

Stress-Induced Mutation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Reverse Transcriptase

Structure of Reverse Transcriptase

Enzymology of Reverse Transcriptase

Reverse Transcriptase and Retrotransposons

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Reverse Transcription

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Reverse Translation

See also

Reversion

See also

Glossary

Reversion Tests

Reversion Tests Are Used to Assess Genome Stability

Information Learned from Reversion Tests

Applications

Advantages and Disadvantages

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Revertants

See also

Rh Factor and Rh System

What Is Rh Factor and How It Was Discovered?

Why Is Rh Factor Important in Clinical Medicine?

What Are the Biochemical Features of Rh Antigens or Polypeptides?

How Are Rh Factor and Rh Blood Group Systems Polymorphic?

What Are the Genetic Bases underlying Rh Diversification?

How Is the Expression of Rh Antigens Determined?

How Are Rh Antigens Related to Other Family Members by Molecular Evolution?

What Are the Functional Roles of Rh Proteins in Erythroid Cells and Epithelial Tissues?

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Rhabdomyosarcoma

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Rhizobia and Legume Nodulation Genes

Rhizobia Nodulation Genes

Legume Nodulation Genes

Legume Nodule Number Regulation Genes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Rhizobium

See also

Rho Factor

Transcription Termination

Structure

Termination Mechanism

Rho-Dependent Terminators

A Role for NusG in Termination

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Ribosomal RNA

rRNA Molecules

Structure of rRNA

Functional Sites

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ribosome Binding Site

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ribosomes

History

The Composition of Ribosomes

The Structure of the Ribosome

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis, Antibiotics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ribozymes

Definition

Discovery

Small Ribozymes

Large Ribozymes

Folding, Structure, and Catalytic Mechanism

Artificial Ribozymes

Ribozymes – Remnants of an RNA World?

See also

Further reading

Glossary

Rice

Introduction

Genome Sequence

Annotation

Resequencing

Functional Analysis

Impact in Rice Breeding

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Rifamycins

See also

Right/Left Handed DNA

See also

R-Loops

Introduction

Formation of R-Loops

Detection of R-Loops In Vivo

Nuclear Processes in Which R-Loops Can Form

Physiological Consequences of R-loop Formation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

RNA

See also

Further Reading

RNAases

History

Enzymology

Classes and Biological Functions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

RNA Bacteriophages

Introduction

The Leviviridae

The Cystoviridae

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

RNA-Binding Domains in Proteins

Introduction

RNP Domain (RNA-Recognition Motif)

Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Domain

K Homology Sequence Domain

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

RNA Editing

Introduction

RNA Editing in Mitochondrial and Choloroplast-Encoded Transcripts

RNA Editing in Nuclear-Encoded RNAs of Animals

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

RNA Editing in Animals

Insertion and/or Deletion Editing

Substitution or Modification RNA Editing

Other Forms of RNA Editing

See also

References

RNA Editing in Plants

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

RNA Interference

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

RNA Polymerase

Bacterial RNAPs

Eukaryotic RNAPs

See also

RNA Splicing

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

RNA Turnover

Biological Role of mRNA Degradation

A Diversity of mRNA Turnover Pathways in Eukaryotic Cells

The Deadenylation-Dependent Decapping Pathway

3′→5′ Exonucleolytic Degradation of Eukaryotic mRNAs

Deadenylation-Independent Decapping and mRNA Surveillance

Degradation of mRNAs Initiated by Endonucleolytic Cleavage

See also

Further Reading

RNA World

Overview

The Unlikely Nature of the RNA World

Worlds in Context

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Robertsonian Translocations

Introduction

Homologous Translocations

Heterologous Translocations

Meiotic Drive

De Novo Translocations

Postzygotic Correction and UPD

Types of RTs

RTs and Infertility

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Rolling Circle Replication

See also

RuvAB Enzyme

Crossed-Strand DNA Junctions Are Part of Intermediates in Recombination/Repair

Formation of Crossed-Strand Junctions by Strand Exchange

RuvAB Catalyzes Branch Migration

Biological Functions of RuvAB-Mediated Branch Migration

See also

References

Glossary

RuvC Enzyme

Crossed-Strand DNA Junctions in Repair and Recombination Intermediates

Endonucleolytic Resolution of Holliday Junctions by RuvC

Sequence Specificity of RuvC-Mediated Cleavages In Vitro

Other Holliday Junction Resolution Enzymes

See also

References

Further Reading

S

S Phase

See also

S1 Nuclease

See also

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer’s Yeast)

