Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics

Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics

2nd Edition - February 27, 2013

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  • Editors: Stanley Maloy, Kelly Hughes
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123749840

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Description

The explosion of the field of genetics over the last decade, with the new technologies that have stimulated research, suggests that a new sort of reference work is needed to keep pace with such a fast-moving and interdisciplinary field.  Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics, Second Edition, Seven Volume Set, builds on the foundation of the first edition by addressing many of the key subfields of genetics that were just in their infancy when the first edition was published. The currency and accessibility of this foundational content will be unrivalled, making this work useful for scientists and non-scientists alike.  Featuring relatively short entries on genetics topics written by experts in that topic, Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics, Second Edition, Seven Volume Set provides an effective way to quickly learn about any aspect of genetics, from Abortive Transduction to Zygotes. Adding to its utility, the work provides short entries that briefly define key terms, and a guide to additional reading and relevant websites for further study. Many of the entries include figures to explain difficult concepts. Key terms in related areas such as biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology are also included, and there are entries that describe historical figures in genetics, providing insights into their careers and discoveries.

Key Features

  • This 7-volume set represents a 25% expansion from the first edition, with over 1600 articles encompassing this burgeoning field.
  • Thoroughly up-to-date, with many new topics and subfields covered that were in their infancy or not inexistence at the time of the first edition.  Timely coverage of emergent areas such as epigenetics, personalized genomic medicine, pharmacogenetics, and genetic enhancement technologies
  • Interdisciplinary and global in its outlook, as befits the field of genetics
  • Brief articles, written by experts in the field, which not only discuss, define, and explain key elements of the field, but also provide definition of key terms, suggestions for further reading, and biographical sketches of the key people in the history of genetics.

Readership

Intended for university libraries, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, instructors, and clinicians in genetics, genomics, molecular biology, biotechnology, systems biology, structural biology, evolutionary biology, microbiology, and related life science areas. It is likely to be of interest to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and government and private consulting agencies in related fields.

Table of Contents

  • Editors-in-Chief

    Section Editors

    Preface

    Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2nd Edition

    Permission Acknowledgments

    A

    Abortive Transduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Acentric Fragment

    See also

    Achondroplasia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Acridines

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Acrocentric Chromosome

    See also

    Acrosome

    See also

    Active Site

    See also

    Adaptive Landscapes

    Overview

    Adaptive Landscapes as Described by Wright

    Evolution on Rugged Adaptive Landscapes

    Allele Frequency Landscapes

    Maynard Smith’s (Protein) Sequence Space

    Phenotypic Landscapes

    Do Fitness Valleys Matter?

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Adaptive Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Adaptor Hypothesis

    See also

    Additive Genetic Variance

    Variation and Its Components

    Definition of the Additive Genetic Variance

    The Correlation between Relatives

    Evolutionary Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Adenine

    See also

    Adenocarcinomas

    Introduction

    Breast Adenocarcinoma

    Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Adenoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Adenomatous Polyposis Coli

    Introduction

    Molecular Organization

    Homologs

    Function

    Pathology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Adenosine Phosphates

    See also

    Adenoviruses

    Introduction

    Replication Cycle

    Oncogenic Transformation

    Adenovirus Transducing Vectors (Gene Therapy)

    Adenovirus Genomics and Bioinformatics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Adjacent/Alternate Disjunction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Advanced Glycation End-Products

    End-Product Inhibition

    Inhibitors of AGE Formation

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Advanced Intercross Lines

    Introduction

    Producing the AIL: The F2 Generation

    Producing an AIL: The F3 and Subsequent Generations

    Accumulation of Recombination Breakpoints in the AIL

    Mapping Accuracy in an AIL

    Variation in Allele Frequency and Recombination in AIL

    The Phenotyped Population

    Modified AIL Designs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Aflatoxins

    Background

    Introduction

    Natural Occurrence

    Favorable Environmental Conditions

    Analysis Techniques for AF Determination in Food and Food Products

    Toxicity of AFs

    Regulations on AFs

    Reduction Techniques

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Aging, Genetics of

    Introduction

    Evolutionary Origins of Aging

    Molecular Mechanisms of Aging

    Aging in Model Genetic Systems

    Modulation of Aging by Nutrient Response Pathways

    Human Aging

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Agouti

    See also

    Agrobacterium

    General Properties of Agrobacteria

    Agrobacterium as Phytopathogen

    Agrobacterium as Genetic Engineering Tool

    Agrobacterium as Experimental System for Fundamental Cell Biology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Agrobacterium and Ti Plasmids

    Introduction

    General Properties of Agrobacteria

    Agrobacterium Ti Plasmid As Gene Vector for Plant Genetic Engineering

    Agrobacterium Basic Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Alanine

    See also

    Albinism

    Characteristics and History

    Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alcoholism

    Clinical Findings

    Findings from Animal Models

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alignment Problem

    Sequences

    Alignment Is Important

    Alignment Parameters

    Alignment Methods

    See also

    References

    Alkaptonuria

    Introduction

    HGD Gene

    Metabolic Consequences of HGD Deficiency

    Ochronosis

    Clinical Manifestations

    Therapy

    Misdiagnosis of AKU

    Animal Models

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alkyltransferases

    See also

    Allele Frequency

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alleles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Allele Specificity

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Allelic Exclusion

    See also

    Allopatric

    See also

    Allostery

    Introduction

    Origins

    Specific Examples

    See also

    Further Reading

    Allotypes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    Introduction

    Gene, Protein, and Mutations

    Pulmonary Disease

    Pulmonary Disease in Heterozygotes

    Liver Disease

    Therapy

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Alpha-Complementation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Alpha-Fetoprotein

    History

    Gene Structure and Regulation

    Protein Structure and Function

    Clinical Significance

    Future Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alternation of Gene Expression

    Introduction

    Site-Specific Inversion and Alternation of Gene Expression

    Reversible Insertion of IS Elements and Phase Variation of Gene Expression

    Slipped-Strand Mispairing and Phase Variation of Gene Expression

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Alternative Splicing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Amber Codon

    See also

    Glossary

    Amber Mutation

    See also

    Amber Suppressors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Ames, Bruce

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ames Test

    Principle of the Test and Bacterial Strains Used

    Specific Techniques: Plate Incorporation versus Preincubation Assay; Standard Ames versus Ames II

    Photomutagenicity

    The Metabolizing System: Rat Liver S9 Mix

    Interpretation of Ames Test Data: Guidelines

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Amino Acids

    Introduction

    Sources and Uses of Amino Acids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Amino Acid Substitution

    See also

    Amino Terminus

    See also

    Aminoacyl-tRNA

    See also

    Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    See also

    Aminopterin

    See also

    Glossary

    Amniocentesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Anagenesis

    See also

    References

    Analogy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Anchor Locus

    See also

    Anchorage-Independent Growth

    Introduction

    Mesenchymal Cells

    Epithelial Cells

    Development, Cancer, and the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    Extracellular Matrix

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Androgenone

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Aneuploidy

    Introduction

    Causes and Consequences of Aneuploidy

    Mosaicism

    Somatic Aneuploidy and Multiple Outcomes

    Partial Aneuploidy Reveals Critical Genes in Normal Development and Physiology

    Proteins and Protein Complexes That Assure Proper Segregation of Chromosomes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Angiogenesis

    Introduction

    Tumor Angiogenesis

    Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Annealing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Anonymous Locus

    See also

    Antibiotic Resistance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Antibiotic-Resistance Mutants

    Coumarins

    Erythromycin

    Fusidic Acid

    Kasugamycin

    Kirromycin

    Quinolones

    Rifampicin

    Streptomycin

    See also

    Glossary

    Antibody

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Anticodons

    Transfer RNA

    Code, Codons, and Codon Usage

    The Anticodons

    Fidelity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Antigen

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Antigenic Variation

    Introduction

    Horizontal Sequence Transfer: Capsule Antigenic Variation in Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Gene Conversion: Pilin Antigenic Variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Epigenetic Regulation of Transcription: Variant Surface Glycoprotein Coat Antigenic Variation in Trypanosomes

    Random Mutation and Reassortment of Chromosome Segments: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift in Influenza Viruses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Antimutator

    See also

    Anti-Oncogenes

    Introduction

    Two-Hit Model

    Human Genome Project and Disease Gene Identification

    Epigenetic Inactivation

    Tumor Suppressor Pathway Discovery Using Animal Models

    Protein Products

    Clinical Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Antiparallel

    See also

    Antisense DNA in Eukaryotes

    Mode of Action of AS ONs

    Modification of AS ONs

    Delivery

    Applications of AS ONs

    RNA Interference Rivals Antisense Approaches

    Clinical Trials

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Antisense RNA

    Introduction

    Bacterial Antisense RNAs

    Eukaryotic Antisense RNAs

    RNA-Encoded Antisense RNAs

    Trans-Acting RNAs

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Antitermination Factors

    Two Classes of Antitermination Mechanisms

    Antitermination at a Single Site

    Antitermination over Long Distances

    Bacteriophage Antiterminators

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Antitermination Proteins

    See also

    AP Endonucleases

    See also

    Apomorphy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Apoptosis

    Introduction

    The Extrinsic Pathway

    The Intrinsic Pathway

    ER-Stimulated Apoptosis

    Proteins That Inhibit Apoptosis

    Autophagy

    Overlap or Antagonism? Coordinate Roles for Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Aporepressors

    See also

    Arabidopsis thaliana: Molecular Systematics and Evolution

    See also

    Arabidopsis thaliana: The Premier Model Plant

    Arabidopsis: A Useful Model Species for Plant Genetics

    A Brief History of Arabidopsis Genetics

    Arabidopsis: Incremental Assembly of a Highly Resolved Map of the Genome

    The DNA Sequence-Based Map of the Arabidopsis Genome

    Genome Sequencing: The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative

    Arabidopsis and Plant Biology: Genome-Enabled Research

    Arabidopsis and Linkages to the Applied Sciences

    Useful Genes from Population Genetics

    Continued Importance of Arabidopsis Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Arabinose

    See also

    Arachnodactyly

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Arber, Werner

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Archaea

    The Cryptic Diversity of Prokaryotic Organisms

    The Biological Diversity of Archaea

    Genomes of Archaea

    Gene Expression

    Natural Genetic Variation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Archaeal Flagella

    Introduction

    Distribution

    Functions

    Structure

    Archaeal Flagella: Relationships to Bacterial Type IV Pili, Not Bacterial Flagella

    Genetic Loci Involved in Archaeal Flagella Biosynthesis

    Signal Peptide Removal

    N-Linked Glycosylation of Flagellins

    Model for Assembly of Archaeal Flagella

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Archaeal Genetics

    Introduction

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Arginine

    See also

    Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Introduction: Copy-Number Variation

    aCGH Methodology

    Applications of CGH

    Limitations

    Perspectives and Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Artificial Chromosomes, Yeast

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Artificial Selection

    Expected Response to Selection

    Changes in Gene Frequency

    Long-Term Response

    Changes in Correlated Traits

    Selection Experiments

    Examples

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ascobolus

    Introduction

    Biology

    See also

    References

    Ascobolus immersus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Ascus

    See also

    Asilomar Conference

    Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules

    See also

    Further Reading

    ASO (Allele-Specific Oligonucleotide)

    See also

    Asparagine

    See also

    Aspartic Acid

    See also

    Aspergillus nidulans

    History

    Growth and Reproduction

    Genetic System

    Genetic Resources

    Research Areas

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Assortative Mating

    See also

    References

    Assortment

    See also

    Ataxia Telangiectasia

    Introduction

    Features of Classical A-T

    ATM Protein

    ATM Mutations and Phenotypic Variation in A-T Patients

    A-T-Like Disorder Caused by Mutation in the MRE11 Gene

    Comparison with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome

    Malignant Disease in A-T Patients

    Cancer Risks of ATM Mutation Carriers in A-T Families

    ATM Mutation in Sporadic Tumors

    Other A-T-Like Neurological Disorders: Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 1 and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

    See also

    att Sites

    See also

    Attached X and Other Compound Chromosomes

    Introduction

    Viability Considerations

    Meiotic Segregation in Compound-Bearing Flies

    Construction of Compounds

    Types of Compounds

    Isochromosomes

    Genetic Consequences of Compound Chromosomes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Attachment Sites

    The Function and Structure of the att Site

    Location of att Sites in the Host Chromosomes

    Other att Sites

    See also

    Attenuation

    See also

    AUG Codons

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Autocrine/Paracrine

    Introduction

    Autocrine Activation of Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

    Paracrine Activation of Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

    Juxtacrine Activation of Growth Factor Signaling in Cancer

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Autogenous Control

    See also

    Autoimmune Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Autonomous Controlling Element

    See also

    Autoradiography

    Autoregulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Autosomal Inheritance

    Autosomal Dominant Inheritance

    Autosomal Recessive Inheritance

    Autosomal Codominant Inheritance

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Autosomes

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Auxotroph

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    B

    Bacillus subtilis

    Ecology and Significance

    Sporulation

    Quorum Sensing

    Motility

    Biofilms

    Competence and Transformation

    Model System for Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Backcross

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Back Mutation

    See also

    BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bacteria

    Characteristics of Bacteria

    Diversity of Bacteria

    Bacterial Genomes

    Gene Transfer in Bacteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Bacterial Chemotaxis

    Adaptive Locomotor Behaviors in Prokaryotes

    Swimming and Gradient Tracking in Thermokinetic Hell

    Methods for Observing Bacterial Chemotaxis

    Chemotaxis Signaling Components and Pathways

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bacterial Genes

    Perspectives on Defining Bacterial Genes

    Gene Structure

    Genes in Databases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bacterial Genetics

    Mutations and Mutagenesis

    Genetic Exchange

    Genetic Analysis of Bacterial Mutants

    Complementation Analysis

    Portable Regions of Homology

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Bacterial Transformation

    Considerations

    Measures of Transformation

    Importance of Competence and Transformation

    Artificial Competence

    Natural Competence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bacterial Variable Number Tandem Repeats

    Bacterial Genomes

    VNTR Loci

    Frequency of VNTRs among Bacteria

    VNTR Mutation Processes and Rates

    VNTRs as a Subtyping Tool

    The Phenotypic Impact of VNTR Variation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bacteriocins

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Action

    Immunity

    Bacteriocin Produced by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Bacteriocins Produced by Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Bacteriocins Produced by Archaea

    Ecological Significance of Bacteriocins

    Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bacteriophage

    Introduction

    Morphology and Classification

    Multiplication

    Isolation

    Growth Characteristics

    Evolution

    Research and Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bakers’ and Brewers’ Yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Balanced Polymorphism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    BALB/c Mouse

    Synopsis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Basal Cell Carcinoma

    See also

    Glossary

    Base Analog Mutagens

    See also

    Base Composition

    See also

    Base Pair

    See also

    Glossary

    Base Pairing and Base Pair Substitution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Base Substitution Mutations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bases

    See also

    Bateson, William

    Early Career

    Rediscovery of Mendel

    Fight with the Biometricians

    Chromosomes

    Theories of Development

    The Far-Seeing Controversialist

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Baur, Erwin

    Youth, Education, and Scientific Career

    Scientific Discoveries

    Publications and Organizational Activities

    Baur’s Role in Plant Breeding and Agricultural Politics

    Baur and Eugenics

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bayesian Analysis

    Linkage Experiments

    Microarray Experiments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bcl-2 Gene Family

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    BCR/ABL Oncogene

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bead Theory

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome

    Introduction

    Clinical Presentation

    Etiology

    Genetic Testing

    Genetic Counseling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Behavioral Genetics

    Introduction

    Modern Behavioral Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Benzer, Seymour

    See also

    Beta (β)-Galactosidase

    Introduction

    Structure

    Substrates and Assays

    Metal Requirements

    Catalytic Mechanism

    Biochemical and Biotechnological Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Bidirectional Replication

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    BIME, ERIC, REP, RIME, and Other Short Bacterial Repeated Elements

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Binomial Distribution

    See also

    Glossary

    Biochemical Genetics

    Introduction

    Classical Biochemical Genetics: One Gene–One Enzyme Hypothesis

    Targeted Biochemical Genetics

    When a Negative Result Is Informative, Modern Biochemical Genetics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Biofilms

    Historical Perspective

    The Process of Biofilm Formation

    Components of a Biofilm

    Biofilms in Human Infectious Diseases: The Parsek–Singh Criteria

    The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections

    Decreased Susceptibility of Sessile Cells to Antibiotics and Disinfectants

    Decreased Metabolic Activity and Slow Growth

    Expression of Biofilm-Specific Resistance Genes

    Restricted Penetration of Antimicrobial Agents

    Presence of Persister Cells

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bioinformatics

    Introduction

    Tools

    Internet

    Databases

    Application

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Biosynthesis

    Updated Classical Genetic Approaches

    Using Mutants to Identify Genes in Biosynthetic Pathways

    Determining the Function and Order of Steps in Biosynthetic Pathways

    Regulation of Biosynthesis

    New Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biotechnology

    The Pedigree of Biotechnology

    Biotechnology’s Contributions to Science and Society

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Blood Group Chimerism

    Introduction

    Naturally Occurring Blood Group Chimerism

    Acquired Blood Group Chimerism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Blood Group Systems

    Introduction

    Blood Group Antibodies

    Structure of Blood Group Antigens

    Function of Blood Group Antigens

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bloom’s Syndrome

    Bloom’s Syndrome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Blunt-End Ligation

    See also

    Glossary

    Bombay Blood Group

    The Hh Blood Group System

    Clinical Significance of Oh Phenotype

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bombyx mori

    The Silkworm as a Genetic System

    Cytogenetics and Synteny

    Sex Chromosomes, Sex Determination, and Dosage Compensation

    Molecular Genetics and the Genome Sequence

    Gene Regulation and Functional Genomics

    Transgenesis and Biotechnology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bottleneck Effect

    The Bottleneck Effect

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Boveri, Theodor and Marcella O’Grady-Boveri

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Brachydactyly

    Isolated Brachydactyly

    Other Complex Genetic Syndromes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Brachyury Locus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Branch Migration

    See also

    Glossary

    Brassicaceae, Molecular Systematics and Evolution Of

    Introduction

    Family Delimitation

    Phylogenetics of the Family

    Evolutionary Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Brassinosteroids

    Introduction

    Natural Occurrence and Chemical Diversity

    Physiological Responses of Exogenously Applied Brassinosteroids

    Hormonal Functions of Endogenous Brassinosteroids

    Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    Brassinosteroid Perception at the Cell Surface

    Signaling Mechanism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    BRCA1/BRCA2

    Introduction

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes and Their Encoded Proteins

    Genetics

    BRCA1, BRCA2, and DNA Repair

    BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutation and Cancer Outcome

    New Therapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of BRCA1- and BRCA2-Associated Cancers

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Break–Copy, Break–Join

    Pre-Watson–Crick Concepts

    Post-Watson–Crick Concepts

    Site-Specific Recombination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Breast Cancer

    Introduction

    Genetic Factors

    Breast Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis

    High-Penetrance Genes

    Genes of Moderate Effect

    Susceptibility Alleles/GWAS

    BRCA1/BRCA2 Pathological Features

    Genetic Testing

    Risk Assessment Tools

    Treatment and Interventions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Breeding of Animals

    See also

    Brenner, Sydney

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Buoyant Density

    Burbank, Luther

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Burkitt Lymphoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    C

    C57BL/6

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    CAAT Box

    See also

    c-ABL Gene and Gene Product

    Introduction

    Gene Structure

    Expression

    Regulation

    Growth Factor Signaling

    Adhesion and Motility

    Nuclear Roles

    Immune System

    Nervous System

    Microbial Pathogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode)

    Introduction

    Life Cycle

    Genetics and Genomics

    The Nervous System

    Experimental Malleability

    Areas of Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cairns, John

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    cAMP and Cell Signaling

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Campbell Model

    Introduction

    Integration by Site-Specific Recombination

    Integration by General Recombination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cancer Genetics

    Genetic Changes That Lead to Cancer Development

    In Vitro Cancer Models

    In Vivo Cancer Models

    Cancer Gene Identification Using the Human Genome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cancer Susceptibility

    Introduction

    Familial Cancer Predisposition

    Lower Penetrance Cancer Susceptibility Alleles

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Candidate Gene

    Contexts in Which Candidate Genes Are Important

    Identification of Candidate Genes

    See also

    Canine Genomics and Genetics

    Origin of Domestication

    Breeds and Population Structure

    The Dog Genome Sequence

    SNP Resources

    Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Structure

    Causes of Genomic Variation

    Disease Predisposition

    Behavior

    Morphology

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cap

    See also

    CAP (CRP)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Capsid

    See also

    Carcinogens

    Ionizing Radiation

    UV Radiation

    Viruses

    Chemicals

    See also

    Further Reading

    CA Repeats

    See also

    Carrier

    Introduction

    Frequency

    Detection

    Prospects for the Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cassette Model

    Control of Cell Specialization by the Mating-Type Locus

    Cell Signaling between Mating Partners Turns On the Final Differentiation of a and α Cells

    Mating-Type Interconversion and the Cassette Mechanism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Castle, William E.