See also

References

Further Reading

Saccharomyces Chromosomes

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Salmonella

Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella enterica, Serotype Typhimurium): A Genetic System in a Pathogenic Bacterium

Taxonomy of Salmonella

Phage P22 and Transductional Crosses

Development of Salmonella as a Genetic System

Evolutionary Divergence of S. enterica and E. coli

Genetic Functions That Define Salmonella as a Species

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sanger, Frederick

Introduction

Early Career

Biochemical Research

The Laboratory of Molecular Biology

Sequencing Nucleic Acids

Retrospect and Honors

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sarcomas

Introduction

Classification

Etiology and Biology

Diagnosis

Prognosis and Grading

Selected Sarcoma Subtypes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Satellite Chromosomes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Schizophrenia

Clinical Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Genetics

Molecular Genetics

The Future of Schizophrenia Genetics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Schizosaccharomyce, Comparative Genomics of the Fission Yeasts

History

Pre-Genomic Studies

Comparative Genomics

Chromosome Evolution

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Principal Subject of Fission Yeast Genetics

History

General Genetics

Reverse Genetics

Genomics

Nuclear Division Cycle

Cell Shape and Growth

Sexual Differentiation

Meiosis and Recombination

Epigenetic Silencing in Heterochromatin

Mitochondrial Genetics

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Screening

See also

scRNA

See also

Seed Development, Genetics of

Seed Development

Screening for Seed Mutations

Mutant Phenotypes and Gene Functions

Basic Questions and Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Seed Storage Proteins

Classification of Seed Storage Proteins

Deposition of SSPs in Seed Cells

Regulation of SSP Genes

Decomposition of SSPs at Seed Germination Stage

Novel Application of SSPs

See also

Further Reading

Segmental Interchange

Visualization

Genetic Consequences

Interchange Complexes in Plants

See also

Further Reading

Segmentation Genes

Segregation

See also

Segregation Distortion, Mouse

See also

Selection Coefficient

Homozygotes Are Dead or Sterile

Change in Allele Frequency

Other Models

Selection Coefficients in Finite Populations

Selection Coefficients May Help to Preserve Allelic Variation

Selection Coefficients May Vary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Selection Differential

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Selection Index

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Selection Intensity

Selection intensity

Selection Response

Natural Selection

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Selection Limit

Factors Determining Limit due to Fixation

Mutation

Natural Selection

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Selection Pressure

Introduction

One Locus

Multiple Loci

Four-Locus Histogram

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Selection Techniques

See also

Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Selective Neutrality and Near Neutrality

Effect of a Mutant and Neutrality

Selective Neutrality

Selective Near-Neutrality

Patterns of Molecular Evolution

Effective Population Size

Robustness, Epigenetics, and Morphological Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Selective Sweep

See also

Further Reading

Self-Fertilization

Why Control Fertilization?

Strategies to Prevent Self-Fertilization in Plants

Genetic Control of Self-Incompatibility

Sporophytic Self-incompatibility

Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Selfish DNA

Selfishness in Nucleic Acids

Does the Nonfunctional Exceed the Functional Content of Genomes?

Repeated DNA: Selfish or Not; if Selfish, How Selfish?

Selfish Behavior of Chromosomes

Transposons and Retrotransposons

Mobile Introns

Plasmids and Episomes

Maliciously Selfish Genetic Elements

Summary and Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Semiconservative Replication

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Semidiscontinuous Replication

See also

Sense Codon

See also

Serine

See also

Sex Chromatin

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XYY

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sex Chromosomes

Introduction

Environmental Sex Determination

Genetic Sex Determination

Chromosomal Sex Determination

Sex Determination in Insects

Sex Determination in Birds

Sex Determination in Mammals

Sex Chromosome Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sex Determination, Human

Overview

Genes Required for Early Undifferentiated Gonad Formation

SRY: The Critical Y-Linked Testis-Determining Gene

Testis Development

Ovary Development

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Sex Determination, Mouse

Morphology and Cell Biology

Molecular Aspects of Gonad Development

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sexduction

See also

Reference

Sex-Limited Character

See also

Sex Linkage

See also

Sex Plasmid

Sex Ratios

The Düsing–Fisher’s Theory of Equal Investment in the Sexes

Biased Sex Ratios

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sex Reversal

XY Females (46,XY Ovarian DSD)