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Catabolite Gene Activator Protein

    History of Catabolite Activator Protein Identification

    Catabolite Activator Protein Structure

    Transcription Activation by CAP

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Catabolite Repression

    Catabolite Repression and Related Regulatory Phenomena

    The PTS, a Sensory System Central in Bacterial Catabolite Repression

    Enteric Bacteria: IIACrr, the cAMP·Crp Activator, and the crp Modulon

    Low [G + C] Bacteria: HPr, the CcpA Repressor, and the cre Modulon

    The Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Complex Interplay between Protein Kinases and Gene Regulators

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cattanach’s Translocation

    Introduction

    X-Inactivation versus Position-Effect Variegation

    Inheritance

    Cattanach’s Translocation as a Tool for Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    cDNA

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Cell Cycle

    Introduction

    Timing: A Cell-Cycle Clock

    Coordination: Stopping and Starting the Cell Cycle

    The Cell Cycle in Health and Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cell Determination

    See also

    Cell Differentiation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cell Division Genetics

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cell Division in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System for Cell Division

    Genetic Approaches to Studying Cell Division in C. elegans

    Recent Advances in Understanding Cell Division in C. elegans

    Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cell Lineage

    Introduction

    Overview of Biology of Cell Lineages

    Genetics of Cell Lineage in Nematode C. elegans

    Cell Lineages in Insects

    Cell Lineage in Vertebrates

    Cell Lineage in Plant Development

    Evolution of Cell Lineages

    Conclusions

    See also

    References

    Cell Lines

    Cell Line

    Cell Culture and the Establishment of Cell Lines

    Advantages of Cell Culture

    Problem Areas

    Conclusion

    See also

    Cell Markers: Green Fluorescent Protein

    Origins of Green Fluorescent Protein

    Cloning and Structure Determination of GFP

    Color Change and Increased Brightness Mutants of GFP

    Expressing GFP in Other Organisms

    A Very Red-Shifted Fluorescent Protein

    Photoactivatable and Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    Single-Molecule Imaging with Fluorescent Proteins

    In Vivo Imaging with GFP

    Color-Coded Cellular Imaging In Vivo with Fluorescent Proteins

    In Situ Labeling of Fluorescent Tumors with GFP in the Living Animal and Fluorescence-Guided Tumor Surgery

    Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy of Fluorescent Protein-Expressing cells In Vivo

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cell/Neuron Degeneration

    Introduction

    Overview of Cell Death

    C. elegans as a Model System for the Study of Cell Death

    A Conserved Apoptotic Death Mechanism in C. elegans

    Degenerins and Neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    Other Cellular Insults Can Also Induce Necrotic-Like Cell Death, Suggesting a Common Response to Cell Injury

    Genetic Requirements for Degeneration

    Parallels between Neurodegenerative Cell Death in C. elegans and Higher Organisms: A Common Degenerative Death Mechanism

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cenancestor

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Centimorgan (cM)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Centric Fusion

    Centric Fusions from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Centric Fusions from the Clinical Perspective

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Centrioles

    See also

    Centromere

    Introduction

    Sequence and Size

    Centromere Proteins

    Centromeric Chromatin

    Neocentromeres: Unusual, Variant Centromeres

    Artificial or Synthetic Centromeres

    Inactivated Centromeres

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    C Genes

    See also

    Chain Initiation, Elongation, Termination, and Recycling

    Introduction

    Initiation

    Elongation

    Termination

    Recycling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Character

    See also

    Character State

    See also

    Chargaff’s Rules

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chi Sequences

    Discovery of Chi and Its Nucleotide Sequence

    Genetic Properties of Chi

    Interaction of Chi and RecBCD Enzyme

    Distribution of Chi in the E. coli Chromosome

    Similar Sites in Other Bacteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chiasma

    Definition

    Chiasma Formation

    Chromosome Segregation in Meiosis I Depends on Chiasmata

    Chiasma Maintenance and Resolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chimera

    Use of Chimeras in the Analysis of Embryogenesis

    Gene Targeting and Chimeras

    Mosaics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chimeric Genes, Proteins

    Evolution and Chimeric Proteins

    Recombinant Fusion Proteins

    Linker Regions

    Areas of Application

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    The Organism

    Three Genetic Systems

    Biogenesis of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

    Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

    Function and Assembly of the Flagellar Apparatus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chloroplasts

    Chloroplasts and Chloroplast Genomes

    Shared Coding and DNA Editing

    Inheritance Mode

    Variation among Species and DNA Barcoding

    Variation within Species and Phylogeography

    Genetic Transformation into the Chloroplast Genome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chloroplasts, Genetics of

    Introduction

    Evolutionary Origin of Chloroplasts and Their Relationship to Rhodoplasts and Cyanelles

    Chloroplast Genomes

    Dual Genetic Origin of Chloroplast Proteins

    Variations on Genetic Code and Editing

    Recombination of Chloroplast DNA and Transgenic Chloroplasts

    Maternal Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Christmas Disease

    Introduction

    Factor IX (F9) Gene and Protein

    Mutations in F9 Gene

    Clinical Manifestation

    Diagnosis

    Management

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromatid

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chromatid Interference

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chromatin

    Composition

    Higher Order Structure

    Role of Chromatin in Nuclear Architecture

    Transcriptionally Active Chromatin

    Chromatin Modification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromomeres

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromosomal Walking

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromosome

    See also

    Chromosome Banding

    Definition and Historical Perspective

    Karyotypes and Banding Levels

    Functional and Structural Significance of Chromosome Bands

    Applications of Chromosome Banding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromosome Break

    See also

    Chromosome Bridge

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chromosome Dimer Resolution by Site-Specific Recombination

    Introduction

    The Xer System

    Control of Chromosome Dimer Resolution: FtsK

    Roles of Xer in Mobile Genetic Elements

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromosome Mapping

    Historical Perspectives

    From Gene Mapping Conferences to the Human Genome Project

    Modern Developments in Linkage Mapping

    Other Forms of Linkage (Syntenic) Analysis

    Physical Mapping

    Mapping Human Genetic Disease Genes

    Comparative Mapping Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chromosome Movement

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chromosome Number

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chromosome Painting

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chromosome Pairing

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    The Bouquet Stage

    Initiation of Pairing

    Genetic Aspects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chromosome Scaffold

    Chromosome Scaffold and Chromatin Packaging

    The Scaffold–Loop Model

    Scaffold-Associated Proteins

    Functions of the Major Scaffolding Proteins

    Scaffold-Associated Regions

    Functions of the Scaffold and Scaffolding Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chromosome Structure

    Introduction

    Uninemy

    Chromosomal Fibers

    Chromosome Scaffolds

    Chromatin Loops

    Final Stages of Chromosome Condensation

    Chromosome Periphery

    See also

    Circadian Rhythms

    Introduction

    Definition

    Model Systems

    The Nature of Clock Mutations

    Neurospora as an Intensively Genetically Dissected System

    Gene Homologues

    Unicellular versus Multicellular Organisms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Circular Linkage Map

    Occurrence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Circularly Permuted Proteins

    Proposed Mechanisms

    Hypothetical Roles

    Detection

    Artificial CPs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cis-Acting Locus

    Cis-Acting DNA Regions

    Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions

    Locus Control Regions

    Enhancers and Silencers

    Promoters

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cis-Acting Proteins

    Classification of Cis-Acting Proteins

    What Purpose Does Cis Action Serve?

    How Is Cis Action Achieved?

    Localizing Protein Synthesis to the Vicinity of Its Gene

    Mechanisms That Limit Protein Diffusion and Thereby Enhance Cis Preference

    Protein Instability

    Sequestration of Protein

    Multiple Binding Sites

    More Cis-Acting Proteins?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cis-Dominance

    See also

    Cis–Trans Configurations

    See also

    Cistron

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Clade

    See also

    Cladistics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cladogenesis

    Introduction

    ‘Tree of Life’ and Evolutionary Biology

    Darwin’s Finches

    Birth–Death Model

    Our Clade

    Anthropogenic Cladogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cladograms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Class Switching

    Classical Genetics (History, Mouse)

    The Beginning of an Era: From Plants to Mice

    The Missing Links

    Revolution of Recombinant DNA

    Climbing the Genetic Ladder

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Normal and Abnormal Lip and Palate Morphogenesis

    Inheritance of Oral Clefts

    Recurrence Risk

    Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Lip and Palate

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Clever Mutant Isolation: Defining the Components of Cell Biological Processes

    Protein Secretion, Gene Fusions, and Suppressor Mutations

    Cell Division and Synthetic Lethal Mutations

    Why Do Cytoplasmic Proteins Have No Disulfide Bonds?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Clinical Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Clock Mutants

    Introduction

    Molecular Genetics of the Fly Clock

    Mammalian Clockworks

    Fungal and Bacterial Clocks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Clone

    See also

    Cloned Organisms, Eukaryotic

    Abnormalities of Cloned Animals

    Uses of Animal Cloning

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cloning

    Background and History

    Nuclear Donor Cells

    Recipient Cells

    Cell Cycle Coordination

    Culture of Reconstructed Embryos

    Applications of SCNT

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cloning Vectors

    See also

    Closed Reading Frame

    See also

    Coalescent

    Introduction

    The Ancestral Process – The Neutral Case

    Robustness

    Varying Population Size

    Recombination

    Selection

    Population Subdivision

    Approximations

    Inference

    Model-Based Analyses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Coat Color Mutations, Animals

    Background

    Melanocyte Formation, Migration, and Proliferation

    Mutations in Melanosome Biogenesis and Melanin Production

    Pigment-Type Switching

    Mutations in Melanin Transfer

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Coding Sequences

    See also

    Glossary

    Coding Strand

    See also

    Codominance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Codons

    See also

    Codons, Invariable

    See also

    Codon Usage Bias

    Introduction

    Mutation Biases

    Leading versus Lagging Strands

    Intragenomic Regions

    Fine-Scale Variations

    Natural Selection

    Applications

    See also

    Coevolution

    Concepts of Coevolution

    Methods of Studying Coevolution

    Coevolution of Competing Species

    Coevolution of Consumers and Victims

    Costs of Adaptation

    Pairwise and Diffuse Coevolution

    Levels of Selection

    Models of Consumer–Victim Coevolution

    Evolution of Virulence

    Evolution of Mutualism

    Consequences of Coevolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cognate tRNAs

    See also

    Cohesive Ends

    Introduction

    Cohesive Ends in the Life Cycle of the Tailed Phages

    Natural History of Phage Cohesive Ends

    The Endonuclease Activity of Terminases

    Another Class of Cohesive Ends

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Coincidence, Coefficient of

    Introduction

    Observations on the Coefficient of Coincidence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cointegrate

    Brief Definition

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Coisogenic Strain

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cold-Sensitive Mutant

    See also

    Cold Spot

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Col Factors

    Introduction

    Colicinogeny

    Resistance to Colicins

    Distribution of Col Factors

    Colicin Invasion Dynamics

    Colicin Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics

    Colicin Plasmids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Colinearity

    The Nature of Gene–Protein Colinearity

    Early History of the Colinearity Concept

    Demonstration of Gene–Protein Colinearity

    Beyond Colinearity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Colony Hybridization

    See also

    Colony PCR

    See also

    Color Blindness

    Red–Green Color Blindness – Deuteranopia and Protanopia

    Nonhuman Primates

    Tritanopia

    Achromatopsia

    Color Vision and Color Blindness in Nonprimate Mammals

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Colorectal Cancer

    Epidemiology

    Risk Factors

    Genetic Basis of Colon Cancer

    Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Commaless Code

    See also

    Commensal

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Comparative Genomics

    Definition and Development of Comparative Genomics

    The Foundational Importance of Orthologous Protein Families

    Comparing DNA Sequences Reveals the Molecular Basis of Individuality

    Comparative Genomics Uncovers Novel Regulatory Mechanisms

    Comparative Genomics Predicts an Organism’s Metabolic Capabilities

    Integrated Comparative Genomic Approaches Enable Prediction of Gene Function

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Compartmentalization

    Compartments Ensure Efficiency of Metabolic Processes

    Compartmentalization Ensures Fidelity and Directionality of Transport

    Maintenance of Compartmental Identity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Compatibility Group

    See also

    Complementary DNA

    See also

    Glossary

    Complementation

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Complementation Test

    See also

    Complement Loci

    Overview

    C1q and Lectins

    Serine Proteases (Factor I, Factor D, C1r, C1s, MASP-1 and -2, C2, Factor B)

    C3 and Relatives (C4 and C5)

    Terminal Complement Components (C6–C9)

    Regulators of Complement Activity (Complement Control Proteins: CR1, CR2, DAF, MCP, C4BP, Factor H)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Complex Locus

    Complex Traits

    Introduction

    Analyzing Complex Traits

    Experimental Approaches to Dissecting Complex Traits

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Concatemer

    See also

    Concatemer (Genomes)

    See also

    Concatenated Circles

    See also

    Concerted Evolution

    Introduction

    Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Concerted Evolution

    Concerted Evolution of Tandem Repeats

    Concerted Evolution of Dispersed Repeats

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Concordance

    See also

    Conditional Alleles

    See also

    Glossary

    Conditional Lethality

    Conditional Lethality in Genetic Systems

    Molecular Basis of Conditional Lethality

    Temperature-Sensitive Mutants

    Other Types of Conditional Lethal Mutants

    Genetic Backgrounds Used for Conditional Lethality

    Uses of Conditional Lethal Mutants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Congenic Strain

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome)

    Introduction

    Enzymes Involved in Cortisol Biosynthesis

    Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome

    Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (StAR/P450SCC Deficiency)

    Hypertensive Form without Virilism (17α-Hydroxylase Deficiency)

    Deficiency of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

    Virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (21-Hydroxylase Deficiency)

    Hypertensive Form of CAH with Virilism (11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency)

    Antley–Bixler Syndrome (POR Deficiency)

    Aldosterone Deficiency (Synthetase Deficiency)

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Congenital Conditions

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Conjugation

    Conjugation Systems

    Overview of Events in the Bacterial Conjugative Process

    Grouped Requirements for Bacterial Conjugation

    Natural Diversity of Bacterial Conjugative Systems

    Being a Recipient

    Historical Aspects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Conjugative Transposons and Integrative and Conjugative Elements

    Conjugative Transposons

    Integrative and Conjugative Elements

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Conplastic

    Introduction

    Definition, Derivation, and Nomenclature of Conplastic Strains

    Mouse Conplastic Strains

    Rat Conplastic Strains

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Consanguinity

    Introduction

    Coefficient of Consanguinity

    Autosomal Recessive Alleles

    Challenge for Fundamental and Medical Research

    Gene Copy Number Variation in Healthy Consanguineous Individuals

    Gene Identification of Autosomal Recessive Diseases in Consanguineous Patients

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Consensus Sequences

    Introduction

    Searching for Sequence Motifs

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Conservation Genetics

    Introduction

    What Causes Extinctions?

    Genetics in Conservation Biology

    Genetic Consequences of Small Population Size

    Loss of Genetic Diversity

    Accumulation of New Deleterious Mutations

    Genetic Deterioration in Captivity

    Island Populations

    Resolving Taxonomic Uncertainties

    Use of Genetic Markers to Understand the Biology of Endangered Species

    Methodology in Conservation Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Conservative Recombination

    See also

    Consomic

    Introduction

    Consomic Nomenclature

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Constant Regions

    See also

    Constitutive Expression

    See also

    Constitutive Mutations

    See also

    Glossary

    Continuous Variation

    See also

    Contractile Ring

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Controlling Elements

    First Report of Transposable Genetic Elements

    Other Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Convergent Evolution

    Introduction

    Examples

    Distinction from Related Phenomena

    Theoretical Issues

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Conversion Gradient

    Meiotic Gene Conversion

    Gradient

    Origin of the Gradient

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cooperativity

    Introduction

    Hemoglobin Loads and Unloads Oxygen over a Narrow Range of Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Cooperativity Amplifies External Signals

    Hill Equation Provides a Convenient Mathematical Expression for Cooperativity in Estimation and Modeling

    Cooperativity May Enhance Positive or Negative Feedback in Genetic Switches

    Cooperative Genetic Switches Regulate Gene Expression

    Cooperativity Contributes to Cell Fate Decisions and Sharp Boundaries in Development

    Cooperativity Reduces Sampling of Protein-Folding Configuration Space

    Cooperativity May Positively Assist Raft Assembly in Plasma Membranes

    Engineered Cooperativity Is Used in Synthetic Biology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Coordinate Regulation

    See also

    Copy-Choice Hypothesis

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cordycepin

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Core Particle

    See also

    Corepressor

    See also

    Correlated Response

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Correns, Carl Erich

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cosmids

    See also

    Cotransformation

    Dispersive Mechanisms

    Genetic Mapping

    Competent Population

    Congression

    See also

    Counterselection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Covarion Model of Molecular Evolution

    Introduction

    The Biochemical Basis for the Covarion Model

    A Hidden Markov Model for Covarions

    The Kimura Model

    The Two Unobserved Parameters

    Tests for the Covarion Model

    Conclusion

    See also

    References

    CpG Islands

    Definition

    Chromatin Structure of Unmethylated CGIs

    Methylated CGIs

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Craniosynostosis, Genetics of

    Introduction

    Classification of Craniosynostosis

    Craniosynostosis Syndromes

    Mutations in Craniosynostosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cre/loxP – Transgenics

    Introduction

    Cre/loxP Recombination

    Removal of Selectable Marker Genes

    Marker Recycling

    Introduction of Point Mutations

    Conditional Mutations or Knockouts

    Gain of Function

    Loss of Function

    Chromosome Rearrangements

    Deletions, Duplications, and Inversions

    Translocations

    Genomic Targeting of DNA

    Modified Cre Proteins

    Green Fluorescent Protein

    Regulation by Steroids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Crick, Francis Harry Compton

    Key Concepts

    Introduction

    Crick as Biophysicist

    Hemoglobin and DNA

    Crick’s Career

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cri-du-chat Syndrome

    Introduction

    Physical Characteristics

    Behavioral Characteristics

    Management

    Genetic Counseling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cross

    See also

    Glossary

    Crossing-Over

    See also

    Crossover Interference

    Definition

    Distance Dependence

    Indicators of Interference

    Indices of Interference

    Mathematical Models for Interference

    Two Pathways for Crossing Over

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Crossover Suppressor

    See also

    Further Reading

    Crosstalk

    Introduction

    Metabolic Crosstalk

    Complex Phenotypes Indicate Crosstalk

    Uncovering Crosstalk with Suppressor Analysis

    The Effects of Crosstalk on the Metabolic Network

    Understanding Metabolic Crosstalk Facilitates Discovering Next-Level Paradigms

    Metabolic Potential and Evolvability

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Crow, James F

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Crown Gall Tumors

    Historical Background

    Horizontal Transmission of T-DNA Genes

    Activities of A. tumefaciens T-DNA Genes

    Crown Gall Tumor Development

    Spread and Control of Crown Gall Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    CRP

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cruciform DNA

    Introduction

    Cruciform Extrusion and Stability In Vitro

    Structure of a Cruciform and Its Similarity to a Holliday Junction

    Detection Methods for Cruciform Structures In Vitro

    Biological Roles of Cruciform DNA In Vivo

    Cruciform Formation and Genomic Instability

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cryptic Satellite DNA

    See also

    Cryptic Splice Sites and Cryptic Splicing

    Splicing Elements

    Cryptic Splice Sites

    Cryptic 5′Splice Site Activation

    Newly Created De Novo 5′ Splice Sites

    Cryptic 3′ Splice Site Activation

    Newly Created De Novo 3′ Splice Sites

    Detection of Cryptic Splicing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    ct DNA

    See also

    CTP (Cytidine Triphosphate)

    See also

    Culture Collections

    Introduction

    The Functions Carried Out by the Culture Collections

    Current Issues That Affect the Operations of Culture Collections

    Importance of the General Collections in Genetic Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cutis Laxa

    Introduction

    Autosomal Dominant Cutis Laxa

    X-Linked Cutis Laxa

    Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa

    Differential Diagnosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    C-Value Paradox

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cyclin-Dependent Kinases

    Discovery

    CDK Protein Family

    CDKs 1 and 2

    CDKs Involved in Cell Cycle Regulation

    CDK5

    CDKs Involved in Transcription

    CDK Regulation

    Protein Degradation

    CDK Dysfunction and Role in Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Cysteine, Chemical Structure

    See also

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Introduction

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

    CFTR Genetics

    Clinical Features

    The Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cytogenetics

    Clinical Cytogenetics

    Comparative Cytogenetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cytokinesis

    See also

    Cytoplasm

    See also

    Cytoplasmic Genes

    See also

    Cytoplasmic Inheritance

    See also

    Cytosine

    See also

    Glossary

    Cytoskeleton

    See also

    Cytosol

    See also

    D

    D-Amino Acids

    Introduction

    Physiology

    Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Darlington, Cyril Dean

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Darwin, Charles

    Introduction

    The Life of Charles Darwin

    Influences on Darwin and the Development of His Ideas

    Experiences on the Voyage of the Beagle

    The Work of the Geologist Charles Lyell

    An Essay on Population by the Economist Thomas Malthus

    On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

    The Major Ideas

    The Argument for Natural Selection

    Evidence Cited to Support the Idea of Evolution

    The Response to On the Origin of Species

    Philosophical Implications of Darwin’s Work

    From Darwin to the ‘Evolutionary Synthesis’

    Evolutionary Biology Today

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    Databases, Sequenced Genomes

    Introduction

    Public Databases

    Databases at Major Sequencing Centers

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Degenerate Code

    See also

    Degrees of Freedom

    Introduction

    Degrees of Freedom: How to Use

    Degrees of Freedom and the Mean

    Degrees of Freedom and the Hardy–Weinberg Law

    Degrees of Freedom and R × C Contingency Tables

    Degrees of Freedom and the Kinetic Energy of Atoms in Genetic Macromolecules

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Delbrück, Max

    Delbrück, Max

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Deletion

    See also

    Deletion Mapping

    See also

    Relevant Website

    Deletion Mapping, Mouse

    Basic Information

    Mapping Recessive Mutations: Pseudodominance and Complementation

    Deletion Mapping of Codominant Genetic Markers

    Deletion Complexes and High-Resolution Deletion/Functional Maps

    See also

    Further Reading

    Deletion Mutation

    See also

    Demes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Denaturation (Proteins)

    Introduction

    Biological Consequences of Denaturation

    Intrinsically Disordered or Unfolded Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Derepression

    See also

    Detoxification (SOD)

    Developmental Genetics

    See also

    Developmental Genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Introduction

    Genetic Dissection of C. elegans Development

    Conclusions and Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    De Vries, Hugo

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    D’Herelle, Félix

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Dicentric Chromosome

    See also

    Dictyostelium

    See also

    Further Reading

    Differential Segment

    See also

    DiGeorge Syndrome

    Clinical Features Associated with DiGeorge Syndrome

    Prevalence of Detection

    Genetics of DiGeorge Syndrome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Diploidy

    Introduction

    Diploid and Haploid Phases in Life Cycles

    Artificial Diploidy in Haploid Fungi

    Bivalent Formation at Meiosis as a Criterion of Effective Diploidy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Direct Repeats