XX Males (46,XX Testicular DSD)

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sezary Syndrome

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

SH Domains

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

SH2 Domain

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

SH3 Domain

See also

Further Reading

Shearing

Shifting-balance Theory of Evolution

The Shifting Balance Theory

The Three-Phase Shifting Balance Process

Controversial Aspects of the Theory

The Legacy of the Shifting Balance Theory

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

See also

Shotgun Cloning

See also

Shuttle Vector

See also

Sickle Cell Anemia

Inheritance

Effect of the Sickle Cell Mutation

Clinical Features

Control and Treatment

Prognosis

Other Sickling Disorders

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sigma Factors

Introduction

Basic Role in Transcription: The Sigma Cycle

σ70 Structure and Function

How Sigma Activity Is Regulated

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Signal Sequence

See also

Relevant Websites

Signal Transduction

Signal Transduction, Cellular Communication, and Perception of the Environment

Signal Transduction by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

Signal Transduction by Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Similarity

See also

Further Reading

SINE

See also

Single Nucleotyde Polymorphisms

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Single-Copy Plasmids

See also

Single-Gene Inheritance

Further Reading

Glossary

Single-Strand Annealing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Single-Strand Assimilation

See also

Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Proteins

Functional Aspects of Having a High Affinity for Single-Stranded DNA

Structure of SSBs: How Do They Bind DNA?

Roles in Cellular Processes

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Single-Strand Exchange

See also

Sister Chromatid Exchange

Introduction

SCEs Methodology

SCE Significance

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sister Chromatids

See also

Site-specific Recombination

Introduction

Products of Site-Specific Recombination

Biological Functions of Site-Specific Recombination

Mechanism of Site-Specific Recombination: The Basics

Families of Recombinases

Site-Specific Recombination in Biotechnology

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Small Cytoplasmic Ribonucleoproteins

Origin of Small Cytoplasmic Ribonucleoproteins

scRNPs and Disease

Composition of the Ro (SS-A)- and La (SS-B)-Containing scRNPs

Functions of the La/SS-B-Containing scRNPs

Other scRNPs

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Small Nuclear RNA

Introduction

snRNAs

snoRNAs/psoRNAs/sdRNAs

miRNAs/siRNAs

piRNAs

tiRNAs

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Smith, Hamilton

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Snell, George

Sno/Ski Proto-Oncogene Family

Family Tree and Conserved Domains

Sno Function in Loss-of-Function Experiments

Sno Function in Gain-of-Function Experiments

Ski Function in Gain- and Loss-of-Function Experiments

Current Studies

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

snRNPs

See also

Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum (Tomato)

Taxonomy, Origin, and Diffusion

Genetic Stocks

Genetic Breeding

Recent Advances in Biotechnology Tools: Molecular Markers and Genomics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Solanum tuberosum (Potatoes)

Introduction

History

Potato Breeding

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Soluble RNA

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Somatic Mutation

See also

Somatic Pairing

See also

References

Further Reading

SOS Bypass

See also

SOS Repair

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Southern Blotting

Southern Blot Method

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Soybean (Glycine max L)

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Specialized Recombination

DNA Transposition

Retrotransposition

Site-Specific Recombination

V(D)J Joining

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Class Switch

Intron (and Intein) Homing

Mating-Type Switching in Yeast

Abrupt Telomere Shortening

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Specialized Transduction

Basis of Specialized Transduction

Extending the Range of Specialized Transduction

Other Specialized Transducing Systems

Uses of Specialized Transducing Phages

See also

Further Reading

Speciation

Introduction

Types of Speciation

Hybridization and Incomplete Speciation

Rates of Speciation

Isolating Mechanisms

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Species

Introduction

Species as Indivisible Units of Diversity

The Generative Principle of Species

Species as Phenetic Clusters of Organisms

Phylogenetic Basis of Species Demarcation

The Irreversible Separateness of Species

Incompatibility of Components of Different Species

Interfertility within Species and Intersterility between Species

The Cohesive Nature of Species

Ecological Distinctness of Species

The Origin of Species

The Reality of Species Versus the Nominal Nature of Species Taxa

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Species Selection

See also

Further Reading

Species Trees

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Specific Locus Test

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Spermatids

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spermatocytes

The Beginning: Fertilization and Its Consequences

Spermatogonial Cells Proliferate by Mitosis and Form Spermatocytes

Spermatocytes Undergo Meiosis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spermatogenesis in C. elegans

General Description of Spermatogenesis

C. elegans Reproductive Biology

Mutants Affecting C. elegans Spermatogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spermatogenesis, Mammals

Events of Spermatogenesis

Mitosis and Meiosis, Spermiogenesis, and Spermiation

Hormonal and Local Functional Axes That Regulate Spermatogenesis

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spermatogenesis, Mouse

Introduction

Spermatogonia

Meiosis

Haploid Differentiation

Intercellular Bridges

Regulation of Spermatogenesis

Study of Mouse Spermatogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Spermatogonia

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spina Bifida

Definition and Developmental Basis

Causes of Spina Bifida and Other NTDs

Prevention of NTDs by Folic Acid and Other Vitamins

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spindle

See also

Splicing

See also

Splicing Junctions

See also

Split Genes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Spongiform Encephalopathies (Transmissible), Genetic Aspects of

Introduction

Prion Protein and Gene

Clinical Characteristics

Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease

Gerstmann–Straussler–Scheinker Syndrome

Fatal Familial Insomnia

Codon 129 Protein Polymorphism

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Spores

See also

Src Family Tyrosine Kinases

Src Family

Structural Organization and Regulation of Src Proteins

Src Kinase Activity in Cellular Responses to Environmental Stimuli

Oncogenic Transformation by Src

Src in Human Cancer

See also

Further Reading

srRNA

See also

Further Reading

Staggered Cuts

See also

Staphylococcus aureus

Background on Organism

Classification

Genetics

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Start, Stop Codons

See also

Steel Locus

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Steroids

See also

Sticky Ends

See also

Strain

Strain Distribution Pattern (SDP)

See also

Strand Displacement

See also

Streptomyces

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Streptomycin

History of Streptomycin as an Antibiotic

Clinical Use of Streptomycin

Mechanism of Activity

Bacterial Resistance to Streptomycin

Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes

Structural Modifications of the Streptomycin-Binding Sites

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Stringent Mutant/Stringent Response

How Are Stringent Mutants Isolated?

Could the Location of Stringent Mutations Provide Clues to (p)ppGpp–RNAP Interactions?

How Do the Stringent Mutants Work?

Stringent Mutants in the Other Organisms

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Stringent Response

Introduction

RelA

SpoT

ppGpp0

RSH

(p)ppGpp Cycle

(p)ppGpp in Other Bacteria and Plants

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Structural Genomics

Introduction

HT Structural Biology

Major Worldwide SG Efforts

Impact of SG

Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Subcellular RNA Localization

Mechanisms of RNA Localization

cis-Acting RNA Localization Signals

Proteins That Bind RNA Localization Elements

The Role of the Cytoskeleton and Other Cellular Organelles

Localized Protection from Degradation

Biological Functions of RNA Localization

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Subcloning

See also

Superinfection Immunity

Introduction

Lysogeny and the CI Repressor

Superinfection Immunity and Its Bypass

Analogy, Practicality, and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Superrepressor

See also

Suppression

Types of Translational Errors

Suppressor tRNAs

Other Compensatory Changes Result in Suppression

Therapeutic Potential of Suppression

See also

Further Reading

Suppressor Mutations

Suppressor Mutation Concept

Intragenic Suppressors

Intergenic Suppressors

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Suppressor tRNA

See also

Symbionts, Genetics of

Definition of Symbiosis

Genetic Consequences of Symbiosis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Symbiosis Islands

Genomic Islands

The Symbiosis Island ICEMlSymR7A

Symbiosis Islands in Other Rhizobia

ICEMlSymR7A Defines a Family of Genomic Islands with Shared Transfer Functions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Symbiosome

Introduction

Specific Example 1: Legume/Rhizobia Facultative Symbioses

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sympatry and Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Sympatry

Introduction

General Considerations

A Changing Empirical Perspective

New Theoretical Insights

Genomic Structure and Speciation-with-Gene-Flow

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Symplesiomorphy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Synapomorphy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Synapsis in DNA Transactions

DNA-Mediated Synapsis

Protein-Mediated Synapsis

See also

Further Reading

Synaptonemal Complex

Historical Background

Development and Fate of the Synaptonemal Complex at First Meiotic Division

Structural Components of the Synaptonemal Complex

Recombination and Synapsis: Proteins Associated with the Synaptonemal Complex

Cohesin Axes and Synaptonemal Complex

Chromatin Attachment to the Synaptonemal Complex

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Syndactyly

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Syngenic

See also

Synovial Sarcoma

Disease Presentation

Molecular Biology

Diagnosis

Treatment and Prognosis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Synteny (Syntenic Genes)