    See also

    Directed Evolution

    Evolution and the Central Dogma – DNA, RNA, Proteins

    The Central Dogma and ‘Undirected’ Evolution

    The Central Dogma and ‘Directed’ Evolution through Selections In Vitro

    The Future of Directed Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Directed Mutation

    See also

    Discontinuous Replication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Discordance

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Disjunction

    See also

    Disruptive Selection

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Distal

    See also

    Divergent Evolution

    See also

    Divergent Transcription

    See also

    D-Loop

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    DNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    DNA Amplification In Vivo

    DNA Amplification In Vivo

    Engineering Amplification of Specific Genome Regions

    Identification and Artificial Selection of Strains Containing Amplifications or Deletions

    Biological Role of DNA Amplification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    DNAase

    See also

    DNA-Binding Proteins

    Introduction

    DNA-Binding Domains

    Protein–DNA Recognition

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Cloning

    Definition

    History

    Cloning Objectives

    Strategies of Molecular Cloning

    Conclusions

    See also

    References

    DNA Denaturation

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    DNA Fingerprinting

    Introduction

    Brief History

    Genetic Markers and Technology

    Lineage Markers

    New Markers

    DNA Database

    The Next Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Footprinting

    Introduction

    DNase I Footprinting

    Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    Footprinting with 1,10-Phenantroline-Copper

    Potassium Permanganate Footprinting

    Dimethyl Sulfate Footprinting

    UV Laser Footprinting

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA, History Of

    Introduction

    Discovery

    The Constitution of DNA

    Changing Views on Biological Function

    The Watson–Crick Structure

    Confirming the Structure

    DNA as Master Molecule

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Hybridization

    DNA Hybridization Update

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Lesions

    See also

    DNA Ligases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Marker

    See also

    DNA Modification

    See also

    DNA Polymerase η (Eta)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Polymerases

    Classification and Evolution of DNA Polymerases

    Structure of DNA Polymerases

    Enzymology of DNA Pols

    Fidelity of DNA Pols

    DNA Pols for DNA Replication

    DNA Pols for DNA Repair

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Recombination

    See also

    Glossary

    DNA Repair

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of DNA Repair

    Defective DNA Repair and Human Disease

    Repair of DNA Strand Breaks

    Mouse Models for Defective DNA Repair and Other Cellular Responses to DNA Damage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Repair Defects and Human Disease

    Introduction

    Types of DNA Repair

    Relationships between DNA Repair and Human Hereditary Diseases

    Other Genetic Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    DNA Replication

    Importance of DNA Replication

    The Replicon Model and the Problem of Origins

    The Mechanism of DNA Replication

    The Replication Fork and the Replisome

    Regulation of DNA Replication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Sequencing

    See also

    DNA Structure

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Structures

    Analysis of Three-Dimensional Structure

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Supercoiling

    DNA Topology

    DNA Supercoiling

    Mathematics of DNA Supercoiling

    Enzymes That Regulate DNA Supercoiling: Topoisomerases

    Physiological Regulation of DNA Supercoiling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    DNA Synthesis

    See also

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Dominance

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Dosage Compensation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Double-Minute (Chromosomes)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Double-Strand Break Repair Model

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Downstream

    Down Syndrome

    Introduction

    Clinical Aspects of Down Syndrome

    Cytogenetics: Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome, Translocation Down Syndrome, and Mosaicism

    Recurrence of Down Syndrome in Families

    Research

    The Near Future for Down Syndrome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Drug Resistance

    Antibiotic Resistance

    Drug Resistance in Viruses

    Fungal Drug Resistance

    Parasitic Drug Resistance

    Drug Resistance in Tumors

    Health Consequences and Economic Impact

    Molecular Mechanisms and Genetics

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Overview

    The Dystrophin Gene

    The Dystrophin Protein and the Dystrophin–Glycoprotein Complex

    Clinical Features

    Pathology

    Inheritance, Counseling, and Prenatal Diagnosis

    Animal Models of DMD

    Treatment

    Challenges in Gene and Cell Therapies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Duffy Blood Groups

    History

    Biochemistry and Genetics

    Antibodies

    Clinical Significance

    The Clinical Value of Duffy Genotyping

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Dulbecco, Renato

    Indiana

    California Institute of Technology

    The Salk Institute

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund

    Return to the Salk

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Dunn, Leslie Clarence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Duplication

    See also

    Glossary

    Dwarfism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Dwarfism, Mouse

    Introduction

    Mouse Mutants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Dynamic Mutations

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Repeat Expansion

    Pathway from Repeat Expansion to Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Dysmorphology

    Introduction

    Dysmorphology as Diagnosis

    Measuring Dysmorphology

    Intersection of Dysmorphology and Developmental Biology

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Dystrophin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    E

    Early Genes (in Phage Genomes)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    EBNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Introduction

    X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: The Role of a Signaling Pathway (OMIM 305100)

    Clouston’s Hidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: The Role of Structural Proteins (OMIM 129500)

    Ectrodactyly–Ectodermal Dysplasia–Clefting Syndrome and the p63 gene: The Role of a Transcription Factor (OMIM 129900)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Editing and Proofreading in Translation

    Introduction

    Editing in Aminoacylation

    Editing at Ribosome

    See also

    Effective Population Number

    Census Size and Effective Size

    Variance in Reproductive Success

    Multiple Generations

    Two Kinds of Effective Size

    Overlapping Generations

    Metapopulation Ne

    The Ne/N Ratio

    Estimating Ne

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Electron Microscopy of Biological Materials

    Properties of Electron Microscopes

    The Fruits of Biological EM

    Fixation by freeze-substitution

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Electroporation

    Elongation Factors: Translation

    Factors Related to Aminoacyl-transfer RNA Binding in Bacteria

    Factors Related to Translocation in Bacteria

    Other Factors in Bacteria

    Elongation Factors in Archaea and Eukaryotes

    Genetics and Evolution of Elongation Factor Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Embryonic Development of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Introduction

    Anatomy of the C. elegans Embryo

    Timing of C. elegans Embryonic Development

    Polarity and Establishment of the A/P Axis

    Cytokinesis

    Developmental Plasticity

    Cell–Cell Interactions Define the Dorsoventral and the Left–Right Axes

    Mechanisms Used to Generate Tissues and Organs

    Cell Biology of Morphogenesis

    Methods Used to Examine C. elegans Embryos

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Embryonic Development, Mouse

    Early Embryonic Development Is Highly Plastic

    Embryonic Differentiation and Postimplantation Development

    See also

    Embryonic Stem Cells

    The Isolation and Properties of Embryonic Stem Cells

    The Potential Exploitation of Pluripotence

    Maintaining ES Cells in Culture

    The Core Modulators of Pluripotence

    The Epigenetic Regulation of ES Cells

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    End Labeling

    See also

    Endonucleases

    See also

    Endosymbiotic Theory

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Enhancers

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Enzymes

    See also

    References

    Epidermal Growth Factor

    Cell Biology of EGF

    Clinical Application: Anti-EGF Therapy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Epigenetics

    Introduction

    Epigenetic Control in Eukaryotes

    Epigenetic Control in Bacteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Episome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Epistasis

    Introduction

    Biochemical Epistasis

    Statistical Epistasis

    Epistasis in Population Genetics

    Future of Epistasis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Epstein–Barr Virus

    Introduction

    Viral Expression Phenotypes

    Immune Responses

    Disease Association

    Further Reading

    Equilibrium

    Introduction

    Mathematical Criteria

    See also

    Equilibrium Population

    Populations in the Absence of Selection

    Populations Undergoing Selection

    Stationarity in Finite Populations

    Applicability of Equilibrium Concepts

    Applicability of This Type of Equilibrium Points

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    erbA and erbB in Human Cancer

    erbA

    erbB

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Error Catastrophe

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Escherichia coli

    Introduction

    E. coli and Its Life

    How E. coli Became a Paradigm for Genetic Studies

    Inheritance in E. coli

    Current Genetic Studies in E. coli

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Ethics and Genetics

    Introduction

    Should Genetic Information Be Treated Differently from Other Medical Information?

    Genetics and Privacy

    Genetics and Medical Care

    Nonmedical Use of Genetic Information

    DTC Genetic Testing

    Population Biobanks

    Intellectual Property and Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ets Family

    Introduction

    Evolutionary Relatedness

    Biological Importance

    Regulation of Ets Transcription Factors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Euchromatin

    See also

    Eukaryotes

    See also

    Eukaryotic Genes

    See also

    Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

    Introduction

    DNA Binding

    Activation of Transcription

    Repression of Transcription

    Coactivators and Corepressors

    Regulation of Transcription Factors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Euploid

    See also

    Glossary

    Evolution

    Introduction: Descent with Modification and Darwinian Fitness

    The Modern Theory: An Expanded Synthesis

    Modes of Speciation

    Mass Extinctions and Evo-Devo

    Evolutionary Biology: A System of Theories

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Evolutionarily Stable Strategy

    See also

    References

    Evolutionary Rate

    Genotypic Change

    Molecular Clock

    Phenotypic Change

    Is the Rate of Evolution Constant?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Evolutionary Trees

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Evolution: Bacteria

    Mutation: The Raw Material of Evolution

    The Dynamics of Evolution

    Parallelism and Chance

    The Evolution of Evolvability

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Evolution: Eukaryotes

    The Puzzle of Eukaryote Complexity

    Eukaryotes: Archaeal Molecular Biology with Eubacterial Biochemistry

    Endosymbiotic-Derived Organelles Are a Hallmark of Eukaryotic Cells

    Mitochondrion or Phagocytosis First?

    Were All Eukaryote Features Associated with a Single Transitional Event?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Evolution of Altruism

    The Paradox of Altruism

    Individualist versus Collective Representations of Altruism

    The Definitions of Altruism

    The Conditions for the Evolution of Altruism

    The Self-Recognition of Altruism

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Evolution of Gene Families

    Genomic Complexity Increases by Gene Duplication

    Three Main Ways of Gene Duplication

    How Duplicated Genes Diverge?

    Concerted Evolution via Genetic Exchange between Duplicated Gene Copies

    Interplay between Gene Conversion and Natural Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Evolution: Viruses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    EWS

    EWS Is Encoded by the Ewing’s Sarcoma Breakpoint Region 1

    EWS Is Part of a Family of Genes Frequently Rearranged in Sarcoma and Leukemia and Predisposing to Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    EWS Plays a Role in Transcription and Posttranscriptional RNA Processing

    EWS Functions in Recombination, Repair, and Cellular Longevity

    Structure–Function Relationship of EWS

    see also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Exchange

    See also

    Excision Repair

    DNA Damage

    General Comments on DNA Repair

    Excision Repair in E. coli

    Excision Repair in Mammalian Cells

    See also

    Further Reading

    Exonucleases

    See also

    Expression Vector

    See also

    Expressivity

    See also

    F

    F1 Generation

    See also

    F1 Hybrid

    Introduction

    Genetic Basis of F1 Hybrids

    Production of F1 Hybrids in Plants and Animals

    Advantages

    Disadvantages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    FAB Classification of Leukemia

    Introduction

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemias

    Chronic Lymphoid Leukemias

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fabry Disease (α-Galactosidase A Deficiency)

    Overview, Inheritance, and Frequency

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Manifestations

    Diagnosis

    Molecular Genetics

    Treatment

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    1-, 2-, 3-Factor Crosses

    1-Factor Crosses

    2-Factor Crosses

    3-Factor Crosses

    Tetrad Analysis

    Variations on Mendel’s Rules

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Introduction

    FH – Treatment and CHD Risk

    FH Diagnosis Using Molecular Methods

    Cascade Testing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fanconi Anemia

    General Description

    Prognosis and Treatment

    Genetic Basis, Prevalence, and Carrier Frequencies

    Cellular Features

    Molecular Basis

    Animal Models of FA

    Major Unanswered Questions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fate Map

    See also

    Favism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    F-Duction

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Feline Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Female Carriers

    Introduction

    Pedigree Analysis

    Pitfalls in Pedigree Analysis

    Gonadal Mosaicism

    Carrier Tests

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Feral

    See also

    Fertilization

    Introduction

    In Vitro Fertilization

    See also

    Fertilization, Mammalian

    Introduction

    Egg Development

    Sperm Development

    Eggs and Sperm in the Oviduct

    Binding of Sperm to Unfertilized Eggs

    The Acrosome Reaction

    Penetration of the ZP by Sperm

    Fusion of Sperm and Egg

    Prevention of Polyspermy

    Final Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Filamentous Bacteriophages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Filial Generations

    See also

    Filter Hybridization

    See also

    First and Second Division Segregation

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization)

    See also

    Fisher, Ronald A.

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Fitness

    Definition

    Historical Overview

    Components of Fitness: Inclusive Fitness

    Adaptation, Adaptedness, and the Propensity Interpretation of Fitness

    On Population Fitness

    See also

    References

    Fix Genes

    Introduction

    Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation

    The FixL–FixJ Regulatory Cascade

    The FixK Transcriptional Regulator

    The FixT Repressor

    Variations in the Fix Regulatory Pathway

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fixation Probability

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Flagella

    Number of the Flagellar Genes

    Flagellar Gene Clusters

    Gene Regulation for Peritrichous Flagella

    Gene Regulation for Polar Flagella

    Lateral Flagella

    Substrate Specificity Switching

    Multiple Genes for Flagellin

    Perspective and Prospect for Future Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    FLI1 Oncogene

    Characteristics of Transcription Factor Fli1

    Fli1 Functions as a Proto-oncogene in ESFT

    Role of Fli1 in Hematopoietic Cells

    Role of Fli1 in Autoimmune Diseases

    Impact of Fli1 on Endothelial Integrity

    Role of Fli1 in Fibrosis

    Impact of Fli1 Deficiency on the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Flower Development, Genetics of

    Essentials of Flower Developmental Genetics

    Floral Induction

    Floral Meristem Formation

    Flower Formation and Floral Organ Development

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Flp Site-Specific Recombination System

    Flp Site-Specific Recombinase

    The Biological Source of Flp and Its Functions

    The Flp Active Site and Recombination Mechanism

    Structures of Flp in Association with DNA in a Recombination Synapse

    Half-of-the-Sites Activity; Holliday Junction Isomerization

    Geometry, Topology, and Chirality of Recombination

    Difference Topology

    Chemistry and Stereochemistry of Flp Recombination

    Extra Catalytic Roles of the Flp Active Site

    Cryptic RNase Activities within the Flp Active Site

    Applications of Flp in Basic Biology and Biotechnology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Fluctuation Test

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    FMS Oncogene

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Foldback DNA

    Follicular Lymphoma

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Symptoms

    Pathogenesis

    Pathology and Histological Diagnosis

    Prognosis

    Therapy

    Clinical Management

    Laboratory Assessment of Therapy Response: Analysis of Minimal Residual Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Footprinting

    See also

    Ford, Charles

    See also

    References

    Forward Mutations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forward Mutation Tests

    Forward Mutation Tests, Determining the Origin of Mutations

    Using Forward Mutation Tests to Study How Mutations Are Produced

    Descriptions of Useful Forward Mutation Tests

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fosmid

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Founder Effect

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Introduction

    Common Sites

    Rare Fragile Sites

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fragile X Syndrome

    Genetics and Inheritance

    Clinical Features

    Pathophysiology

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Frameshift Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Frequency-Dependent Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Frequency-Dependent Selection as Expressed in the Rare Male Mating Advantages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Fruiting Body

    Why Do Myxobacteria Construct Fruiting Bodies?

    Starvation Induces Production of Fruiting Bodies

    Sensing the Starvation Signal

    Starving Cells Construct FBs by Coordinating Their Movements and Communicating Their Positions to One Another

    The Quiescent Myxospore

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Functional Genomics

    See also

    Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection

    Introduction

    The ‘Classical’ Interpretation of the Theorem

    The Modern Interpretation

    The Biological Relevance of the Theorem

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Fungal Genetics


    Introduction

    Reproduction and Genetic Recombination in Fungi

    Genes and Genomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fungi

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fusion Gene

    Introduction

    History

    Current Uses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Fusion Protein

    Introduction

    History

    Uses of Fusion Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    G

    G1

    See also

    G2

    See also

    Galactosemia

    Introduction

    Transferase-Deficiency Galactosemia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Galton, Francis

    Introduction

    Heredity: Conceptual

    Methods in Population Studies

    Galton’s Influence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Galton’s Law of Ancestral Heredity

    Ancestral Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gametes

    Animals

    Variations in the Form of Gametes in Other Organisms

    See also

    Gametes, Mammalian

    Introduction

    Gametogenesis

    Mammalian Gamete Diversity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gametic Disequilibrium

    Introduction

    Measures of Gametic Disequilibrium

    Haplotype Homozygosity as a Measure of Gametic Disequilibrium

    Gametic Disequilibrium Is Not a Monotonic Function of Physical Length

    Applications of Measurement of Gametic Disequilibrium

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gametogenesis

    Introduction

    Gametogenesis in Animals

    Gametogenesis in Plants

    Gametogenesis in Simple Eukaryotes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gamma Distribution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gastroenteropancreatic and Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms, Genetics of

    Background

    Origin of GEP and BP NENs

    Mechanisms of Transformation

    Molecular Analyses

    Family Cancer Studies and Genetic Syndromes

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gaucher’s Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    G-Banding

    See also

    Gel Electrophoresis

    Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gene

    See also

    Gene Action

    See also

    Gene Amplification

    See also

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Gene and Operon Fusions

    Introduction

    Monitoring lac Gene Expression

    LacZ as a Reporter

    Transcriptional or Operon Fusions

    Translational or Gene Fusions

    Methods of Constructing Fusions

    Uses of Fusions

    Variations on a Theme

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Cassettes

    Gene Cassettes and Integrons

    Structure of Gene Cassettes

    Cassette Movement

    Cassettes Congregate in Integrons

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Conversion

    Related Aberrant Segregation Ratios

    Conversion Results in Nonreciprocal Recombination

    Conversion Gradient

    Aberrant Segregation and Crossing-Over

    DSBs and Conversion

    Conversion Initiated by Single-Strand Gaps?

    Meiotic Conversion Separable from Crossing-Over

    Other Occurrences of Conversion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Gene Dosage

    See also

    Gene Duplication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Expression

    Transcription

    Translation

    Posttranslation Steps in Gene Expression

    See also

    Gene Family

    Origins and Examples

    Tandem Families of Identical Genetic Elements

    See also

    Gene Flow

    Introduction

    Elaboration

    Some Generalizations Concerning Gene Flow

    Direct Measurement of Gene Flow

    Inference from Genetic Data

    Caveats Concerning the Relationship of Fst to Nm

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Frequency

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gene Insertion

    Gene Interaction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gene Library

    See also

    Gene Mapping

    The Detection of Recombination within Genes

    Mapping by Recombination Frequency

    The Use of Flanking Markers

    Deletion Mapping

    The Principle of Collinearity

    See also

    References

    Gene Number

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gene Pool

    Gene Pool and Natural Populations

    Gene Pool, Supraspecific Grouping, and Plant Breeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Product

    See also

    Gene Rearrangement, Eukaryotic

    The Genome Architecture of Ciliates

    Genome Arrangement in Plants

    Generation of Diversity in the Vertebrate Immune System

    Karyotype Variability: Giardia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Rearrangements, Prokaryotic

    Stochastic Rearrangements

    Developmentally Regulated Gene Rearrangements in Bacteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Gene Regulation

    Introduction

    Eukaryotic Gene Transcription

    Enhancer cis-Acting Elements and Transcription Factors

    Chromatin Modification and High-Order Chromatin Structure

    Posttranscriptional Regulation of Gene Expression

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Silencing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Substitution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gene Therapy, Human

    See also

    References

    Gene Trapping

    Introduction

    Enhancer Trapping

    Exon Trapping

    PolyA Trapping

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gene Trees

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Introduction

    β-amyloid

    APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2

    APOE

    Modifier or Risk Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Code

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Colonization

    Genetic Colonizations Associated with Climate Change

    Genetic Colonizations by Invading Species

    Genetic Colonizations in Species with Metapopulations

    Founder Effect

    See also

    Further Reading

    Genetic Correlation

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetic Counseling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Covariance

    An Introduction to Genetic Covariance

    Why Should the Molecular Biologist Care about Covariance?

    The Relationship between Site-Specific Covariance and Molecular Structure

    How Is Covariance Measured?

    Covariance in RNA Molecules: A Success Story

    Covariance in Proteins

    Covariance of Full-Length Genes

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetic Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Distance

    Commonly Used Distance Measures

    Genetic Distance and Phylogenetic Trees

    Evolutionary Relationships of Human Populations

    Software

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Drift

    Introduction

    Example

    Genetic Drift and Population Size

    Bottleneck and Founder Effects

    Minimal Viable Population Size

    Genetic Drift and Gene Flow

    Genetic Drift and Evolutionary Theory

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Engineering

    See also

    Genetic Enhancement Technologies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Equilibrium

    Introduction

    Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium

    Mutation–Selection Balance

    Overdominance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Homeostasis

    What Is Homeostasis?