Introduction

Human Genetics and Synteny

Comparative Genomics and Synteny

Controversy about the Correct Use of the Term Synteny

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Systemic Acquired Resistance

Innate Immunity: A Summary of the Current Concept

Resistance at a Distance: Another Aspect of Innate Immunity

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

T

T Cell Receptor Gene Family

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

t Haplotype

History and Genetics

Transmission Ratio Distortion

Evolution

Population Biology

Glossary

T Phages

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

TAL Family of bHLH Genes

Introduction

TAL Proteins Serve as DNA-Binding Transcription Factors

The Role of the TAL Genes in T-Cell Leukemia

See also

Further Reading

Tandem Repeats

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Targeted Mutagenesis, Mouse

Background

Zinc Finger and TALEN Technology

Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

TATA Box

See also

Tautomerism

Introduction

The Decalogue of Tautomerism

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Taxonomy, Evolutionary

Darwinian Classification

Cladification

Other Systems of Ordering Species

See also

References

Taxonomy, Numerical

Steps in Numerical Taxonomy

Additional Techniques

Other Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Tay–Sachs Disease

Inheritance, Distribution, and Frequency

Pathogenesis

Clinical Description

Diagnosis

Molecular Genetics

Treatment

Prevention

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

T-Box Genes

History

Defining Features of the Family

Phylogenetic Analysis

Role in Development

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Telomerase

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Telomeres

The Need for Telomeres

Terminal Repeats

Subtelomeric Structure

Telomere Overhangs

Telomerase Function

Telomere-Binding Proteins

Drosophila Telomeres

Telomeres, Aging, and Cancer in Humans

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Temperate Phage

See also

Temperature-Sensitive Mutant

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Template

Introduction

See also

Relevant Websites

Terminal Redundancy

See also

Terminator

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Test Cross

Definition

Utilization in Genetic Study

Utilization in Plant Breeding

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Testes-Determining Locus

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Tetrad Analysis

Meiotic Tetrads: Advantages and Availability

Tetrads and Octads in Fungi

Ordered Tetrads

Two-Locus Segregations: Independent Assortment

Linked Segregations

Strand Relationships in Double Crossovers

Distinguishing between Independence and Distant Linkage

See also

Further Reading

Tetraparental Mouse

See also

Tetratype

See also

Thalassemias

Classification of the Thalassemias

Molecular Basis

Clinical Course and Outcome

Clinical Diversity

Coinheritance of Thalassemia with Hb Variants

Population Genetics

Avoidance and Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Thermophilic Bacteria

Genome Sequences and the Evolutionary History of Thermophilic Bacteria

Mechanisms of Genetic Exchange

Bacteriophage and Plasmids of Thermophiles

DNA Supercoiling in Thermophilic Bacteria

Recombinant Genetics of Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Theta Replication

See also

Three-point Cross (Test Cross)

See also

Threonine

See also

Threshold Characters

See also

Thymine

See also

Thymine Dimer

See also

Tissue Culture

The Dawn of Tissue Culture

The Beginning of Modern Cell Culture

Serum-Free Cell Culture

The “Hayflick Limit”

Histoculture

Other Applications of Histoculture

In Vitro Skin Histoculture Assay

Lymphoid Histoculture for In Vitro Immunology

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Tjio, Joe-Hin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Topoisomerases

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Tortoiseshell Coloring

See also

Glossary

Toxicogenomics

Introduction

Background

Experimental Design

Analysis of Microarray Data

Toxicogenomics Databases

Applications of Toxicogenomics

Future Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transcribed Spacer

See also

Transcription

Transcription Decodes the Genetic Information and Is a Complex Process

Transcription Templates

RNA Polymerases

Transcription Cycle

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Transcription Factors

Transcription and the Transcription Apparatus

Transcription Factors Are a Subset of Factors Involved in Transcription

Transcription Factors: How They Were Discovered

Transcription Factors: How They Are Studied

Transcription Factors: How They Recognize Their Targets

Transcription Repressors: How They Work

Transcription Activators: How They Work

Transcription Factors: How Their Activity Is Controlled

Transcription Factors: What They Do

Transcription Factors: Key Regulators of the Cell’s Genetic Material

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transcriptional Attentuation

Introduction

Modulation of Leader RNA Structure

Modification of RNAP Processivity

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Transcriptome

Introduction

Means (Methods)

RNA Isolation/Copying/Hybridization

Data Acquisition

Data Processing and Experimental Design

Analyses Based Upon Known Biological Organization

Some Applications

Basal Level and Fold Change

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transduction

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transfection

See also

Transfer of Genetic Information from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Plants

Introduction

Events in the Bacterium

Events in the Plant

Use of A. tumefaciens for the Generation of Transgenic Plants

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Transfer RNA

History

Structure

tRNAs and tRNA Synthetases

tRNAs and Translation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transformation

See also

Transgenes

Introduction

Transgenic DNA Construction

Transgenic DNA Delivery

Transgenic DNA Persistence

Applications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Transgenic Animals

History of Transgenic Animals

Methods for Production of Transgenic Animals, and Genetic and Physical Properties of Transgenes

Transgenesis via Pronuclear Microinjection of DNA

Transgenesis via Infection with Retroviral Vectors

Transgenesis via ES Cells

Transgenesis via Nuclear Transfer

Expression of Transgenes

Applications of Transgenic Animals

Targeted Mutations, Random Insertional Mutations, and Gene Traps

Cell-Type-Specific or Conditional Gene Disruption

Ectopic Expression or Overexpression of Normal Gene Products

Expressing Dominant Gain-of-Function or Dominant-Negative Mutant Gene Products

Genetic Markers of Specific Cell Types or Lineages

Genetic Ablation of Specific Cell Lineages

Applications in Agriculture and the Pharmaceutical Industry

See also

Further Reading

Transient Polymorphism

See also

Further Reading

Transition

See also

Translation

The Genetic Code

Reading Frame and Usage of the Genetic Code

Translation on Ribosomes

Transport of Product

The Molecular System of Translation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Translation Elongation

The Elongation Cycle in Translation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Translational Control

See also

Translocation

Introduction

Reciprocal Translocation (Symbol T in Mouse, t in Humans)

Insertion (Symbol Is in Mouse)

Shift (Transposition)

Robertsonian Translocation (Symbol Rb in Mouse)

See also

References

Further Reading

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transmission Genetics

Selective Breeding

Mendelian Inheritance

Non-Mendelian Inheritance

Mendelian Traits in Man

Modes of Inheritance

Hereditarianism

Conclusions and Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Transposable Elements

Structure of Transposons

Classification

DNA Transposons

Retrotransposons

Mechanism of Transposition

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Transposable Elements in Plants

Discovery of TEs in Maize

Overview and Classification

Class I: Retrotransposons

Class II: DNA Transposons

Regulation of Transposition

Transposons as Tools: Transposon Tagging and Reverse Genetics

Quantitative Contributions to the Genetic Material

TEs and DNA Diversity

Transposons and Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Transposase

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transposon Excision

See also

Further Reading

Transposons

Introduction

Transposons and Genomes

Classes of TEs

Transposon Domestication

Transposon-Based Tools

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Trans-Splicing

Introduction

SL Addition

Group II trans-Splicing

Other Instances of trans-Splicing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Transvection

See also

Transversion Mutation

See also

Trees

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Trichome Development, Genetics of

Introduction

Genetic Dissection of Trichome Development in Arabidopsis

Trichome Patterning

Trichome Expansion

Regulation of Branching

Endoreduplication

Trichome Maturation

Transcriptomics Approaches toward Next-Generation Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Trinucleotide Repeats: Dynamic DNA and Human Disease

Trinucleotide Repeat Mutations in Coding Regions of Genes

Trinucleotide Repeat Mutations in Noncoding Regions of Genes

DNA Expansion Mechanism

See also

References

Triplet Code, Genetic Evidence

See also

Triploidy

Triploidy in Humans

Triploidy in Plants

Triploidy in Animals

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Trisomics

Introduction

Types of Trisomics

Source of Trisomics

Cytogenetic Consequences of Trisomics

Significance of Trisomics

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Trisomy 18

References

Relevant Websites

Trisomy X Syndrome (47,XXX)

History

Clinical Presentation

Genetics

Diagnosis

Differential Diagnosis

Genetic Counseling Recommendations

Management

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Triticum Species (Wheat)