    Populations as well as Individuals Can Be Homeostatic

    Organisms May Achieve Homeostasis via Heterozygosity

    Inbreeding Leads to Genetic Uniformity but Not Phenotypic Uniformity

    Fluctuating Asymmetry Is Another Indicator of Poor Homeostasis

    Increased Variability among Inbreds Has Practical Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetic Load

    Introduction – Definitions of a Genetic Load

    The Mutational Load

    The Segregational Load

    The Substitutional Load

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetic Marker

    See also

    Genetic Material

    See also

    Genetic Migration

    See also

    Further Reading

    Genetic Nomenclature, Bacteria

    Nomenclature

    Genotypes

    Phenotype

    Transposon Insertions

    Chromosome Rearrangements

    Strain Collections

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetics Nomenclature, Mouse

    Background

    Guidelines

    Genes

    Expressed Sequence Tags

    Gene-Trap Loci

    Mapped Genomic DNA Fragments

    Chromosomal Anomalies

    Mitochondrial Genes

    Nuclear tRNA and rRNA Genes

    MicroRNAs

    Mutant Alleles

    Mutant Phenotypes

    Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Spontaneous Mutations in Structural Genes

    Induced Mutations in Structural Genes

    Controversy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Ratios

    See also

    Genetic Recombination

    Definitions

    Genetic Mapping

    Recombination and DNA Structure

    DNA Repair by Recombination

    Genome Engineering by Recombination

    See also

    Glossary

    Genetic Redundancy

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Genetic Redundancy

    Genetic Interactions Provide an Experimental Framework for Genetic Redundancy

    Genetic Redundancy as a Tool for Biology Discovery

    See also

    Further Reading

    Genetics (as a Discipline)

    Introduction

    Transmission Genetics

    Physiological Genetics

    Population Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genetic Translation

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genetic Variation

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genome Analysis, YACs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genome Organization

    Introduction

    Whole-Genome DNA Sequencing

    Genomes of Bacteria

    Genomes of Placental Mammals

    Genomes of Fish, Plants, Yeasts, Ciliates, Crustaceans, and an Ant Species

    Localized Repetitive DNA Sequences in Rats, Humans, and Flies

    Organization of Centromeres in Fungi, Worms, Flies, and Humans

    Organization of Telomeres in Humans, Ciliates, Yeasts, and Flies

    Dispersed Transposable Sequences in Humans, Flies, Plants, Worms, Yeasts, and Bacteria

    Gene Numbers in Bacteria, Yeasts, Worms, Flies, Plants, Fish, and Humans

    Gene Families

    Pseudogenes

    Orphan Genes

    Gene Sizes

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Genome Relationships: Maize and the Grass Model

    See also

    References

    Genome Size

    What Is Genome Size?

    C-Value Paradox

    Extragenic DNA

    C-Value Enigma

    Phenotypic Correlates of Genome Size: The Nucleotype

    Evolution of Genome Size

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genomic Libraries

    Introduction

    Fragmentation

    Vectors for Small Inserts

    Vectors for Medium Inserts

    Vectors for Large Inserts

    Next-Generation Libraries

    The Future of Genomic Libraries

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genomics

    Introduction

    DNA Sequencing and Genomics

    Understanding Genomics

    Whole-Genome Studies

    Advantages of Genomics Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Genotoxic Stress

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Genotoxic agents

    Types of Genetic Damage

    DNA Mutation in Cancer

    Mechanisms of Genetic Damage and Carcinogenesis

    DNA Repair Mechanisms

    Test Systems for GS Evaluation

    DNA Damage and Human Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genotype

    See also

    Genotypic Frequency

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Genotyping (Subtyping) Bacteria

    History of Genotyping

    History of Bacterial Genotyping

    Genotyping versus Subtyping

    Molecular Methods

    Data Analysis and Inferences

    Future of Genotyping Bacteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Germ Cell

    Overview

    Germline Development

    Meiosis

    Gametogenesis

    Imprinting in Germ Cells

    Immortality and Totipotency

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker Disease

    History and Characterization

    Epidemiology and Genetics

    Clinical Course

    Neuropathology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Giemsa Banding, Mouse Chromosomes

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    Gilbert, Walter

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gliomas

    Introduction

    Childhood Gliomas

    Common Adult Gliomas

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Globin Genes, Human

    Introduction

    Hemoglobin Genes Are Organized in Clusters

    Structure of Globin Genes and Their Clusters

    How Globin Genes Are Regulated

    How Human Hemoglobin Genes Evolved

    Normal Variation of Structure of Globin Genes

    Mutations of Globin Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase’s Role in Red Blood Cell Metabolism

    G6PD: Biochemistry

    G6PD Deficiency: Necessary But Not Sufficient Condition for Clinical Manifestations

    Biochemical Evaluation of G6PD Deficiency

    G6PD: Genetics

    Molecular Diagnosis of G6PD Deficiency

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glutamic Acid

    See also

    Glutamine

    See also

    Glycine

    See also

    Glycolysis

    The Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas Pathway

    The Entner–Doudoroff Pathway

    Nonglycolytic Energy Generation from Glucose

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Glycosylase Repair

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Goldschmidt, Richard Benedict

    See also

    Further Reading

    Grasses, Synteny, Evolution, and Molecular Systematics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Introduction

    A. thaliana as a Model for the Study of Gravitropism

    Gravity Sensing and Signal Transduction

    Signal Transmission to the Responding Zone

    The Curvature Response

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Group Selection

    The Origin of Group Selection

    The Modern Theory of Group Selection

    Group Adaptation

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Growth Factor and Signaling Networks

    Introduction

    History and Background

    GF and Cancer

    EGFR

    HER2

    IGF

    VEGF

    GF and Stem Cells

    Cross talk between GFR and Other Membrane-Bound Receptors

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    GT–AG Rule

    See also

    GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate)

    See also

    Guanine

    See also

    Relevant Website

    Gynogenone

    See also

    Gyrase

    Introduction

    Gyrase Reaction Mechanism

    Drug Inhibition of Gyrase

    DNA Replication

    Chromosome Segregation

    DNA Compaction

    Transcription

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    H

    H19 Locus

    Introduction

    Isolation and Characterization

    Expression Profile

    Genomic Imprinting

    Biological Functions

    Molecular Mechanisms of H19-Mediated Regulation

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Infertility

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hadulins

    See also

    Reference

    Hairpin

    See also

    Hairy Cell Leukemia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Haldane, J. B. S.

    Introduction

    Population Genetics

    Metastable Populations

    Cost of Natural Selection

    Human Genetics

    India

    Science and Ethics

    Science Popularization

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Haldane–Muller Principle

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Handedness, Left/Right

    Introduction

    Molecular Handedness

    Developmental Handedness

    Behavioral Handedness

    See also

    Haploid Number

    See also

    Haploinsufficiency

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Haplotype

    See also

    Hardy–Weinberg Law

    Introduction

    Deriving Hardy–Weinberg Proportions

    Importance of Hardy–Weinberg Proportions

    Applications of the Hardy–Weinberg Law

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Harlequin Chromosomes

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heat Shock Proteins

    Introduction

    Twenty-Five Years from the Thermally Induced Puffs in Polythene Chromosome to the Chaperone

    Molecular Chaperones

    Heat Shock Response

    Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

    The World of ‘Stress Proteins’

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Helicases

    Helicases Participate in All Aspects of Nucleic Acid Metabolism

    Biochemical Properties of Helicases

    Helicases Are Nucleic Acid-Dependent ATPases but Can Be Distinguished from Translocases

    Helicases Are Classified into Superfamilies but Share Core Domains

    Further Classification of Helicases

    Studying the Mechanism of Action of Helicases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Helicobacter pylori

    Background

    Genetics of H. pylori

    The Vacuolating Cytotoxin

    cagA

    oipA

    Combinations of Virulence Factors

    Evolution of H. pylori

    Adaptive Evolution of H. pylori

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Helix-Turn-Helix Motif

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Helper Phages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hematopoiesis

    Introduction

    Hematopoiesis – The ‘Hematopoietic Tree’

    Hematopoiesis – The Hematopoietic ‘Niche’

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hemizygote

    See also

    Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn

    Pathophysiology

    Molecular Basis

    Clinical Practice

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hemophilia

    Introduction

    Population Genetics

    Factor VIII Gene (F8)

    Factor IX Gene (F9)

    Factor VIII and Factor IX

    Mutations Causing Hemophilia A

    Mutations Causing Hemophilia B

    Genotype–Phenotype Correlations

    Mutational Heterogeneity and Its Relevance to Genetic Counseling

    Treatment of Hemophilias A and B

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hereditary Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hereditary Neoplasia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heritability

    Introduction

    Magnitude

    Discrete Traits

    Estimation

    Uses and Possible Abuses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hershey, Alfred

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heteroallele

    Definition

    Heteroallelic Complementation

    Heteroallelic Recombination

    History

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Heterochromatin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heterochronic Mutation

    Heterochronic Mutation

    Developmental Timing in C. elegans

    Molecular Analysis of Heterochronic Genes Led to the Discovery of MicroRNAs

    Coordination of Developmental Time throughout the Organism

    Developmental Timing Mutants in Other Organisms

    Heterochronic Abnormalities in Humans

    Relationship to Heterochrony

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heteroduplexes

    Introduction

    Natural Occurrence of Heteroduplex

    Making Heteroduplex in the Laboratory

    Mismatch Repair

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heterogenote

    See also

    Heterokaryon

    See also

    Heteropyknosis

    See also

    Heterosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Heterotrimeric G Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Heterozygote and Heterozygosis

    Alleles and Heterozygotes in Populations

    Allelic Origins in a Heterozygote

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Phenotypic Effects of Alleles in Heterozygotes

    Reproductive Fitness of Heterozygotes

    Heterozygote Advantage

    See also

    Hfr

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hin/Gin-Mediated Site-Specific DNA Inversion

    DNA Inversion Systems

    DNA and Protein Requirements for DNA Inversion

    Assembly of the Invertasome and DNA Cleavage

    DNA Exchange by Subunit Rotation

    Regulation of the Hin/Gin DNA Inversion Reaction

    Current and Future Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hirschsprung’s Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Histidine

    See also

    Histidine Operon

    The Histidine Biosynthetic Pathway

    Origin and Evolution of the Histidine Genes

    Organization of the Histidine Genes

    Regulation of the Histidine Biosynthesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Histocompatibility

    See also

    Histone Genes

    Background

    Organization

    Transcriptional Control of Histone Genes

    Posttranscriptional Control of Histone mRNA

    Importance of Histone Gene Sequences for Transcriptional Control in Eukaryotic Nucleus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Histones

    See also

    Hitchhiking Effect

    See also

    Further Reading

    HIV Genetics

    HIV Evolutionary Tree

    HIV Mutagenesis and Evolutionary Genetics

    Viral–Host Coevolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Introduction

    Classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hogness Box

    Introduction

    Structures of the Hogness Box

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Holliday Junction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Holliday’s Model

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant websites

    Glossary

    Holocentric Chromosomes

    Introduction

    Mitotic Behavior

    Meiotic Behavior

    Chromosome Rearrangements

    Evolutionary Implications

    Outstanding Questions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Holophyly

    See also

    Homeobox Genes

    Structure of the Homeodomain

    Classes of Homeobox Genes

    Plant Homeobox Classes

    Evolution

    Function

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Homeotic Genes

    See also

    Homeotic Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Homogeneously Staining Regions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Homologs

    See also

    Homology

    Introduction

    Homology at the Taxon Level

    Origin of Homologous Characters

    Homology and Homoplasy at Different Levels of Organization

    Independence of Different Homologues

    Recognition and Testing of Homologues

    Similarity Test

    Conjunction Test

    Congruence Test

    Homology Issues in Molecular Genetics

    Issues of Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Homoplasy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Homozygosity

    Homozygosity

    Genomic Runs (Blocks) of Homozygosity Record Population History and Consanguinity

    Homozygosity of the MHC, HLA Class II in Alloreactivity

    Homozygosity of Immunoglobulin Allotypes and Natural Killer Functions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hordeum Species

    Introduction

    Origins and Phylogeny

    Uses of Barley

    Cytogenetics of Barley

    Genetic Markers and Genetic Maps of Barley

    Sequencing the Barley Genome

    The Breeding of Barley

    Pests and Diseases

    Genetic Engineering of Barley

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Introduction

    Frequency of Horizontal Transfer

    Mechanisms of Horizontal Transfer

    Detection of Horizontal Transfer

    Trans-Domain Horizontal Transfer

    Horizontal Gene Transfer between Eukaryotes

    Significance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Host-Lethal Gene

    See also

    Host-Range Mutant

    See also

    Hot Spot of Recombination

    Basic Properties of Meiotic Hot Spots

    Molecular Basis of Meiotic Hot Spots

    Hot Spots in Prokaryotes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hot Spots

    See also

    Housekeeping Gene

    See also

    Hox Genes

    Introduction

    Hox Gene Expression Pattern

    Regulation of Hox Gene Expression in the Hindbrain

    Epigenetic Regulation of Hox Expression

    Hox Gene Function

    Hox Genes and Human Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    HTLV-1

    HTLV-1-Associated Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Human Chromosome Aberrations

    Introduction

    Numerical Chromosome Aberrations

    Structural Chromosome Aberrations

    Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Human Chromosomes

    Human Chromosomes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Human Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Human Genome Project

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Human Mitochondrial Genetics and Evolution

    Mitochondrial DNA: Characteristics

    Molecular Variation in Human mtDNA

    Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography

    Pseudo-Mitochondrial Genome

    Phylogeny as a Tool for Data Quality Control

    Human Population Considerations in Biomedicine

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Human Prion Diseases

    Introduction

    Clinical Syndrome in Genetic Prion Diseases

    Epidemiology

    Genes

    Mutations

    Diagnostic Principles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Human Sex Reversal Loci

    Introduction

    Genes Implicated in Both 46,XY and 46,XX DSDs

    Genes Implicated in 46,XY DSDs

    Genes Implicated in 46,XX DSDs

    Androgen-Related Genes Implicated in DSDs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hunter Syndrome

    Introduction

    Clinical Picture

    Genetics and Epidemiology

    Treatment

    Future Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Huntington’s Disease

    Introduction

    Epidemiology and Clinical Features

    Genetics

    Pathology

    Pathological Mechanisms

    Relationships with Other Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases

    Treatment Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Huxley, Julian Sorell

    Introduction

    Family

    Career

    Research in Embryology

    Huxley as Popularizer

    The Evolutionary Synthesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Huxley, Thomas Henry

    See also

    Hybrid

    See also

    Hybrid Dysgenesis

    Introduction

    Nonreciprocal Induction

    Hybrid Dysgenesis in Nature

    Hybrid Dysgenesis-Induced Sterility

    Hybrid Dysgenesis in Taxa Other Than Drosophila

    Evolutionary Implications and Genetic Engineering Applications

    Mechanism of Nonreciprocal Induction

    Evolutionary Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Hybrid Sterility

    What Is Hybrid Sterility?

    Why Is Hybrid Sterility Important?

    What Causes Hybrid Sterility?

    What Causes Haldane’s Rule?

    What Is the Mechanism for Hybrid Sterility?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hybrid Sterility, Mouse

    What Does the Mouse Contribute to Hybrid Sterility Studies?

    Hybrid Sterility Loci and the Dobzhansky–Muller Model

    Hybrid Sterility 1 Locus Encodes the Histone Methyltransferase, PRDM9

    Large X-Effect and the Role of Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hybrid Vigor

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hybrid Zone, Mouse

    What Is a Hybrid Zone?

    Tension Zones

    A Case Study: The House Mouse

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hybrid-Arrested Translation

    See also

    Hybridization

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hybridization, Organismal

    Introduction

    Hybridization Rates

    Hybridization and Hybrid Zones

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hydatidiform Moles

    Introduction

    Partial Hydatidiform Mole

    Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Imprinting in Hydatidiform Moles

    Molar Tissue Coexisting with a Normal Fetus

    Familial Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Hyperchromicity

    See also

    Hypervariable Region

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    I

    Ichthyosis

    Introduction

    Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis

    Congenital Ichthyosis with Other Inheritance Patterns

    Syndromic Ichthyoses

    Discussion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Identity-by-Descent

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Idiogram

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    IGF2 Locus

    The Biological Function of IGF2

    Genomic Structure and Organization of the IGF2 Locus

    The Regulatory Control of Genomic Imprinting

    The IGF2 Locus and Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Igf2r Locus

    The IGF2R Locus

    Gene Nomenclature

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Illegitimate Recombination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Imaginal Disks

    General Overview

    Developmental Origin and Larval Development of the Imaginal Disks

    Cellular Structure of Imaginal Disks

    Genetic Regulation of Imaginal Disk Development

    Imaginal Disks as a Developmental Models of Epithelial Development and Biomedical Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Immunity: Phage, Plasmids, Transposons

    See also

    Immunogenetics

    Introduction

    Genetic Defects that Affect Lymphocyte Development or Function

    Genetic Defects That Impact Development or Function of Phagocytic Cells

    Defects in Cytokine Signaling

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Immunoglobin Superfamily

    The Origins of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily

    What Is an IgSF Domain?

    How Did IgSF Domains Evolve?

    What Are the Functions of IgSF Domains?

    IgSF Domains and Immunity

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Immunological Tolerance

    An Overview of Immunological Tolerance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Imprinting, Genomic

    Developmental Consequences of Imprinting

    Genetic Studies of Imprinting in the Mouse

    Imprinting in Disease

    Mechanism of Imprinting

    Function and Evolution of Imprinting

    See also

    Further Reading

    In Situ Hybridization

    DNA Probes Used in FISH

    Other Applications of FISH

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    In Vitro Evolution

    Introduction

    The History of In Vitro Evolution

    In Vitro Evolution: Basic Insights

    In Vitro Evolution: Applied Research

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    In Vitro Fertilization

    The Early History of In Vitro Fertilization

    IVF and Genetics Today

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    In Vitro Mutagenesis

    Nonselective Mutagenesis

    Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    Primer-Directed Mutagenesis

    Libraries of Mutations

    Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    In Vitro Packaging

    See also

    Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    See also

    Inbred Strain

    Introduction

    The Generation of Inbred Strains

    See also

    129 Inbred Strain

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Inbreeding Depression

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Incompatibility

    See also

    Incomplete Dominance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Incross

    See also

    Indel

    See also

    Independent Assortment

    See also

    Independent Segregation

    See also

    Inducer

    See also

    Induction of Prophage

    See also

    Induction of Transcription

    History and General Principles

    The Example of the lac Operon

    Some Other Inducible Systems

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Infertility

    Introduction

    Genetic Infertility: Problems with Egg and Sperm Production

    Infertility Associated with Reproductive Tract Abnormalities

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Influenza

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Influenza Virus

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Inherited Rickets in Humans and Domestic Animals

    Background

    Defects in Vitamin D Metabolism

    Renal Tubular Defects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Initiation Factors

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Insertion Sequences

    Discovery

    General Structure

    Occurrence and Variety

    Role of ISs in Gene Transfer and Expression

    ISs as Part of Transposons

    IS Ends: Terminal IRs

    IS Ends: Terminal Secondary Structures

    Tpases: Domain Structure and Catalytic Site

    Transposition Strategies

    Target Specificity

    Control of Transposition Activity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Insulinoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Integrase

    Integrase

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Integrase Family of Site-Specific Recombinases

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Integration

    Integrons

    Many Different Classes of Integrons

    Integrons Capture Gene Cassettes

    The Recombination System

    Expression of Cassette-Associated Genes

    Class 1 Integrons: A Special Case

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Intelligence and the ‘Intelligence Quotient’

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Intelligent Design

    Introduction

    The Argument of Design

    The Bacterial Flagellum

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Intercross

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Interference, Genetic

    See also

    Interphase

    See also

    Intersex

    See also

    Further Reading

    Interspecific, Intraspecific Cross

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Intervening Sequence

    See also

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    New Look at Protein Structure and Function

    Brief Structural Classification of IDPs

    Amino Acid Determinants of Intrinsic Disorder

    Abundance of Intrinsic Disorder

    Biological Functions of IDPs

    Functional Disorder-to-Order Transitions

    Fuzzy Complexes and Binding Staccato

    Modification of IDP Function via Posttranslational Modifications

    Intrinsic Disorder and Alternative Splicing

    IDPs and Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Intron Homing

    Overview of Mobile Introns

    Group I Introns: Intron Homing

    HE Genes

    Group II Introns: Retrohoming

    Intron Mobility by Reverse Splicing and Retrotransposition

    Applications and Biotechnology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Introns and Exons

    Diversity and Distribution

    Role in Gene Expression

    Mutation and Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Inversion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Inverted Repeats

    See also

    Glossary

    Inverted Terminal Repeats

    See also

    Isochromosome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Isolation by Distance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Isoleucine, Chemical Structure

    See also

    Isomerization (of Holliday Junctions)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Isotype

    J

    Jacob, François

    Introduction

    One of the Main Founders of Bacterial Genetics

    The Later Work of François Jacob

    Some Characteristics of François Jacob’s Work

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Jukes–Cantor Correction

    Jukes–Cantor Correction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Junk DNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    K

    Karyotype

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    kb (Kilobase)

    See also

    α-Ketoacids

    Introduction

    Structure and Biochemistry

    Physiology

    Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Kimura Corrections

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Kimura, Motoo

    Introduction

    The Life of the Pioneering Scientist

    The Selectionist–Neutralist Controversy

    Kimura’s Dream: The Four-Step Scenario

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Kin Selection

    Introduction

    Kin Selection Optimizes Inclusive Fitness

    Kin Selection and Social Behaviors

    How Does Kin Selection Operate in Nature?