Species Relationships

Cytogenetic Structure

Wheat Gene Space

Cytogenetic Stocks

Genetic Transmission

Genetic Diversity

Gene Mapping

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Trivial Equilibrium

See also

References

Trophoblast

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

trp Operon Organization and Regulation in Different Bacterial Species

Regulation of the Biosynthetic trp Operon of Bacteria

Operon Organization of the trp Genes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Trypanosome Editing

RNA Editing and gRNAs

The Basic Editing Mechanism

RNA Editing Enzymes and Complexes

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Trypsin

Overview

Background

A Model for Protein Engineering

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Tryptophan

See also

Tryptophan Operon of Escherichia coli

The trp Operon and Tryptophan Biosynthesis

Gene Arrangement in the trp Operon of E. coli

The Pathway and Enzymes of Tryptophan Biosynthesis

Structure/Function Studies with the Tryptophan Biosynthetic Enzymes

Regulation of Expression of the trp Operon of E. coli

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Tschermak-Seysenegg, Erich von

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Tumor Antigens Encoded by Simian Virus 40

Introduction

Infectious Cycle of SV40

Role of Large T Antigen in Viral DNA Replication

Regulation of Gene Expression by the Large and Small T Antigens

Viral Tumorigenesis

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Tumor Necrosis Factor

Introduction

The Role of TNF in the Pathogenesis of RA and Bone Damage

The Role of TNF in Host Defense and Tumor Surveillance

The Role of TNF in Heart Failure and Atherosclerosis

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Tumor Suppressor Genes

Two Classes

The Biological Basis of Tumor Suppression

Approaches to Identification

Examples

Mutations in Cancer Pathogenesis

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Turner Syndrome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Twisting Number

See also

Tyrosine

See also

U

Ubiquitin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Umber Codon

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Underdominance

Definition

Examples

Evolutionary Dynamics

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Underwinding

See also

Unidirectional Replication

See also

Unequal Crossing Over

Introduction

UCO Was First Identified at the Bar Locus

UCO May Result in Gene Duplication, Deletion, Chimeric Genes, and Mobile Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

UCO Can Generate Gene Families

UCO Can Cause Disease

UCO May Cause Chromosomal Rearrangement

Repeat Polymorphisms May Occur through UCO

UCO Plays a Major Role in Molecular Evolution

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Uniparental Inheritance

Introduction

Parthenogenesis in Invertebrates

Uniparental Inheritance in Vertebrates

Mammalian Cloning

See also

Further Reading

Unique DNA

Unique DNA and Cot Filtration

A Large Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Genomes in Their Unique DNAs

Global Repetitive DNA in Eukaryotic Genomes

Measuring the Level of Unique DNAs in In Silico Settings

Heterozygotes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Universal Genetic Code

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Unscheduled DNA Synthesis

See also

Upstream

See also

Relevant Websites

Upstream, Downstream Site

See also

Uracil

See also

URF

See also

UTP (Uridine Triphosphate)

See also

V

Valine

See also

Variable Region

See also

Variegation

See also

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Introduction

VEGF Isoforms

VEGF Receptors

Biological Effects of VEGF

Therapeutic Applications of VEGF Antagonists

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Vectors

Introduction

Vector Characteristics

Plasmid Vectors

Viral Vectors

Library Construction in Vectors

Vectors for Protein Expression

Vectors for Chromosomal Alteration

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Vertebrate Limb Development

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Vertical Transmission

See also

Relevant Websites

V Gene

See also

Viroids

See also

Further Reading

Virulence, Genetics of

Introduction

Portals of Entry

Understanding the Genetics of Virulence

Methods for Comparison of Different Microbial Strains

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Virulent Phage

See also

Virus

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Viruses of the Archaea

Viruses of Hyperthermophilic Archaea

Viruses of Extremely Halophilic Archaea

Evolutionary Implications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Visconti–Delbrück Hypothesis

Further Reading

Glossary

Vitamins

Introduction

Vitamin D

Vitamin A

B Vitamins

Vitamin C

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Triage

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Von Gierke Disease

History

Function of Liver Glycogen

Role of Liver Glucose-6-Phosphatase

The Liver Glucose-6-Phosphatase System

Molecular Bases of Type 1a GSD: (G6PC) Deficiency

Molecular Bases of Type 1b GSD: G6PT1 Deficiency

Clinical Presentation

Diagnosis

Prevalence of GSD1a

Management

Potential for Gene Therapy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Von Hippel–Lindau Disease

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Von Willebrand Disease

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

W

W (White-Spotting) Locus

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

W Chromosome

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

WAF1

See also

Wahlund Effect

A Numerical Example

Formal Specification of the Wahlund Effect for Diallelic Autosomal Loci

Wahlund’s Formula

Check of Our Numerical Example

Practical Implications

Derivation of the Wahlund’s Formulas

Wahlund Effect with Multiple Alleles

Conclusion

See also

Wallace, Alfred Russel

See also

Further Reading

Watson, James Dewey

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Weisman, August

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Wheat

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

WHO Classification of Leukemia

Introduction

Myeloid Neoplasms

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Myeloid and Lymphoid Neoplasms with Eosinophilia and Abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1

Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia

Lymphoid Neoplasms

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Whole Organism Cloning

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Wild Type

See also

Wilms’ Tumor

See also

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Wilson Disease

Clinical Features

Genetic Cause of WND

Laboratory Diagnosis of WND

Therapy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Wilson, Edmund Beecher

See also

Further Reading

Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Wobble Hypothesis

Introduction

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Wright, Sewall

Wright’s Contributions to Genetics

Statistics

Animal Breeding

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

X

X Chromosome

Introduction

Evolutionary Conservation of the X Chromosome

X-Chromosome Configuration

Human X-Linked Diseases

X-Inactivation

X-Chromosome Genes and Brain Development

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

X-Chromosome Inactivation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Xenology

See also

Xenopus laevis

See also

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

Introduction

Roles for XP Gene Products in NER Mechanism

XP Variant Gene and TLS

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Xist Locus

Discovery

Developmental Regulation

Concluding Thoughts

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

X-Ray Crystallography

Introduction

Steps in a Successful Structure Determination by X-Ray Crystallography

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

XXYY Syndrome

Introduction

Phenotype

Research

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Y

Y Chromosome Evolution

Sex-Determination Systems

Evolution of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes

Genetic Erosion of Y Chromosome

Human Sex Chromosomes

Plant Sex Chromosomes

Dosage Compensation of X-Linked Genes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Y Chromosome (Human)

Introduction

What Is the Biological Role of the Y Chromosome?

What Do We Know about the Structure and Gene Content of the Y Chromosome?

What Is the Importance of the Y Chromosome for Medical Genetics?

How Is the Y Chromosome Important for Forensic Genetics?

What Have We Learned about Human History from Studies of the Y Chromosome?

How Do We Expect Y Chromosome Studies to Develop in the Near Future?

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Yanofsky, Charles

See also

Further Reading

Yeast Chromosomes

Yeasts Have Small Genomes

Chromosome Structure

Nuclear Organization

Chromosome Replication

Chromosome Segregation

Artificial Chromosomes and Minichromosomes

Studying Chromosome Repair in Yeast

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Yeast Genetics

Introduction

Basic Features of Yeast Biology Facilitate Genetics

Genetic Screens

Secondary Genetic Screens

Molecular Manipulations

Mutational Analysis

Studying Gene Interaction Networks in Yeast

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Yeast Plasmids

Naturally Occurring Plasmids

Engineered Plasmids

Different Plasmids Have Different Uses

Manipulating Cells with Plasmids

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Z

Z Chromosome

See also

References

Z-DNA

Introduction

Role of Z-DNA in Transcription

Proteins Bind to Z-DNA

The B–Z Junction and Mutagenesis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Zebrafish

Background

Zebrafish Pigmentation

Zebrafish Genetics and Genomics

Imaging Zebrafish

Modeling of Human Biology and Disease

Chemical Genetics

Zebrafish and Behavior

Zebrafish and Education

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Zoo Blot

See also

Zygote

Fertilization, Meiosis, and Mitosis

Pronuclei and Zygote Formation

Centrioles and Mitochondria

Gene Expression

Genetic Imprinting

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Zygotic Lethal Gene

See also

Subject Index

Authors

Details

No. of pages:
4368
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080961569
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123749840

About the Editor

Sydney Brenner

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Molecular Scieces, Berkeley, Califoria, U.S.A.

Jeffrey Miller

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Reviews

"The revised version features more than 1,600 articles, representing an increase in content of approximately 25 percent over the first edition (2002),…Important updates include entries on new topics such as epigenetics and pharmacogenetics, which help provide a foundation for personalized medicine based on genome sequence…Summing Up: Recommended."--Choice Reviews Online, April 2014