    General Application of Kin Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Kin Selection: Hamilton’s Theory

    Exploitation and Cooperation

    Kin Selection

    Hamilton’s Rule and the Social Insects

    Multilevel Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Kinases (Protein Kinases)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Kinetochore

    Introduction

    Structure

    DNA Composition of Kinetochore-Associated Chromatin

    Centromere-Associated Proteins

    Role in Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Klinefelter Syndrome

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Knockout

    See also

    Khorana, Har Gobind

    See also

    Further Reading

    Koelreuter, Joseph Gottlieb

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Kornberg, Arthur

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Kuru

    Kuru

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    L

    lac Mutants

    See also

    lac Operon

    See also

    Lactose

    See also

    Lagging Strand

    See also

    Lamarck, Jean Baptiste

    Life and Career

    Theory of Evolution

    The Inheritance of Acquired Characters

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Lamarckism

    J.-B. Lamarck (1744–1829)

    Nineteenth- to Early Twentieth-Century Lamarckism

    Late Twentieth- to Early Twenty-First-Century Lamarckian Perspective

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Lampbrush Chromosomes

    Evidence for the Read-Through Hypothesis for LBCs

    Other Questions We Should Ask about Lampbrushes

    See also

    Glossary

    Relevant Websites

    Late Genes

    Definition

    Cascade of Viral Gene Expression and Regulation

    Function

    Late Gene Positions and Arrangements within the Viral Genome

    Late Gene Promoters

    Mechanisms Coupling Viral DNA Replication and Late Gene Transcription

    ‘Late’ Genes in RNA Viruses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lateral Signaling

    Lateral Inhibition/Lateral Specification

    Classic Studies of Bristle Patterning Suggested the Existence of Lateral Specification

    LIN-12/Notch Signaling Mediates Lateral Specification

    The Importance of Feedback Mechanisms in Lateral Specification

    LIN-12/Notch Signal Transduction

    Biased Lateral Signaling: Modulation of LIN-12/Notch

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Leader Peptide

    See also

    Leader Sequence

    Transcription in Bacteria

    Translation in Bacteria

    Translation in Eukaryotes

    Transcription and Translation of Viral mRNAs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Leading Strand

    DNA Replication Is Semiconservative

    DNA Polymerases Replicate DNA in the 5′ to 3′ Direction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Least Squares

    See also

    Lederberg, Joshua

    Introduction

    Lederberg’s Early Life and Education

    Focusing on Microbial Genetics

    Exobiology and Studies on Biological Weapons

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Leguminosae

    Introduction

    Origin and Domestication of Legumes

    Phylogeny and Evolution in Legumes

    Cytogenetics of Legumes

    Legumes: Functional Genomics to Molecular Breeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lejeune, Jérôme

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Lesch–Nyhan Syndrome

    Introduction

    Etiology

    Clinical Description

    Epidemiology

    Diagnostic

    Genetics

    Genetic Counseling

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lethal Locus

    See also

    Lethal Mutation

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Leucine

    Leukemia

    Introduction

    Diagnosis

    Therapy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Leukemia, Acute

    Introduction

    Acute Myeloid Leukemias

    Lymphoblastic Leukemias

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Leukemia, Chronic

    Normal Hematopoiesis

    Chronic Leukemias of the Lymphoid Lineage

    Chronic Leukemias of the Myeloid Lineage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Levan, Albert

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lewis, Edward B.

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Library

    See also

    LIM-domain Proteins

    Introduction

    Classifications of LIM Domains and LIM Domain Proteins

    Structures of LIM Domains

    Mechanisms of Action

    Group 1 LIM Proteins

    Group 2 and 3 LIM Proteins

    Group 4 LIM Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Line

    Introduction

    The Human LINE-1 Retrotransposon

    LINE-1 Replication and the Mechanism of Target-Primed Reverse Transcription

    Potential Beneficial Effects of LINE-1 Activity

    Host-Encoded Mechanisms of Defense against LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    LINE-1-Mediated Genome Manipulation in Vertebrates

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Linkage

    Introduction

    Detection of Linkage

    Linkage to a Centromere

    Linkage Maps

    Linkage in Prokaryotes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Linkage Disequilibrium

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Linkage Group

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Linkage Map

    Introduction

    Construction of Linkage Maps

    Composite Linkage Maps

    Utilizing Human Linkage Maps

    Integration of Human Linkage Maps with Genes and Physical Maps

    Utilizing Mouse Linkage Maps

    Using Linkage Maps for Defining Homology Relationships

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Linker DNA

    See also

    Lipomas and Leiomyomas

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Little, Clarence Cook

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant websites

    LMO Family of LIM-Only Genes

    Discovery of the LIM-Only Genes

    The LIM-Only Gene Family and Proteins

    LIM-Only Protein Structures

    LMO Proteins Function as Transcriptional Regulators in Development

    LMO Proteins and Cancer

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Locus

    See also

    Glossary

    LOD Score

    See also

    Long-Period Interspersion

    See also

    Long Terminal Repeats

    See also

    Glossary

    Loss of Heterozygosity

    Genetic Alterations and Tumorigenesis

    Sources of Heterozygosity and their Detection

    LOH and the Location of Tumor Suppressor Genes

    LOH Analysis and Clinical Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lotus japonicus: A Model Plant for the Legume Family

    The Model Plant Features

    Symbiosis

    Genetics of Symbiotic Pathways

    Translational Genetics and Genomics

    Genome and Proteome Resources

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lung Cancer, Chromosome Studies

    Introduction

    Cytogenetic Analysis

    Common Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Lung Cancer

    Clinical Relevance of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Luria–Delbrück Experiment

    Luria–Delbrück Experiment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Luria, Salvador

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lutheran Blood Groups

    Introduction

    The Lutheran Gene (BCAM) and the Lutheran Glycoproteins (CD239)

    The Lutheran Antigens

    Lutheran Deficiency Phenotypes

    Lutheran Antibodies

    Functional Aspects of the Lutheran Glycoproteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lysenko, T. D./Lysenkoism

    Lysenko

    Lysenkoism

    Soviet Genetics and Politics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lysine

    Lysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Lysogeny

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Lysozyme

    See also

    Further Reading

    M

    Macronuclear Development, Ciliates

    Conjugation

    DNA Rearrangements during Macronuclear Differentiation

    The Control of Macronuclear Differentiation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Macronucleus, Ciliates

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mammalian Genetics (Mouse Genetics)

    Mice Are the Ideal Mammalian Model Organism

    Beyond Genetic Similarities: Mice as Ideal Genetic Model Organisms

    High-Resolution Genetic Maps

    Mapping of New Mutations

    Loss of Function of a Gene through Homologous Recombination

    Conditional Deletion of a Gene Can Overcome Early Lethality

    From LoF to GoF: A Necessary Step to Verify the Function of a Gene

    Analyzing Gene Networks through Mutagenesis and Expression Profiles

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Map Distance, Unit

    See also

    Glossary

    Map Expansion

    Introduction

    Explanations for Map Expansion

    Misuse of ‘Map Expansion’

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mapping Function

    Haldane’s Mapping Functions

    Haldane’s No-Interference Function

    Haldane’s Interference Function

    Other Mapping Functions

    Circular Functions

    Functions and Chromosomes

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Mapping Panel

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Marfan Syndrome

    Introduction

    Clinical Manifestations

    Diagnosis

    Prevalence

    Cause

    Management

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Marker

    See also

    Glossary

    Marker Effect

    See also

    Glossary

    Marker Rescue

    See also

    Masked mRNA

    See also

    Maternal Effect

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Maternal Inheritance

    What Is Maternally Inherited?

    How Is It Inherited?

    Maternal Inheritance versus Maternal Effects

    Evolutionary Consequences of Maternal Inheritance

    Medical Implications of Maternal Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Mating Types

    See also

    Mating-Type Genes and Their Switching in Yeasts

    The Homothallism Phenomenon of Yeast

    The Pattern of Switching in Cell Pedigrees Is Highly Regulated

    Site-Specific DNA Transposition Mechanism of Cell-Type Switching

    The DSB Initiates MAT/mat1 Gene Transposition

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Maximum Likelihood

    Maximum Likelihood Estimator

    Hypothesis Testing Using Maximum Likelihood

    Profile Likelihood

    Application to Linkage Analysis

    Application to Population-Based Genetic Association Studies

    Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    MC29 Avian Myelocytomatosis Virus

    MC29 Avian Myelocytomatosis Virus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    McClintock, Barbara

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Medicago truncatula

    Medicago truncatula: A Model Legume

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Meiosis

    Why Meiosis?

    Initiation of Meiosis

    Meiotic Cell Division

    Evolution of Meiosis

    Meiosis in Mammals

    Meiotic Errors

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Meiotic Drive, Mouse

    Mouse t Haplotypes

    Other Examples of Meiotic Drive

    Deviation from Mendelian Inheritance

    See also

    Glossary

    Meiotic Product

    See also

    Melanoma, Cytogenetic Studies

    General Overview of Cytogenetic Abnormalities Detected in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Differences in Cytogenetic and Molecular Genetic Findings among Various Types of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Cytogenetic Findings in Intraocular Uveal Melanoma

    Clinical Usefulness of Cytogenetics in Melanoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Melting Temperature (Tm)

    See also

    Mendel, Gregor

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mendelian Genetics

    See also

    Mendelian Inheritance

    See also

    Mendelian Population

    See also

    Mendelian Ratio

    See also

    Mendel’s Laws

    Introduction

    Gregor Mendel: The Father of Genetics

    Influences on Mendel

    Mendel’s Early Life

    Mendel’s Paper

    Choosing Traits to Follow

    The First Generation from the Hybrids, and Beyond

    Tracking More Than One Trait

    Mendel’s Conclusions

    Mendel Is Ignored, Then Rediscovered

    Influences on Mendelian Ratios

    A Molecular View of the Traits Mendel Studied

    Mendel’s Laws Today

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Meselson–Radding Model

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Meselson–Stahl Experiment

    See also

    Glossary

    Messenger RNA

    The Genetic Code

    Transcription

    Processing of the Transcribed RNA

    mRNA Binding to Ribosomes

    Reading Frame and Usage of the Genetic Code

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    MET

    Discovery of MET and Its Ligand, HGF

    MET Signaling Transduction Regulated by Down-Streamed Adaptor Molecules

    Organogenesis and Tissue Homeostasis via Endogenous HGF–MET Pathway

    Gain of MET Function by HGF for Regeneration Therapy

    Loss of MET Function by HGF Antagonists for Antitumor Therapy

    Summary and Perspective

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Metabolic Disorders, Mutants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Metacentric Chromosome

    See also

    Glossary

    Metagenomics

    Samples

    DNA/RNA Isolation

    Sequencing

    Special Cases

    Data Analysis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Methionine

    See also

    Metric, Manhattan

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Metric, Ultra

    See also

    Further Reading

    Metrics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    MIC and MIC-M Classifications of Leukemia

    See also

    Microarrays

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Microbial Genetics

    The Power of Microbial Genetics

    The Activities of Microbial Genetics

    Genetics Beyond E. coli

    Mutagenesis and Phenotype

    Mapping

    Complementation

    Reversion and Second-Site Suppression

    Epistasis and Pathway Analysis

    Analysis of Regulons and Regulatory Circuits

    Genomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Microbial Genetics: F Factor

    Introduction and Early History

    General Features of the F Plasmid

    Conjugative F Plasmid Transfer

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Microbial Genomics

    Introduction

    Microbial Genome Sequencing and Annotation

    Current Applications of Genomic Data

    Future Applications for Genomics

    Conclusions

    See also

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Microchromosomes

    Introduction

    Evolution of Microchromosomes

    Microchromosome Genomics and Dynamics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Microcomplement Fixation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Microinjection

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Micronucleus, Ciliates

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Microsatellite

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Microtubules

    See also

    Minicells

    See also

    Minichromosome

    See also

    Minimal Residual Disease

    Introduction

    Hematological Malignancies

    Solid Tumors

    Implications for Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Minimum Change

    See also

    References

    Minisatellite

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mismatch Repair, Long/Short Patch

    Introduction

    Escherichia coli Long-Patch MMR

    Human Long-Patch MMR

    MMR and DNA Damage Response

    MutY (MYH) Repair Pathway

    Repair of Deaminated 5-Methylcytosine

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mistranslation

    Errors in Translation

    Antibiotics and Mutations Which Influence Error Frequency

    Alternative Readings of Standard Code

    See also

    Mitochondria

    Structure

    Function

    Biogenesis

    Evolutionary Origin

    Varieties of Mitochondria: Mitochondria-Related Organelles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitochondria, Genetics of

    Cellular Basis of Life

    Mitochondrial Genomes

    Inheritance

    Unusual Features

    Mitochondrial Proteins

    Evolution

    Cellular Communication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitochondrial DNA

    Isolation

    Form

    Size and Copy Number

    Gene Organization

    Evolutionary Origin

    Inheritance and Usage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitochondrial Genetics/Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitochondrial Genome

    Function

    Mitochondrial Genes

    Genetic Code

    Gene Expression

    Evolutionary Origin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitochondrial Inheritance

    Introduction

    Mitochondrial Bottleneck

    Evolution of Organelle Uniparental Inheritance

    Doubly Uniparental Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mitochondrial Mutants

    Fungi

    Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

    Humans

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitosis

    Overview of Mitosis

    NEBD Marks the Onset of Mitosis

    Chromosomes

    Microtubules

    Centrosomes

    Regulation of the Mitotic Cell Cycle Phases

    Mitotic Asymmetry

    Mitotic Abnormalities in Disease Like Cancer

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    MLL

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Molecular Chaperones

    Introduction

    Protein Folding by Chaperonins

    Protein Remodeling by Hsp70/DnaK

    Protein Activation by Hsp90

    Protein Unfolding and Disaggregation by Clp/Hsp100 Chaperones

    Protection from Irreversible Protein Aggregation by sHsps

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Molecular Clock

    Discovery

    Global Clock and Local Clocks

    Molecular Clock and Neutral Theory

    Controversy over the DNA Clock

    The Extended Concept of the Molecular Clock

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Molecular Drive

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Molecular Genetics

    See also

    Monochromosomal Somatic Cell Hybrids

    See also

    Monocistronic mRNA

    See also

    Monoclonal Antibodies

    Background

    Monoclonal Antibodies from Plasmacytomas

    Monoclonal Antibodies from Epstein–Barr Virus-Transformed cells

    Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies

    Monoclonal Antibodies from Libraries of Genes and Gene Segments

    Monoclonal Antibodies from Synthetic Libraries

    See also

    References

    Monod, Jacques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Monomorphic Locus

    See also

    Monophyly

    See also

    References

    Monosomy

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Morgan, Thomas Hunt

    Further Reading

    Morpho-Agronomic Traits

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    MOS

    See also

    Further Reading

    Mosaicism in Humans

    Origins of Mosaicism

    Timing of Mosaicism

    Development of Mosaic Embryos

    Chromosome Specific Factors

    Mosaicism in Pre-Implantation Embryos

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mouse

    The Strategy

    Inbred Strains

    Crosses

    Selection

    Chromosomal Aberrations

    A Specific Disease Analogy

    Specific Gene Homologies or Analogies

    Other Models

    Advanced Protocols

    Nomenclature

    Breeding Systems

    Record Keeping and Colony Management

    Cryobiology

    Informatics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Mouse Genetics

    Historical Overview

    Transgenesis and Targeted Mutagenesis

    Forward Genetic Screens

    Sequence of the Mouse Genome and Inbred Strains

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mouse Leukemia Viruses

    Basic Virology

    Host–Virus Interactions

    MLV and Neoplasia

    MLVs as Genetic Vectors

    Vaccination against MLV

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Mouse Sex-Reversed Rearrangement

    Introduction

    Sxr Mutation

    Ods Mutation

    An Atypical Sex Determination System

    Mouse Genetic Background Impact

    Mouse Transgenic Models

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    mtDNA

    See also

    Mucopolysaccharidosis

    Introduction

    Mechanism of Disease in MPS

    Features of Specific Types of MPS

    Treatment for MPS

    Clinical Manifestations of Neurological Disease

    Clinical Manifestations of Bone and Joint Disease

    Clinical Manifestations of Cardiovascular Disease

    Other Clinical Manifestations

    Therapies under Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mule

    See also

    Muller, Hermann J.

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Muller’s Ratchet

    Introduction

    A Broader View of Muller’s Ratchet

    Using the Ratchet Idea with Asexual Recombination and Assortment

    Further Reading

    Multicopy Plasmids

    See also

    Multifactorial Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Multiplicity of Infection

    MOIinput, an Estimation of Limited Utility

    MOIactual, a Better but More Complicated Calculation

    Poisson Distribution

    Experimental Determination of MOI

    Killing Titers

    The Problem of Clumping

    More Problems with MOI, Particularly MOIinput

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Multisite Mutation

    See also

    Murine Plasmacytomas

    Introduction and Objectives

    Characterization of Human and Murine Plasma Cells

    Mechanisms of Transformation and Cellular Origin of PCNs

    Identification of Cellular Origins of PL, APCT, and Plasmacytic PCT

    Summary and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mus musculus

    Origin and Differentiation

    Evolution in Association with Humans: Secondary Expansion

    Secondary Admixture, Hybridization, and Reproductive Isolation

    Laboratory Strains and the Wild Reservoir of Genetic Variability

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mus musculus castaneus

    Taxonomy and Phylogeography

    Secondary Expansion and Admixture

    Contribution to Laboratory Strains

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mus spretus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Introduction

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Distal Muscular Dystrophy

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Myotonic Dystrophy

    Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mutagenic Specificity

    Introduction

    DNA Damage

    Replication Fidelity at DNA Damage

    DNA Repair as a Source of Specific Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mutagens

    Mutagens Damage DNA, Nucleotides (dNTPs), and Inhibit DNA Repair Enzymes

    Endogenous Mutagens: Oxygen, Water, and Alkylating Agents

    Exogenous (Environmental) Mutagens

    Detecting Mutagens

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mutant Allele

    See also

    Mutation

    What is a Mutation?

    What Kinds of Mutations Occur and What are their Consequences?

    Base-Substitution Mutations

    Addition or Deletion Mutations

    Inversions and Complex Mutations

    Large Deletion/Addition Mutations

    Chromosomal Mutations

    How Frequently Do Mutations Occur?

    Why Mutations Occur

    Examples of How Mutations Can Occur

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mutational Analysis

    Mutational Analysis of Identified Sequence Variants

    Mutational Analysis to Examine Protein Structure and Function

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mutational Site

    See also

    Further Reading

    Mutation, Back

    See also

    Mutation Frequency

    See also

    Mutation, Leaky

    See also

    Mutation Load

    See also

    Mutation, Missense

    See also

    Mutation, Nonsense

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mutation, Null

    See also

    Mutation Rate

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mutation, Silent

    Traditional Interpretation of Silent Mutations

    Synonymous Mutations Are Not Always Silent

    Evolutionary Significance

    Application of Silent Mutations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mutation, Spontaneous

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Mutator Phenotype

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mutators

    See also

    Myb Oncogene

    Myb Family Proteins

    c-Myb Is a Critical Regulator of the Hematopoietic Hierarchy

    c-Myb Is Directly Linked to Leukemogenesis

    Other Tissues in which c-Myb Normally Plays a Role and Can Be Implicated in Oncogenesis

    Altered c-Myb Activity Is Linked to Many Diseases in Addition to Cancer

    Regulation of c-Myb Functional Activity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Myxococcus Genetics

    Genetic Tools

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma

    Definition

    Characteristics

    Genetics

    Etiology

    Diagnostics

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    N

    N2, N3, N4, etc.

    See also

    Nägeli, Carl von

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nathans, Daniel

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Natural Selection

    Darwin, Wallace, and the Theory of Natural Selection

    Genetic Consequences of Natural Selection

    Selection on Continuous Traits

    Detecting Natural Selection

    Levels of Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Nature–Nurture Controversy

    Introduction

    Roots of the Controversy

    Polarization in the Political and Policy Arenas

    Dialectic Reconciliation

    Cancer: A Prototype for a Complex Systems Approach

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Nearly Neutral Theory

    History

    Verification of the Nearly Neutral Theory by Comparison of Nonsynonymous and Synonymous Substitutions

    DNA Polymorphisms

    Robustness of Gene Regulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Negative Complementation

    See also

    Negative Interference

    Bacteriophage Crosses

    Meiosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Negative Regulators

    See also

    Negative Supercoiling

    See also

    Neoteny

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Network

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Neu Oncogene

    Neu Oncogene

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Neurogenetics

    Introduction

    Animal Models in Neurogenetics

    Integrative Neurogenetics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neurogenetics in Drosophila

    Introduction

    Early Years

    Behavioral and Developmental Genes

    An Example of the Neurogenetic Approach to Complex Behavior

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neurogenetics of Neurotransmitter Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Using a Free-Living Nematode to Study Neurobiology

    Genetic Dissection of Neurotransmission

    Neurotransmitters

    Trafficking of Vesicles

    Synaptic Vesicle Cycle

    Exocytosis

    Endocytosis

    Propagation of the Electrical Signal along Axons

    Future

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Neuronal Guidance

    Introduction

    The Structure of Growth Cones

    Attractive and Repulsive Guidance Forces

    Guidance Molecules

    Guidance Cues in Brain Repair and Genetic Disorders

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neurosensory Specification and Development

    Bmp’s and Fgf’s Transform Ectodermal Cells into Competent Neuroectoderm

    Regional Expression of Transcription Factors Defines Neurosensory Domains

    Identity of Neurosensory Compartments Depend on Cell Cycle Dynamics

    Proliferation Can Be Divided into Three Phases

    The bHLH Transcription Factors Play a Key Role in the Balance between Proliferation and Differentiation That Is Essential for Proper Cell Fate Decision Making

    Dynamic Interplay among bHLH Transcription Factors both in a Given Cell and between Cells Defines and Refines Cell Fate

    Transformation of Naïve Ectoderm to Neurosensory Cell Fate Decision Marks the Start of Functional Differentiation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neurospora crassa

    Life Cycle

    History

    Genome Structure and Genome Defense Systems

    Heterokaryons

    Other Features of the Organism

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Neutral Drift

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neutral Mutation

    Dynamics within Populations

    Evolutionary Dynamics

    Empirical Evidence for Neutral Evolution

    Related Theories

    See also

    Further Reading

    Neutral Theory

    History

    Behavior of Mutants in Populations

    Selective Constraint

    Molecular Clock

    The Neutral Theory as a Null Hypothesis for Detecting Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Nick

    See also

    Nick Translation

    See also

    nif Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Nirenberg, Marshall Warren

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nod Factors

    Introduction

    Signal Exchange in Early Stages of Rhizobium–Legume Interaction

    NF Perception and Signaling Pathway

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Nodulins

    See also

    Nomenclature of Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Nomenclature of Human Genes

    Background

    Symbols and Names

    Current Issues

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Nonautonomous Controlling Elements

    See also

    Non-coding

    Noncoding DNA

    Noncoding RNA

    See also

    Glossary

    Noncoding RNA

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Non-Darwinian Evolution

    History of the Term ‘Non-Darwinian Evolution’ as Popularized by King and Jukes

    The King and Jukes Argument

    Responses to King and Jukes

    A More Literal Definition

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nondisjunction

    Consequences of NDJ

    Molecular Mechanisms of NDJ

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Introduction

    Diagnosis

    Therapy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Non-Mendelian Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nonreciprocal Exchange

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nonrepetitive DNA

    See also

    Nonsense Codon

    See also

    Nonsense Suppressor

    See also

    Nontranscribed Spacer

    See also

    Northern Blotting

    The History of Northern Blotting

    Use and Current Manifestations of Northern Blotting

    Principle of the Northern Blotting Method

    An Example of a Northern Blot

    Interpretation of Northern Blotting Results

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nuclear Envelope, Transport

    Structure of the Nuclear Envelope

    Functions of the NE

    NE and Inherited Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nuclear Pores

    See also

    Nuclear Transfer

    Somatic Cell Hybridization

    Nuclear Transfer into Egg Cytoplasm

    Nuclear Transfer as a Tool to Study Nuclear Reprogramming

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nuclease

    Nucleases Function in Many Processes that are Important for Life

    Nuclease Classification

    Nucleases in DNA Replication

    Nucleases in DNA Repair and Recombination

    RNases

    Nucleases Used for Biotechnology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Nucleic Acid

    See also

    Glossary

    Nucleolar Organizer

    See also

    Nucleolus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nucleomorph Genomes

    Nucleomorph Genomes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Nucleoside

    See also

    Glossary

    Nucleosome

    See also

    Nucleosome Remodelling

    Changing the Chromatin Structure

    Mechanisms of Nucleosome Remodeling

    SNF2 Family of Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes

    SWI/SNF Class

    ISWI Complexes

    INO80 Family

    CHD/Mi-2 Family

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nucleotide

    See also

    Glossary

    Nucleus

    See also

    Glossary

    Nude Mouse

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Null Hypothesis

    See also

    Further reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Nullisomy

    See also

    Nutritional Mutations

    Introduction

    Mutations Effecting the Utilization of Organic Compounds for the Supply of Major Elements (Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus) and Energy

    Mutations Effecting Central Fueling Pathways

    Mutations Effecting Biosynthesis of Amino Acids, Lipids, Nucleotides, and Cofactors

    Occurrence of Nutritional Mutations

    Selection of Auxotrophic Mutations

    Screening for Nutritional Mutants after Saturation Mutagenesis of Genomes

    Intersection with Recombinant DNA Technology and Biotechnology

    Expanding the Analysis of Nutritional Mutants in Humans

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    O

    Ochoa, Severo

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ochre Codon

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Ochre Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Ochre Suppressor

    See also

    Ohno’s Law

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Okazaki Fragment

    DNA Replication Is Semiconservative

    DNA Polymerases Replicate DNA in the 5′ to 3′ Direction

    Discontinuous Replication Generates Okazaki Fragments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Olfaction

    Introduction

    Olfaction in Mammals

    Olfactory Receptors

    Organization of Olfactory Receptors

    Olfactory Signal Transduction

    Genetic Approaches to Studying Olfaction – C. elegans as Model System

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Oncogenes

    Genetic Basis of Cancer

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    OncoMouse®

    OncoMouse® Biology

    OncoMouse® Policy Ramifications

    See also

    Oogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Oogenesis, Mouse

    See also

    Opal Codon

    See also

    Open Reading Frame

    See also

    Operators

    Definition and History

    Current Use of the Term and Some Examples

    Multiple Operators

    Some Properties of Operators

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Operon

    The lac Operon

    lac Regulation

    The Tryptophan Operon in E. coli

    Operons on a Catabolic Plasmid of Pseudomonas putida

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Organelles

    Types of Organelles

    Organelles of Energy Production and Oxygen Metabolism

    Other Organelles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Origin (ori)

    See also

    Origin of Life, Theories Of

    Origin of Life: A Brief Historical Overview

    Origin of Life: A Survey of Possible Scenarios

    Synthetic Biology and the Empirical Approach to the Origin of Life

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Orphan Receptor

    Orthology

    See also

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Introduction

    Clinical Presentations and Features

    Nondeforming OI with Blue Sclerae (OI Type I)

    Common Variable OI (OI Type IV)

    Progressively Deforming OI with Normal Sclerae (OI Type III)

    Perinatally Lethal OI Syndromes (OI Type II)

    OI with Calcification in Interosseous Membranes (OI Type V)

    Syndromes with Bone Fragility or Osteoporosis Plus Additional Features

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Outbreeding

    Definition

    Mechanism of Outbreeding

    Genetic Effect and Utilization of Outbreeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Outcross

    See also

    Overdominance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Overwinding

    See also

    Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Development (Hermaphroditism)

    Ovotesticular Disorders of Sexual Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ovulation

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    P

    p120RasGAP

    Introduction

    Structure and Biochemistry

    Aberrant Function and Human Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Paedomorphosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Painter, Theophilus Schickel

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Palindrome

    See also

    Panmixis

    See also

    Paralogy

    See also

    Paramecium Molecular Evolution

    Introduction

    Cell Structure and Genetics

    Molecular Genetics

    Molecular Evolution

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Parapatric

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Paraphyly

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Parasegment

    See also

    Parental

    See also

    Parsimony

    Motivation of Parsimony

    Generalizations of Parsimony

    Potential for Systematic Error

    Applications of Parsimony

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Parthenogenesis

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Paternal Inheritance

    Paternally Inherited Nuclear Factors

    Paternally Inherited Cytoplasmic Components

    Paternal Contributions as Revealed by Paternal Effect Mutations

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Pathogenicity and Other Genomic Islands

    Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Pathogenicity Island Definition

    PAI-Carried Virulence Genes

    PAIs as Mediators of ‘Quantum Evolution’

    Genomic Islands

    New General Definition

    Island Origins

    PAI Mobility

    SaPIs and Their Transfer

    Conjugative Mobilization of PAIs

    Converting Phages

    Future Work

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Pattern Formation: An Integument Paradigm

    Spatial Patterns

    Temporal Patterns

    Regeneration and Engineering of Patterns

    Recognition of Patterns

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Pax Genes

    Introduction

    Protein Structure

    Expression Pattern during Development

    Expression Pattern during Development

    Mutations, Phenotypes, and Function

    Cell Differentiation and Oncogenesis

    Pax Genes in Adult Tissue and Regeneration

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    pBR322

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Pearson, Karl

    Karl Pearson (1857–1936)

    Pearson’s Early Life and Education

    Pearson’s German Wanderlust

    Mechanics and University College London

    Gresham Lectures and a New Statistical Methodology

    Correlation, Regression, and Heredity

    Pearson’s Early Hereditarian Ideas

     

    Homotyposis and the Biometric Teas

    Mendelian Distributions and The Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

    Pearson and Mendelism

    Yule’s Synthesis of Mendelism and Biometry

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pedigree Analysis

    See also

    P Elements

    A Genetic Element in Drosophila

    Transposition

    The P Transposase Gene

    P Repressor Polypeptides

    Hybrid Dysgenesis

    Cytotype Regulation

    A P Invasion

    Research Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Penetrance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Peptide Bond

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Perinuclear Space

    See also

    Permissive Cells

    See also

    Petite

    See also

    Glossary

    P-Glycoprotein

    Relationship to Other ABC Transporters

    Substrate Profiles and Binding

    Normal Tissue Distribution and Physiological/Pharmacological Relevance

    Pgp in Cancers and Regulation of MDR Gene Expression

    Mechanisms of Action

    Pgp Inhibitors and Strategies for Modulating Resistance

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Phage (Bacteriophage)

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Phage Crosses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Phage Mu

    The Mu Life Cycle

    The Mature Phage

    The Genetic Map and Expression of the Mu Genome

    The Decision: Lysis or Lysogeny

    Transposition: Conservative and Replicative

    Nonrandom Integration and Transposition Immunity

    Mom Modification

    G Segment Inversion and Host Range Specificity

    Mu as a Genetic Tool

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Phage Receptor

    Introduction

    Receptors, Antireceptors, and the Infection Process

    Antireceptor Evolution

    Receptor and Phage-Based Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Phage λ Integration/Excision

    Introduction

    Integrase

    Accessory Proteins

    Tetramer Structure

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Pharmacogenomics

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phase Variation

    Overview

    Mechanisms of Phase Variation

    Alterations in DNA Sequence (Genetic)

    Methylation of DNA (Epigenetic)

    Biological Significance of Phase Variation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phaseolus vulgaris (Beans)

    Taxonomy and Genetic Resources

    Production

    Genetics and Genomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phenetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phenocopy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Phenogram

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phenotype

    See also

    Phenotypic Lag

    See also

    Phenotypic Mixing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Phenylalanine, Chemical Structure

    See also

    Phenylketonuria

    Introduction

    Classification of PKU

    Biochemistry

    Genetics

    Diagnosis

    Clinical Outcome

    Treatment

    Nondietary Treatments

    Monitoring the Diet

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Phi (φ)X174, Genetics of

    Introduction

    The Genetic Map and Its Evolution

    The Genetics of Genome Replication and Packaging

    The Genetics of Gene Expression

    The Genetics of Particle Morphogenesis

    Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Philadelphia Chromosome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Photomorphogenesis in Plants, Genetics of

    Overview

    Mutants with Defective Light Responses

    The Phytochromes: A Class of Dichromic Red/FR Photoreceptors

    The Cryptochromes

    Phototropins and Other Light Oxygen Voltage-Domain Photoreceptors

    General Themes in Plant Photoreceptor Signaling

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Photoreactivation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Photorepair

    See also

    Photosynthesis, Genetics Of

    Photosynthesis

    The Chloroplast and Its Genome

    Model Organisms

    Chloroplast Genetics

    Photosynthesis Mutants and Their Phenotypes

    The Genes of Photosynthesis

    Regulation

    Concluding Remarks and Perspective

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phylogenetic Invariants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phylogeny

    Tree Searching

    Tree Construction

    Networks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Phylogeography

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Physical Mapping

    See also

    Piebald Trait

    Human Piebald Trait

    Related Disorders: Waardenburg Syndrome and Hirschsprung’s Disease

    Unrelated Pigmentation Disorders: Albinism and Vitiligo

    Mice and the Piebald Trait

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pigmentation, Mouse

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pim Family of Proto-Oncogenes

    Identification

    Regulation of Pim Expression

    Physiological Functions of Pim Kinases

    Pim Role in Tumorigenesis

    Pim Kinases in Human Malignancies: Targets for Cancer Therapy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Pisum sativum (Peas)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Plant Development, Genetics of

    Introduction

    Embryonic Development

    Shoot Development

    Root Development

    Flower Development

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Plant Embryogenesis, Genetics of

    The Unique Nature of Plant Embryogenesis

    Establishing the Embryo Body Plan: Formation of the Apical–Basal Axis

    Establishment of the Shoot Apical Meristem

    Establishing the Embryo Body Plan: Formation of the Radial Pattern

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Plant Hormones

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Plant Root Development, Genetics and Genomics Of

    Root Architecture and Development

    Genetic Dissection of Root Formation

    Genomic Dissection of Root Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    The Rhizosphere

    The Rhizosphere Effect on Soil Microorganisms

    Effect of Rhizobacteria on Plant Growth

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Mechanisms of Growth Promotion by PGPR

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Plaques

    Introduction

    General Characteristics of Plaque

    Plaque Formation

    Enumeration Using Plaques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Plasmid Replication

    Introduction

    Control by Negative Feedback

    Control by Antisense RNA

    Control by Limiting Initiators

    Control by Iterons

    Plasmid Incompatibility

    Ensuring Replication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Plasmids

    General Concepts

    Inheritance

    Incompatibility

    Conjugation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pleiotropy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Plesiomorphy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ploidy

    See also

    Pluripotent Stem Cells

    A Brief History of Pluripotency

    Defining Traits of Human PSCs

    Human PSC Characterization

    Induced PSCs

    Human PSC Culture

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pneumonia Bacteria

    Medical Significance

    DNA Uptake

    Competence and Quorum Sensing

    Understanding the Capsule

    Antibiotic Resistance

    Model System for Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Point Mutations

    See also

    Polarity, Developmental

    Cell Polarity: A Universal Feature of Development

    Cell Polarity in Yeast

    Anterior–Posterior Polarity in Animals: Early Patterning of ‘the Worm’

    Planar Cell Polarity in Animals: Wing Hairs in Fly

    Apical–Basal Polarity in Animals: Epithelial Cells

    Epithelial Cell Polarity: Organized Joint Venture

    Apical–Basal Polarity in Plants: Plant Embryogenesis

    Planar Cell Polarity in Plants: Plant Root Hairs

    Perspective

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Polaron

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Poly(A) Tails

    Introduction

    Poly(A) Tails in Eukaryotes

    Functional Importance of Eukaryotic Poly(A) Tails

    Fate of Eukaryotic Poly(A) Tails

    Substrates for Polyadenylation in Eukaryotes

    Poly(A) Tails in Prokaryotes

    Substrates for Polyadenylation in Prokaryotes

    Function of Prokaryotic Poly(A) and Polynucleotide Tails

    Polyadenylation Signals in Prokaryotes

    Polyadenylation Complexes in Prokaryotes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Polyadenylation

    See also

    Polycistronic mRNA

    See also

    Polymerase

    Introduction

    Polymerase Structure and Function

    The Replisome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary terms

    Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Polymerase Chain Reaction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Polymerase Chain Reaction, Real-Time Quantitative

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Polymorphism

    Introduction

    Blood Group Polymorphism

    Inversion Polymorphism

    Protein Polymorphisms

    DNA Polymorphisms

    Uses of Polymorphisms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Polymorphisms, Tree Reconstruction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Polypeptides

    See also

    Polyploidy

    Types of Polyploidy and Nomenclature

    Detection of Polyploidy

    Palaeopolyploidy in Evolution

    Origin of Polyploidy

    Polyploidy in Crop Plants

    Polyploid Cell Types

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Polysome (Polyribosome)

    See also

    Polytene Chromosomes

    Endoreplication

    Organization of Polytene Chromosomes of D. melanogaster

    Gene Localization

    Gene Isolation and Cloning

    See also

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Population Genetics

    Definition and Scope

    Population Genetics Theory

    Applications

    Future Developments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Population Genomics/Macro vs Microevolution

    Genomic Perspectives on Human Origins

    Footprints of Human Migrations in Genome-Wide Data

    Insights into Adaptation and Speciation

    Future Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Population Substructure

    Origins of Population Substructure

    Genetic Consequences of Population Substructure

    Wright’s F Statistic

    Migration between Subpopulations

    Inferring Population Structure

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Position Effects

    Introduction

    Variegated Position Effects

    Genomic Position Effects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Positive Regulator Proteins

    See also

    Positive Supercoiling

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Postmeiotic Segregation

    Normal Meiotic Segregation

    Definition of Postmeiotic Segregation

    Origin of Postmeiotic Segregation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Posttranscriptional Modification

    See also

    Posttranslational Modification

    Chemical Extension of the Genetic Code

    Major Types of PTMs

    Expanding Structural and Functional Repertoires of Proteins via PTMs

    Classification of PTMs

    Intrinsic Disorder and PTMs

    PTMs and Diseases

    Experimental Tools for PTM Finding and Characterization

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    (p)ppGpp

    Introduction

    Structure

    Differential Effects on pppGpp/ppGpp Ratios

    Chemical Properties

    Permeability and Cellular Localization of (p)ppGpp

    Biological Synthesis and Degradation

    Identification of (p)ppGpp Synthetase and/or Hydrolase Activities Arising from a Gene of Interest

    Tests to Determine Sensitivity of Regulatory Targets to (p)ppGpp

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Predator–Prey and Parasite–Host Interactions

    Introduction

    Sequential Structure of Enemy–Victim Interactions

    Monogenic Control of Simple Defense Traits

    Polygenic Control of Complex Defense Traits

    Host–Parasite Coevolution

    Gene-for-Gene Interactions between Plants and Pathogens

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, Preimplantation Genetic Screening, and the Transfer of In Vitro Fertilized Embryos

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pre-mRNA Splicing

    Precursor Messenger RNA

    The Pre-mRNA Splicing Reaction

    Spliceosomal Small Nuclear RNAs and Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Particles

    Assembling the Spliceosome on Pre-mRNA

    Proteins Involved in Pre-mRNA Splicing

    Molecular Switches in the Spliceosome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Prenatal Diagnosis

    Prenatal Diagnosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Primary Transcript

    See also

    Primase

    Discovery

    Bacterial Primases

    Biochemical Properties

    Essential Physiological Properties

    Macromolecular Synthesis Operon

    Archaeal/Eukaryotic Primases

    Primase Genes

    Genetic Control of Primase Expression

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Primer

    The Initiation of DNA Replication: In Vitro Reactions

    The Initiation of DNA Replication In Vivo

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Primer RNA

    Definition

    Discontinuous DNA Synthesis and the Primer RNA Hypothesis

    The Sequence of Primer RNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Primitive Character

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Primosome

    See also

    Probe

    See also

    Processed Pseudogene

    See also

    Progenote

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Progeny Testing

    Overview

    Testing for Recessive Genes

    Selection Based on Progeny Performance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Prokaryotes

    See also

    Glossary

    Proline

    See also

    Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Promoters

    Promoters in Escherichia coli

    Promoters of Eukaryotic Protein-Encoding Genes

    Future Research on Promoters

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Proofreading

    See also

    Prophage

    See also

    Protein Interaction Domains

    See also

    Protein Microarrays

    Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip) Technology: DNA Bound Proteins

    RNA–Protein Translation Microarray

    Enzyme–Substrate Microarray

    Antibody Sandwich ELISA microarray

    Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Protein Secretion Systems

    Signal Hypothesis: Directing Proteins to Membranes

    Secretion in Bacteria

    Bacterial General Secretory Pathway

    Assembly of a Complex Organelle in the Periplasm and Outer Membrane

    Type III Secretion Systems

    Secretion in Eukaryotic Cells

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Vesicle Loading and Transport to the Golgi Apparatus

    Golgi Apparatus

    Diseases Caused by the Misfolding of Secretory Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Protein Splicing

    Discovery of Inteins

    Intein Organization

    Chemical Mechanisms of Intein Action

    Intein Applications in Modern Biotechnology/Molecular Biology

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Protein Synthesis

    See also

    Proteins and Protein Structure

    Proteins Are Polymers of Amino Acids

    Levels of Protein Structure

    Features of Secondary Structures

    Combinations of Secondary Structure Form Motifs

    Globular Proteins Form Structural Domains at the Level of Tertiary Structure

    Quaternary Structure

    Protein Complexes and Networks

    Fibrous Proteins

    Posttranslational Covalent Modification of Proteins

    Structural Genomics

    See also

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Proteolysis

    Regulatory Mechanisms and Biological Function of Proteases

    Tools for Studying Proteases

    Proteases as Tools for Cell Biology Research

    Proteases as Drug Targets

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Proteome

    Introduction

    Biomarker Discovery: Winners and Losers

    Mass Spectrometry

    Bioinformatics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Proteomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Proto-Oncogene

    See also

    Provirus

    See also

    Proximal

    See also

    Pseudoautosomal Linkage, Region

    Introduction

    How Do PARs Evolve?

    PAR Function

    How Similar Are PARs across Species?

    Human PARs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pseudogene

    See also

    Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Psoriasis

    Introduction

    Immunopathogenesis

    Genetics

    Changes in the Transcriptome in Psoriasis

    MicroRNA Expression in Psoriasis

    Epigenetic Alterations in Psoriasis

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Puff

    See also

    Pulse–Chase

    See also

    Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    The Principle of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Types of PFGE

    Running Conditions for PFGE

    Pulsed-Field Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Punnett Square

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Punnett, Reginald Crundall

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Purine

    Pyrimidine

    See also

    Pyrimidine Dimers

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Q

    Q-Banding

    Introduction

    Mechanism of Q-banding

    Application of Q-banding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus)

    Introduction

    QTL Mapping via Linkage

    Results of QTL Analyses

    From QTL to the Underlying Causal Variation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    QTL Mapping

    Introduction

    One-Marker Analysis

    Interval Mapping

    Composite Interval Mapping

    Multiple Interval Mapping

    See also

    References

    Quantitative Genetics

    Definition

    Classical Quantitative Genetics

    Molecular Quantitative Genetics Based on Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping

    Molecular Quantitative Genetics Based on Genomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Quantitative Inheritance

    Quantitative Trait and Quantitative Inheritance

    Historical Hypotheses on Quantitative Inheritance

    A Further Hypothesis: Gene Network of Quantitative Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Quantitative Trait

    Phenotypic and Genetic Variation

    Resemblance between Relatives

    Effectiveness of Selection

    Direct Evidence of Polygenic Inheritance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Quorum Sensing

    What Is Quorum Sensing?

    What Constitutes a QS Signal?

    QS and Communication between Bacterial Species and Higher Organisms

    Evolutionary Implications of QS

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    R

    RAD Genes (in Yeast)

    See also

    Radiation Genetics, Mouse

    See also

    References

    Random Mating

    Definition

    Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium in Random Mating Population

    Factors Breaking the Equilibrium in Random Mating Population

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Ras Gene Family

    Protein Function

    RAS Signaling Pathways

    Functional Diversity within the RAS Family

    Transcriptional Control via RAS

    Oncogenic Mutations

    Cancer

    Protein Structure

    Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitors

    X-Ray Structural Studies of RAS

    See also

    References

    Rats: Genetic and Functional Genomic Analyses of Complex Phenotypes

    Background

    Genetic Mapping of Complex Phenotypes in the Rat

    Rat Genetic and Genomic Resources

    Disease Gene Identification in Rat Models

    Transgenesis and Gene Targeting

    Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    rDNA Amplification

    See also

    Glossary

    Reading Frame

    Glossary

    Rearrangements

    Rearrangements

    Genesis of Rearrangements by Non-Allelic Homologous Recombination

    Genomic Rearrangements Occur in Healthy Individuals

    Prediction, Identification, and Purification of Genomic Rearrangements

    Natural Genomic Design

    Genomic Rearrangements as a Powerful Evolutionary Force

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Rec Genes

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    RecA Protein and Homology

    RecA Monomer Structure

    RecA Filament Structure

    RecA Protein-Mediated DNA Strand Exchange Reaction

    ATP and the RecA-Mediated Strand Exchange Reaction

    Eukaryotic RecA Homologs

    Function of Homologous Genetic Recombination: DNA Repair

    RecA and the E. coli SOS Response to DNA Damage

    See also

    Further Reading

    RecBCD Enzyme and Pathway

    Composition of RecBCD Enzyme and Its Encoding Genes

    Activities of the Purified Enzyme

    Atomic Structure of RecBCD

    Control by Chi Sites in DNA

    recBCD Mutations

    Roles in Recombination and DNA Break Repair

    The RecBCD and Other Pathways of Recombination

    Additional Roles in DNA Metabolism

    Related Enzymes of Other Bacterial Species

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recessive

    See also

    Recessive Inheritance and Recessiveness

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recessive Lethal

    See also

    Reciprocal Cross

    Definition

    Genetic Effect and Utilization of Reciprocal Cross in Plants

    Genetic Effect and Utilization of Reciprocal Cross in Animals

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Reciprocal Recombination

    Reciprocal Recombination in Meiosis

    Relationship to Gene Conversion

    Site-Specific Recombination is Often Reciprocal

    Nonreciprocal Recombination in Prokaryotes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Reciprocal Translocation

    See also

    Reciprocality

    See also

    Reckless DNA Degradation

    General Description of the Phenomenon

    Molecular Mechanism of Reckless DNA Degradation

    Biological Significance of Reckless DNA Degradation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Recombinant

    See also

    Recombinant Congenic Strains

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Recombinant DNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recombinant DNA Guidelines

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Recombinant Inbred Strain

    Introduction

    Production

    Nomenclature

    Genetics

    History

    Applications

    Extensions of RI Families

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recombination Hot Spots, Mouse

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Recombination in the Immune System

    The Antigen Receptor Repertoire

    V(D)J Recombination and Lymphocyte Development

    The V(D)J Recombination Pathway

    Allelic Exclusion

    Regulation of V(D)J Recombination

    Antigen Receptor Diversity

    Secondary Diversification: Somatic Hypermutation and CSR of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain

    The CSR Pathway

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recombination Nodules

    Definition

    EN Functions

    LN Functions

    Relationship between ENs and LNs

    Detection of RNs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recombination Pathways

    RecBCD Recombination Pathway

    RecF Recombination Pathway

    Interaction between RecBCD and RecF Recombination Pathway

    RecE Recombination Pathway

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Recombination Suppression

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Recombination, Models of

    The Nature of Homologous Recombination

    The Three Possible Outcomes of HR

    The DNA Formalism of HR

    ssDNA Generation and Intermediate Resolution

    Two Types of Recombinases

    The Elemental Models

    Complex Models

    Systems to Detect HR

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Recombinational Repair

    Detection of Homologous Recombination in E. coli

    Pathways of Homologous Recombination in E. coli

    Two-Strand DNA Lesions and the Idea of Recombinational Repair

    Chromosomal Lesions and Their Physical Detection

    The Inferred Pathways of Recombinational Repair

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Recombineering: A Modern Approach to Genetic Engineering

    What Is Recombineering?

    Recombineering with dsDNA

    Recombineering with ssDNA

    On the Mechanism of ssDNA Recombination

    Moving Recombineering to Other Systems

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Reed–Sternberg Cells

    Description and Associated Pathologies

    Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg Cell Lines

    Cellular Origin

    Immunophenotype

    Deregulated Signaling Pathways

    Genetic Lesions in Reed–Sternberg Cells

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Reeler Locus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Regulation of DNA Repair

    See also

    Regulatory Genes

    Why Do Organisms Need Regulatory Genes?

    Definition of a Regulatory Gene

    History

    An Effector Can Make or Break a Regulator

    Superimposed Controls

    Autoregulatory Genes

    Specific versus Global Regulators

    Some Regulators May Both Repress and Activate Transcription

    Regulators May Perform Other Cellular Functions

    DNA-Binding Properties

    Allosteric Modification

    Interaction of Regulators with RNA Polymerase

    Mechanistic Details of the Action of Regulators

    Complex Regulatory Structures: DNA Loops

    Epilog

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Regulatory RNA

    Introduction

    The World of Regulatory RNAs

    Widespread Functionality of Regulatory RNAs

    Medical Significance of Regulatory RNAs

    Concluding Remarks – Multifaceted RNAs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Rel Oncogene

    Introduction

    The Retroviral Oncogene v-rel

    The Normal Function of the Proto-oncogene c-rel

    Associations of REL with Human Cancer

    Associations of REL with Other Human Diseases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Release (Termination) Factors

    See also

    Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Pathology, Classification, and Clinical Behavior of RCC

    Neuroblastoma-Associated RCC

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Renaturation

    See also

    Repair Mechanisms

    Correction of Errors and Damage in DNA

    Types and Sources of Errors and Damage

    Biological Effects of DNA Damage and Errors

    Direct Reversal of Damage

    Indirect Reversal of Errors and Damage

    Recombinational Repair

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Repair of Oxidatively-Modified DNA

    Base Excision Repair

    Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription-Coupled Repair

    Nucleotide Incision Repair

    Strand Break Repair

    Mismatch Repair

    Interstrand Cross-link Repair

    Nudix Hydrolases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Repeat Induced Point Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Repetitive Sequences

    The Discovery History

    Classification

    The Biological Function

    Utilities of Repetitive Sequences

    Repetitive Sequences and Diseases

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Replication

    Replication Errors

    See also

    Replication Eye

    See also

    Replication Fork

    DNA Replication Forks Are Sites of Ongoing DNA Replication

    Coordinating DNA Replication Fork Activities

    Sister Chromatid Cohesion

    Blocked Replication Forks

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Replication Origin Sequences

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Replicon

    See also

    Replisome

    See also

    Reporter Gene

    See also

    Repression

    See also

    Repressor

    See also

    Reproductive Isolation

    The Relationship between Selection and Reproductive Isolation

    Forms of Reproductive Isolation

    Cause of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

    Genetic Basis and Rate of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

    Genomics and the Genic View of Reproductive Isolation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Resistance Plasmids

    See also

    Resistance to Antibiotics, Genetics of

    See also

    Resolvase

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Resolvase Mediated Deletion

    Introduction

    Resolvase and Its Resolution Site

    The Resolution Process

    Evolutionary Advantages of Resolvase-Mediated Deletion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Restriction and Modification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Restriction Endonuclease

    Types of Restriction Endonucleases

    Adenosine Triphosphate Dependent Restriction Endonucleases

    Type II Restriction Endonucleases

    Applications of Type II Restriction Endonucleases

    Mechanisms of DNA Recognition and Cleavage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Introduction

    Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Restriction Map

    See also

    RET Proto-Oncogene

    See also

    Glossary

    Reticulation

    Examples of Reticulation

    Different Types of Phylogenetic Networks

    Spit Networks as an Example for Unrooted Implicit Phylogenetic Networks

    Hybridization Networks as an Example for Rooted Explicit Phylogenetic Networks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Introduction

    Genetics

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Retinoblastoma

    Presentation and Diagnosis

    Clinical Aspects

    Treatment

    Genetics

    Molecular Aspects

    Gene Product

    Families with Retinoblastoma

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Retroposon

    See also

    Retroregulation

    See also

    Retrotransposons

    Definition

    Classification of Retrotransposons

    Structure and Retrotransposition Mechanism

    Distribution and Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Retroviruses

    Overview

    Genetic Structure of Retroviruses

    Molecular Description of the Retroviral Life Cycle

    Control of Gene Expression

    Retroviruses and Cancer

    Human Retroviruses

    Retroviral Restriction Mechanisms

    Retroviruses and Genetic Manipulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Reverse Genetics

    Background

    Virus

    Yeast

    Caenorhabditis elegans

    Drosophila

    Mouse

    Arabidopsis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Reverse Mutation

    Introduction

    True Reversion and Pseudoreversion

    Selection

    Forward Mutations Are More Frequent and Less Biased

    Specific Useful Reversion Assays

    Stress-Induced Mutation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Reverse Transcriptase

    Structure of Reverse Transcriptase

    Enzymology of Reverse Transcriptase

    Reverse Transcriptase and Retrotransposons

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Reverse Transcription

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Reverse Translation

    See also

    Reversion

    See also

    Glossary

    Reversion Tests

    Reversion Tests Are Used to Assess Genome Stability

    Information Learned from Reversion Tests

    Applications

    Advantages and Disadvantages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Revertants

    See also

    Rh Factor and Rh System

    What Is Rh Factor and How It Was Discovered?

    Why Is Rh Factor Important in Clinical Medicine?

    What Are the Biochemical Features of Rh Antigens or Polypeptides?

    How Are Rh Factor and Rh Blood Group Systems Polymorphic?

    What Are the Genetic Bases underlying Rh Diversification?

    How Is the Expression of Rh Antigens Determined?

    How Are Rh Antigens Related to Other Family Members by Molecular Evolution?

    What Are the Functional Roles of Rh Proteins in Erythroid Cells and Epithelial Tissues?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Rhabdomyosarcoma

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Rhizobia and Legume Nodulation Genes

    Rhizobia Nodulation Genes

    Legume Nodulation Genes

    Legume Nodule Number Regulation Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Rhizobium

    See also

    Rho Factor

    Transcription Termination

    Structure

    Termination Mechanism

    Rho-Dependent Terminators

    A Role for NusG in Termination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Ribosomal RNA

    rRNA Molecules

    Structure of rRNA

    Functional Sites

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ribosome Binding Site

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ribosomes

    History

    The Composition of Ribosomes

    The Structure of the Ribosome

    Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis, Antibiotics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ribozymes

    Definition

    Discovery

    Small Ribozymes

    Large Ribozymes

    Folding, Structure, and Catalytic Mechanism

    Artificial Ribozymes

    Ribozymes – Remnants of an RNA World?

    See also

    Further reading

    Glossary

    Rice

    Introduction

    Genome Sequence

    Annotation

    Resequencing

    Functional Analysis

    Impact in Rice Breeding

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Rifamycins

    See also

    Right/Left Handed DNA

    See also

    R-Loops

    Introduction

    Formation of R-Loops

    Detection of R-Loops In Vivo

    Nuclear Processes in Which R-Loops Can Form

    Physiological Consequences of R-loop Formation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    RNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    RNAases

    History

    Enzymology

    Classes and Biological Functions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    RNA Bacteriophages

    Introduction

    The Leviviridae

    The Cystoviridae

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    RNA-Binding Domains in Proteins

    Introduction

    RNP Domain (RNA-Recognition Motif)

    Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Domain

    K Homology Sequence Domain

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    RNA Editing

    Introduction

    RNA Editing in Mitochondrial and Choloroplast-Encoded Transcripts

    RNA Editing in Nuclear-Encoded RNAs of Animals

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    RNA Editing in Animals

    Insertion and/or Deletion Editing

    Substitution or Modification RNA Editing

    Other Forms of RNA Editing

    See also

    References

    RNA Editing in Plants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    RNA Interference

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    RNA Polymerase

    Bacterial RNAPs

    Eukaryotic RNAPs

    See also

    RNA Splicing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    RNA Turnover

    Biological Role of mRNA Degradation

    A Diversity of mRNA Turnover Pathways in Eukaryotic Cells

    The Deadenylation-Dependent Decapping Pathway

    3′→5′ Exonucleolytic Degradation of Eukaryotic mRNAs

    Deadenylation-Independent Decapping and mRNA Surveillance

    Degradation of mRNAs Initiated by Endonucleolytic Cleavage

    See also

    Further Reading

    RNA World

    Overview

    The Unlikely Nature of the RNA World

    Worlds in Context

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Robertsonian Translocations

    Introduction

    Homologous Translocations

    Heterologous Translocations

    Meiotic Drive

    De Novo Translocations

    Postzygotic Correction and UPD

    Types of RTs

    RTs and Infertility

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Rolling Circle Replication

    See also

    RuvAB Enzyme

    Crossed-Strand DNA Junctions Are Part of Intermediates in Recombination/Repair

    Formation of Crossed-Strand Junctions by Strand Exchange

    RuvAB Catalyzes Branch Migration

    Biological Functions of RuvAB-Mediated Branch Migration

    See also

    References

    Glossary

    RuvC Enzyme

    Crossed-Strand DNA Junctions in Repair and Recombination Intermediates

    Endonucleolytic Resolution of Holliday Junctions by RuvC

    Sequence Specificity of RuvC-Mediated Cleavages In Vitro

    Other Holliday Junction Resolution Enzymes

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    S

    S Phase

    See also

    S1 Nuclease

    See also

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer’s Yeast)

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    Saccharomyces Chromosomes

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Salmonella

    Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella enterica, Serotype Typhimurium): A Genetic System in a Pathogenic Bacterium

    Taxonomy of Salmonella

    Phage P22 and Transductional Crosses

    Development of Salmonella as a Genetic System

    Evolutionary Divergence of S. enterica and E. coli

    Genetic Functions That Define Salmonella as a Species

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sanger, Frederick

    Introduction

    Early Career

    Biochemical Research

    The Laboratory of Molecular Biology

    Sequencing Nucleic Acids

    Retrospect and Honors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sarcomas

    Introduction

    Classification

    Etiology and Biology

    Diagnosis

    Prognosis and Grading

    Selected Sarcoma Subtypes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Satellite Chromosomes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Schizophrenia

    Clinical Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia Genetics

    Molecular Genetics

    The Future of Schizophrenia Genetics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Schizosaccharomyce, Comparative Genomics of the Fission Yeasts

    History

    Pre-Genomic Studies

    Comparative Genomics

    Chromosome Evolution

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Principal Subject of Fission Yeast Genetics

    History

    General Genetics

    Reverse Genetics

    Genomics

    Nuclear Division Cycle

    Cell Shape and Growth

    Sexual Differentiation

    Meiosis and Recombination

    Epigenetic Silencing in Heterochromatin

    Mitochondrial Genetics

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Screening

    See also

    scRNA

    See also

    Seed Development, Genetics of

    Seed Development

    Screening for Seed Mutations

    Mutant Phenotypes and Gene Functions

    Basic Questions and Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Seed Storage Proteins

    Classification of Seed Storage Proteins

    Deposition of SSPs in Seed Cells

    Regulation of SSP Genes

    Decomposition of SSPs at Seed Germination Stage

    Novel Application of SSPs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Segmental Interchange

    Visualization

    Genetic Consequences

    Interchange Complexes in Plants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Segmentation Genes

    Segregation

    See also

    Segregation Distortion, Mouse

    See also

    Selection Coefficient

    Homozygotes Are Dead or Sterile

    Change in Allele Frequency

    Other Models

    Selection Coefficients in Finite Populations

    Selection Coefficients May Help to Preserve Allelic Variation

    Selection Coefficients May Vary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Selection Differential

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Selection Index

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Selection Intensity

    Selection intensity

    Selection Response

    Natural Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Selection Limit

    Factors Determining Limit due to Fixation

    Mutation

    Natural Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Selection Pressure

    Introduction

    One Locus

    Multiple Loci

    Four-Locus Histogram

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Selection Techniques

    See also

    Selective Breeding

    Selective Breeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Selective Neutrality and Near Neutrality

    Effect of a Mutant and Neutrality

    Selective Neutrality

    Selective Near-Neutrality

    Patterns of Molecular Evolution

    Effective Population Size

    Robustness, Epigenetics, and Morphological Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Selective Sweep

    See also

    Further Reading

    Self-Fertilization

    Why Control Fertilization?

    Strategies to Prevent Self-Fertilization in Plants

    Genetic Control of Self-Incompatibility

    Sporophytic Self-incompatibility

    Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Selfish DNA

    Selfishness in Nucleic Acids

    Does the Nonfunctional Exceed the Functional Content of Genomes?

    Repeated DNA: Selfish or Not; if Selfish, How Selfish?

    Selfish Behavior of Chromosomes

    Transposons and Retrotransposons

    Mobile Introns

    Plasmids and Episomes

    Maliciously Selfish Genetic Elements

    Summary and Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Semiconservative Replication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Semidiscontinuous Replication

    See also

    Sense Codon

    See also

    Serine

    See also

    Sex Chromatin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XYY

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sex Chromosomes

    Introduction

    Environmental Sex Determination

    Genetic Sex Determination

    Chromosomal Sex Determination

    Sex Determination in Insects

    Sex Determination in Birds

    Sex Determination in Mammals

    Sex Chromosome Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sex Determination, Human

    Overview

    Genes Required for Early Undifferentiated Gonad Formation

    SRY: The Critical Y-Linked Testis-Determining Gene

    Testis Development

    Ovary Development

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Sex Determination, Mouse

    Morphology and Cell Biology

    Molecular Aspects of Gonad Development

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sexduction

    See also

    Reference

    Sex-Limited Character

    See also

    Sex Linkage

    See also

    Sex Plasmid

    Sex Ratios

    The Düsing–Fisher’s Theory of Equal Investment in the Sexes

    Biased Sex Ratios

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sex Reversal

    XY Females (46,XY Ovarian DSD)

    XX Males (46,XX Testicular DSD)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sezary Syndrome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    SH Domains

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    SH2 Domain

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    SH3 Domain

    See also

    Further Reading

    Shearing

    Shifting-balance Theory of Evolution

    The Shifting Balance Theory

    The Three-Phase Shifting Balance Process

    Controversial Aspects of the Theory

    The Legacy of the Shifting Balance Theory

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

    See also

    Shotgun Cloning

    See also

    Shuttle Vector

    See also

    Sickle Cell Anemia

    Inheritance

    Effect of the Sickle Cell Mutation

    Clinical Features

    Control and Treatment

    Prognosis

    Other Sickling Disorders

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sigma Factors

    Introduction

    Basic Role in Transcription: The Sigma Cycle

    σ70 Structure and Function

    How Sigma Activity Is Regulated

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Signal Sequence

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Signal Transduction

    Signal Transduction, Cellular Communication, and Perception of the Environment

    Signal Transduction by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Signal Transduction by Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Similarity

    See also

    Further Reading

    SINE

    See also

    Single Nucleotyde Polymorphisms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Single-Copy Plasmids

    See also

    Single-Gene Inheritance

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Single-Strand Annealing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Single-Strand Assimilation

    See also

    Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Proteins

    Functional Aspects of Having a High Affinity for Single-Stranded DNA

    Structure of SSBs: How Do They Bind DNA?

    Roles in Cellular Processes

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Single-Strand Exchange

    See also

    Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Introduction

    SCEs Methodology

    SCE Significance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sister Chromatids

    See also

    Site-specific Recombination

    Introduction

    Products of Site-Specific Recombination

    Biological Functions of Site-Specific Recombination

    Mechanism of Site-Specific Recombination: The Basics

    Families of Recombinases

    Site-Specific Recombination in Biotechnology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Small Cytoplasmic Ribonucleoproteins

    Origin of Small Cytoplasmic Ribonucleoproteins

    scRNPs and Disease

    Composition of the Ro (SS-A)- and La (SS-B)-Containing scRNPs

    Functions of the La/SS-B-Containing scRNPs

    Other scRNPs

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Small Nuclear RNA

    Introduction

    snRNAs

    snoRNAs/psoRNAs/sdRNAs

    miRNAs/siRNAs

    piRNAs

    tiRNAs

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Smith, Hamilton

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Snell, George

    Sno/Ski Proto-Oncogene Family

    Family Tree and Conserved Domains

    Sno Function in Loss-of-Function Experiments

    Sno Function in Gain-of-Function Experiments

    Ski Function in Gain- and Loss-of-Function Experiments

    Current Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    snRNPs

    See also

    Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum (Tomato)

    Taxonomy, Origin, and Diffusion

    Genetic Stocks

    Genetic Breeding

    Recent Advances in Biotechnology Tools: Molecular Markers and Genomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Solanum tuberosum (Potatoes)

    Introduction

    History

    Potato Breeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Soluble RNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Somatic Mutation

    See also

    Somatic Pairing

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    SOS Bypass

    See also

    SOS Repair

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Southern Blotting

    Southern Blot Method

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Soybean (Glycine max L)

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Specialized Recombination

    DNA Transposition

    Retrotransposition

    Site-Specific Recombination

    V(D)J Joining

    Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Class Switch

    Intron (and Intein) Homing

    Mating-Type Switching in Yeast

    Abrupt Telomere Shortening

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Specialized Transduction

    Basis of Specialized Transduction

    Extending the Range of Specialized Transduction

    Other Specialized Transducing Systems

    Uses of Specialized Transducing Phages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Speciation

    Introduction

    Types of Speciation

    Hybridization and Incomplete Speciation

    Rates of Speciation

    Isolating Mechanisms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Species

    Introduction

    Species as Indivisible Units of Diversity

    The Generative Principle of Species

    Species as Phenetic Clusters of Organisms

    Phylogenetic Basis of Species Demarcation

    The Irreversible Separateness of Species

    Incompatibility of Components of Different Species

    Interfertility within Species and Intersterility between Species

    The Cohesive Nature of Species

    Ecological Distinctness of Species

    The Origin of Species

    The Reality of Species Versus the Nominal Nature of Species Taxa

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Species Selection

    See also

    Further Reading

    Species Trees

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Specific Locus Test

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Spermatids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spermatocytes

    The Beginning: Fertilization and Its Consequences

    Spermatogonial Cells Proliferate by Mitosis and Form Spermatocytes

    Spermatocytes Undergo Meiosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spermatogenesis in C. elegans

    General Description of Spermatogenesis

    C. elegans Reproductive Biology

    Mutants Affecting C. elegans Spermatogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spermatogenesis, Mammals

    Events of Spermatogenesis

    Mitosis and Meiosis, Spermiogenesis, and Spermiation

    Hormonal and Local Functional Axes That Regulate Spermatogenesis

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spermatogenesis, Mouse

    Introduction

    Spermatogonia

    Meiosis

    Haploid Differentiation

    Intercellular Bridges

    Regulation of Spermatogenesis

    Study of Mouse Spermatogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Spermatogonia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spina Bifida

    Definition and Developmental Basis

    Causes of Spina Bifida and Other NTDs

    Prevention of NTDs by Folic Acid and Other Vitamins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spindle

    See also

    Splicing

    See also

    Splicing Junctions

    See also

    Split Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Spongiform Encephalopathies (Transmissible), Genetic Aspects of

    Introduction

    Prion Protein and Gene

    Clinical Characteristics

    Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease

    Gerstmann–Straussler–Scheinker Syndrome

    Fatal Familial Insomnia

    Codon 129 Protein Polymorphism

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Spores

    See also

    Src Family Tyrosine Kinases

    Src Family

    Structural Organization and Regulation of Src Proteins

    Src Kinase Activity in Cellular Responses to Environmental Stimuli

    Oncogenic Transformation by Src

    Src in Human Cancer

    See also

    Further Reading

    srRNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Staggered Cuts

    See also

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Background on Organism

    Classification

    Genetics

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Start, Stop Codons

    See also

    Steel Locus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Steroids

    See also

    Sticky Ends

    See also

    Strain

    Strain Distribution Pattern (SDP)

    See also

    Strand Displacement

    See also

    Streptomyces

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Streptomycin

    History of Streptomycin as an Antibiotic

    Clinical Use of Streptomycin

    Mechanism of Activity

    Bacterial Resistance to Streptomycin

    Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes

    Structural Modifications of the Streptomycin-Binding Sites

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Stringent Mutant/Stringent Response

    How Are Stringent Mutants Isolated?

    Could the Location of Stringent Mutations Provide Clues to (p)ppGpp–RNAP Interactions?

    How Do the Stringent Mutants Work?

    Stringent Mutants in the Other Organisms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Stringent Response

    Introduction

    RelA

    SpoT

    ppGpp0

    RSH

    (p)ppGpp Cycle

    (p)ppGpp in Other Bacteria and Plants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Structural Genomics

    Introduction

    HT Structural Biology

    Major Worldwide SG Efforts

    Impact of SG

    Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Subcellular RNA Localization

    Mechanisms of RNA Localization

    cis-Acting RNA Localization Signals

    Proteins That Bind RNA Localization Elements

    The Role of the Cytoskeleton and Other Cellular Organelles

    Localized Protection from Degradation

    Biological Functions of RNA Localization

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Subcloning

    See also

    Superinfection Immunity

    Introduction

    Lysogeny and the CI Repressor

    Superinfection Immunity and Its Bypass

    Analogy, Practicality, and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Superrepressor

    See also

    Suppression

    Types of Translational Errors

    Suppressor tRNAs

    Other Compensatory Changes Result in Suppression

    Therapeutic Potential of Suppression

    See also

    Further Reading

    Suppressor Mutations

    Suppressor Mutation Concept

    Intragenic Suppressors

    Intergenic Suppressors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Suppressor tRNA

    See also

    Symbionts, Genetics of

    Definition of Symbiosis

    Genetic Consequences of Symbiosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Symbiosis Islands

    Genomic Islands

    The Symbiosis Island ICEMlSymR7A

    Symbiosis Islands in Other Rhizobia

    ICEMlSymR7A Defines a Family of Genomic Islands with Shared Transfer Functions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Symbiosome

    Introduction

    Specific Example 1: Legume/Rhizobia Facultative Symbioses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sympatry and Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Sympatry

    Introduction

    General Considerations

    A Changing Empirical Perspective

    New Theoretical Insights

    Genomic Structure and Speciation-with-Gene-Flow

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Symplesiomorphy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Synapomorphy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Synapsis in DNA Transactions

    DNA-Mediated Synapsis

    Protein-Mediated Synapsis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Synaptonemal Complex

    Historical Background

    Development and Fate of the Synaptonemal Complex at First Meiotic Division

    Structural Components of the Synaptonemal Complex

    Recombination and Synapsis: Proteins Associated with the Synaptonemal Complex

    Cohesin Axes and Synaptonemal Complex

    Chromatin Attachment to the Synaptonemal Complex

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Syndactyly

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Syngenic

    See also

    Synovial Sarcoma

    Disease Presentation

    Molecular Biology

    Diagnosis

    Treatment and Prognosis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Synteny (Syntenic Genes)

    Introduction

    Human Genetics and Synteny

    Comparative Genomics and Synteny

    Controversy about the Correct Use of the Term Synteny

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Innate Immunity: A Summary of the Current Concept

    Resistance at a Distance: Another Aspect of Innate Immunity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    T

    T Cell Receptor Gene Family

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    t Haplotype

    History and Genetics

    Transmission Ratio Distortion

    Evolution

    Population Biology

    Glossary

    T Phages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    TAL Family of bHLH Genes

    Introduction

    TAL Proteins Serve as DNA-Binding Transcription Factors

    The Role of the TAL Genes in T-Cell Leukemia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Tandem Repeats

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Targeted Mutagenesis, Mouse

    Background

    Zinc Finger and TALEN Technology

    Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    TATA Box

    See also

    Tautomerism

    Introduction

    The Decalogue of Tautomerism

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Taxonomy, Evolutionary

    Darwinian Classification

    Cladification

    Other Systems of Ordering Species

    See also

    References

    Taxonomy, Numerical

    Steps in Numerical Taxonomy

    Additional Techniques

    Other Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Tay–Sachs Disease

    Inheritance, Distribution, and Frequency

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Description

    Diagnosis

    Molecular Genetics

    Treatment

    Prevention

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    T-Box Genes

    History

    Defining Features of the Family

    Phylogenetic Analysis

    Role in Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Telomerase

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Telomeres

    The Need for Telomeres

    Terminal Repeats

    Subtelomeric Structure

    Telomere Overhangs

    Telomerase Function

    Telomere-Binding Proteins

    Drosophila Telomeres

    Telomeres, Aging, and Cancer in Humans

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Temperate Phage

    See also

    Temperature-Sensitive Mutant

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Template

    Introduction

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Terminal Redundancy

    See also

    Terminator

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Test Cross

    Definition

    Utilization in Genetic Study

    Utilization in Plant Breeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Testes-Determining Locus

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Tetrad Analysis

    Meiotic Tetrads: Advantages and Availability

    Tetrads and Octads in Fungi

    Ordered Tetrads

    Two-Locus Segregations: Independent Assortment

    Linked Segregations

    Strand Relationships in Double Crossovers

    Distinguishing between Independence and Distant Linkage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Tetraparental Mouse

    See also

    Tetratype

    See also

    Thalassemias

    Classification of the Thalassemias

    Molecular Basis

    Clinical Course and Outcome

    Clinical Diversity

    Coinheritance of Thalassemia with Hb Variants

    Population Genetics

    Avoidance and Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Thermophilic Bacteria

    Genome Sequences and the Evolutionary History of Thermophilic Bacteria

    Mechanisms of Genetic Exchange

    Bacteriophage and Plasmids of Thermophiles

    DNA Supercoiling in Thermophilic Bacteria

    Recombinant Genetics of Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Theta Replication

    See also

    Three-point Cross (Test Cross)

    See also

    Threonine

    See also

    Threshold Characters

    See also

    Thymine

    See also

    Thymine Dimer

    See also

    Tissue Culture

    The Dawn of Tissue Culture

    The Beginning of Modern Cell Culture

    Serum-Free Cell Culture

    The “Hayflick Limit”

    Histoculture

    Other Applications of Histoculture

    In Vitro Skin Histoculture Assay

    Lymphoid Histoculture for In Vitro Immunology

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Tjio, Joe-Hin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Topoisomerases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Tortoiseshell Coloring

    See also

    Glossary

    Toxicogenomics

    Introduction

    Background

    Experimental Design

    Analysis of Microarray Data

    Toxicogenomics Databases

    Applications of Toxicogenomics

    Future Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transcribed Spacer

    See also

    Transcription

    Transcription Decodes the Genetic Information and Is a Complex Process

    Transcription Templates

    RNA Polymerases

    Transcription Cycle

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transcription Factors

    Transcription and the Transcription Apparatus

    Transcription Factors Are a Subset of Factors Involved in Transcription

    Transcription Factors: How They Were Discovered

    Transcription Factors: How They Are Studied

    Transcription Factors: How They Recognize Their Targets

    Transcription Repressors: How They Work

    Transcription Activators: How They Work

    Transcription Factors: How Their Activity Is Controlled

    Transcription Factors: What They Do

    Transcription Factors: Key Regulators of the Cell’s Genetic Material

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transcriptional Attentuation

    Introduction

    Modulation of Leader RNA Structure

    Modification of RNAP Processivity

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Transcriptome

    Introduction

    Means (Methods)

    RNA Isolation/Copying/Hybridization

    Data Acquisition

    Data Processing and Experimental Design

    Analyses Based Upon Known Biological Organization

    Some Applications

    Basal Level and Fold Change

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transduction

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transfection

    See also

    Transfer of Genetic Information from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Plants

    Introduction

    Events in the Bacterium

    Events in the Plant

    Use of A. tumefaciens for the Generation of Transgenic Plants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Transfer RNA

    History

    Structure

    tRNAs and tRNA Synthetases

    tRNAs and Translation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transformation

    See also

    Transgenes

    Introduction

    Transgenic DNA Construction

    Transgenic DNA Delivery

    Transgenic DNA Persistence

    Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Transgenic Animals

    History of Transgenic Animals

    Methods for Production of Transgenic Animals, and Genetic and Physical Properties of Transgenes

    Transgenesis via Pronuclear Microinjection of DNA

    Transgenesis via Infection with Retroviral Vectors

    Transgenesis via ES Cells

    Transgenesis via Nuclear Transfer

    Expression of Transgenes

    Applications of Transgenic Animals

    Targeted Mutations, Random Insertional Mutations, and Gene Traps

    Cell-Type-Specific or Conditional Gene Disruption

    Ectopic Expression or Overexpression of Normal Gene Products

    Expressing Dominant Gain-of-Function or Dominant-Negative Mutant Gene Products

    Genetic Markers of Specific Cell Types or Lineages

    Genetic Ablation of Specific Cell Lineages

    Applications in Agriculture and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transient Polymorphism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transition

    See also

    Translation

    The Genetic Code

    Reading Frame and Usage of the Genetic Code

    Translation on Ribosomes

    Transport of Product

    The Molecular System of Translation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Translation Elongation

    The Elongation Cycle in Translation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Translational Control

    See also

    Translocation

    Introduction

    Reciprocal Translocation (Symbol T in Mouse, t in Humans)

    Insertion (Symbol Is in Mouse)

    Shift (Transposition)

    Robertsonian Translocation (Symbol Rb in Mouse)

    See also

    References

    Further Reading

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transmission Genetics

    Selective Breeding

    Mendelian Inheritance

    Non-Mendelian Inheritance

    Mendelian Traits in Man

    Modes of Inheritance

    Hereditarianism

    Conclusions and Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transposable Elements

    Structure of Transposons

    Classification

    DNA Transposons

    Retrotransposons

    Mechanism of Transposition

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Transposable Elements in Plants

    Discovery of TEs in Maize

    Overview and Classification

    Class I: Retrotransposons

    Class II: DNA Transposons

    Regulation of Transposition

    Transposons as Tools: Transposon Tagging and Reverse Genetics

    Quantitative Contributions to the Genetic Material

    TEs and DNA Diversity

    Transposons and Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transposase

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transposon Excision

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transposons

    Introduction

    Transposons and Genomes

    Classes of TEs

    Transposon Domestication

    Transposon-Based Tools

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Trans-Splicing

    Introduction

    SL Addition

    Group II trans-Splicing

    Other Instances of trans-Splicing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Transvection

    See also

    Transversion Mutation

    See also

    Trees

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Trichome Development, Genetics of

    Introduction

    Genetic Dissection of Trichome Development in Arabidopsis

    Trichome Patterning

    Trichome Expansion

    Regulation of Branching

    Endoreduplication

    Trichome Maturation

    Transcriptomics Approaches toward Next-Generation Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Trinucleotide Repeats: Dynamic DNA and Human Disease

    Trinucleotide Repeat Mutations in Coding Regions of Genes

    Trinucleotide Repeat Mutations in Noncoding Regions of Genes

    DNA Expansion Mechanism

    See also

    References

    Triplet Code, Genetic Evidence

    See also

    Triploidy

    Triploidy in Humans

    Triploidy in Plants

    Triploidy in Animals

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Trisomics

    Introduction

    Types of Trisomics

    Source of Trisomics

    Cytogenetic Consequences of Trisomics

    Significance of Trisomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Trisomy 18

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Trisomy X Syndrome (47,XXX)

    History

    Clinical Presentation

    Genetics

    Diagnosis

    Differential Diagnosis

    Genetic Counseling Recommendations

    Management

    Disclaimer

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Triticum Species (Wheat)

    Species Relationships

    Cytogenetic Structure

    Wheat Gene Space

    Cytogenetic Stocks

    Genetic Transmission

    Genetic Diversity

    Gene Mapping

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Trivial Equilibrium

    See also

    References

    Trophoblast

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    trp Operon Organization and Regulation in Different Bacterial Species

    Regulation of the Biosynthetic trp Operon of Bacteria

    Operon Organization of the trp Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Trypanosome Editing

    RNA Editing and gRNAs

    The Basic Editing Mechanism

    RNA Editing Enzymes and Complexes

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Trypsin

    Overview

    Background

    A Model for Protein Engineering

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Tryptophan

    See also

    Tryptophan Operon of Escherichia coli

    The trp Operon and Tryptophan Biosynthesis

    Gene Arrangement in the trp Operon of E. coli

    The Pathway and Enzymes of Tryptophan Biosynthesis

    Structure/Function Studies with the Tryptophan Biosynthetic Enzymes

    Regulation of Expression of the trp Operon of E. coli

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Tschermak-Seysenegg, Erich von

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Tumor Antigens Encoded by Simian Virus 40

    Introduction

    Infectious Cycle of SV40

    Role of Large T Antigen in Viral DNA Replication

    Regulation of Gene Expression by the Large and Small T Antigens

    Viral Tumorigenesis

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Tumor Necrosis Factor

    Introduction

    The Role of TNF in the Pathogenesis of RA and Bone Damage

    The Role of TNF in Host Defense and Tumor Surveillance

    The Role of TNF in Heart Failure and Atherosclerosis

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Tumor Suppressor Genes

    Two Classes

    The Biological Basis of Tumor Suppression

    Approaches to Identification

    Examples

    Mutations in Cancer Pathogenesis

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Turner Syndrome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Twisting Number

    See also

    Tyrosine

    See also

    U

    Ubiquitin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Umber Codon

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Underdominance

    Definition

    Examples

    Evolutionary Dynamics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Underwinding

    See also

    Unidirectional Replication

    See also

    Unequal Crossing Over

    Introduction

    UCO Was First Identified at the Bar Locus

    UCO May Result in Gene Duplication, Deletion, Chimeric Genes, and Mobile Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

    UCO Can Generate Gene Families

    UCO Can Cause Disease

    UCO May Cause Chromosomal Rearrangement

    Repeat Polymorphisms May Occur through UCO

    UCO Plays a Major Role in Molecular Evolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Uniparental Inheritance

    Introduction

    Parthenogenesis in Invertebrates

    Uniparental Inheritance in Vertebrates

    Mammalian Cloning

    See also

    Further Reading

    Unique DNA

    Unique DNA and Cot Filtration

    A Large Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Genomes in Their Unique DNAs

    Global Repetitive DNA in Eukaryotic Genomes

    Measuring the Level of Unique DNAs in In Silico Settings

    Heterozygotes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Universal Genetic Code

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Unscheduled DNA Synthesis

    See also

    Upstream

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Upstream, Downstream Site

    See also

    Uracil

    See also

    URF

    See also

    UTP (Uridine Triphosphate)

    See also

    V

    Valine

    See also

    Variable Region

    See also

    Variegation

    See also

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Introduction

    VEGF Isoforms

    VEGF Receptors

    Biological Effects of VEGF

    Therapeutic Applications of VEGF Antagonists

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Vectors

    Introduction

    Vector Characteristics

    Plasmid Vectors

    Viral Vectors

    Library Construction in Vectors

    Vectors for Protein Expression

    Vectors for Chromosomal Alteration

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Vertebrate Limb Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Vertical Transmission

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    V Gene

    See also

    Viroids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Virulence, Genetics of

    Introduction

    Portals of Entry

    Understanding the Genetics of Virulence

    Methods for Comparison of Different Microbial Strains

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Virulent Phage

    See also

    Virus

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Viruses of the Archaea

    Viruses of Hyperthermophilic Archaea

    Viruses of Extremely Halophilic Archaea

    Evolutionary Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Visconti–Delbrück Hypothesis

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Vitamins

    Introduction

    Vitamin D

    Vitamin A

    B Vitamins

    Vitamin C

    Vitamin E

    Vitamin K

    Triage

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Von Gierke Disease

    History

    Function of Liver Glycogen

    Role of Liver Glucose-6-Phosphatase

    The Liver Glucose-6-Phosphatase System

    Molecular Bases of Type 1a GSD: (G6PC) Deficiency

    Molecular Bases of Type 1b GSD: G6PT1 Deficiency

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Prevalence of GSD1a

    Management

    Potential for Gene Therapy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Von Hippel–Lindau Disease

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Von Willebrand Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    W

    W (White-Spotting) Locus

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    W Chromosome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    WAF1

    See also

    Wahlund Effect

    A Numerical Example

    Formal Specification of the Wahlund Effect for Diallelic Autosomal Loci

    Wahlund’s Formula

    Check of Our Numerical Example

    Practical Implications

    Derivation of the Wahlund’s Formulas

    Wahlund Effect with Multiple Alleles

    Conclusion

    See also

    Wallace, Alfred Russel

    See also

    Further Reading

    Watson, James Dewey

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Weisman, August

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Wheat

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    WHO Classification of Leukemia

    Introduction

    Myeloid Neoplasms

    Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Myeloid and Lymphoid Neoplasms with Eosinophilia and Abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1

    Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia

    Lymphoid Neoplasms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Whole Organism Cloning

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Wild Type

    See also

    Wilms’ Tumor

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Wilson Disease

    Clinical Features

    Genetic Cause of WND

    Laboratory Diagnosis of WND

    Therapy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Wilson, Edmund Beecher

    See also

    Further Reading

    Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Wobble Hypothesis

    Introduction

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Wright, Sewall

    Wright’s Contributions to Genetics

    Statistics

    Animal Breeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    X

    X Chromosome

    Introduction

    Evolutionary Conservation of the X Chromosome

    X-Chromosome Configuration

    Human X-Linked Diseases

    X-Inactivation

    X-Chromosome Genes and Brain Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    X-Chromosome Inactivation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Xenology

    See also

    Xenopus laevis

    See also

    Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Introduction

    Roles for XP Gene Products in NER Mechanism

    XP Variant Gene and TLS

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Xist Locus

    Discovery

    Developmental Regulation

    Concluding Thoughts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    X-Ray Crystallography

    Introduction

    Steps in a Successful Structure Determination by X-Ray Crystallography

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    XXYY Syndrome

    Introduction

    Phenotype

    Research

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Y

    Y Chromosome Evolution

    Sex-Determination Systems

    Evolution of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes

    Genetic Erosion of Y Chromosome

    Human Sex Chromosomes

    Plant Sex Chromosomes

    Dosage Compensation of X-Linked Genes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Y Chromosome (Human)

    Introduction

    What Is the Biological Role of the Y Chromosome?

    What Do We Know about the Structure and Gene Content of the Y Chromosome?

    What Is the Importance of the Y Chromosome for Medical Genetics?

    How Is the Y Chromosome Important for Forensic Genetics?

    What Have We Learned about Human History from Studies of the Y Chromosome?

    How Do We Expect Y Chromosome Studies to Develop in the Near Future?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Yanofsky, Charles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Yeast Chromosomes

    Yeasts Have Small Genomes

    Chromosome Structure

    Nuclear Organization

    Chromosome Replication

    Chromosome Segregation

    Artificial Chromosomes and Minichromosomes

    Studying Chromosome Repair in Yeast

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Yeast Genetics

    Introduction

    Basic Features of Yeast Biology Facilitate Genetics

    Genetic Screens

    Secondary Genetic Screens

    Molecular Manipulations

    Mutational Analysis

    Studying Gene Interaction Networks in Yeast

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Yeast Plasmids

    Naturally Occurring Plasmids

    Engineered Plasmids

    Different Plasmids Have Different Uses

    Manipulating Cells with Plasmids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Z

    Z Chromosome

    See also

    References

    Z-DNA

    Introduction

    Role of Z-DNA in Transcription

    Proteins Bind to Z-DNA

    The B–Z Junction and Mutagenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Zebrafish

    Background

    Zebrafish Pigmentation

    Zebrafish Genetics and Genomics

    Imaging Zebrafish

    Modeling of Human Biology and Disease

    Chemical Genetics

    Zebrafish and Behavior

    Zebrafish and Education

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Zoo Blot

    See also

    Zygote

    Fertilization, Meiosis, and Mitosis

    Pronuclei and Zygote Formation

    Centrioles and Mitochondria

    Gene Expression

    Genetic Imprinting

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Zygotic Lethal Gene

    See also

    Subject Index

    Authors

Product details

  • No. of pages: 4368
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: February 27, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123749840

About the Editors

Stanley Maloy

Stanley Maloy is Dean of the College of Sciences and a Professor of Biology at San Diego State University. He obtained a PhD from the University of California Irvine and did postdoctoral work at the University of Utah before moving to the University of Illinois. He was also Director of the UIUC Biotechnology Center government. He was the first President of the American Society for Microbiology. Research in the Maloy lab has focused on bacterial genetics, genomics, and pathogenesis, with an emphasis on Salmonella, bacterial viruses, and emerging infectious diseases. He has also been involved in translational research projects focused on new vaccine delivery systems and nanoengineering approaches for the development of narrow spectrum antibiotics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dean of the College of Sciences and Professor of Biology, San Diego State University, USA

Kelly Hughes

Kelly Hughes
Kelly Hughes is Professor Ordinaire at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. After receiving a BS degree from the University of California at Irvine and a PhD from the University of Utah working with John Roth and Baldomero Olivera, he joined Mel Simon’s group at Caltech as a postdoctoral fellow in 1986. He was appointed assistant professor in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Washington in Seattle in 1989 and moved up the ranks to full professor in 2001. He moved to the University of Utah in 2005 and spent 5 years in the Biology Department there before taking his current position. He was a visiting professor in Winfried Boos’ lab at the University of Konstanz, Germany, in 1997–98, in Guy Cornelis’ lab at the Biozentrum in Basel, Switzerland, in 2004 and in Keiichi Namba’s lab at the University of Osaka in 2005 and 2007. His major research interests have focused on the biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum and coupled gene regulatory mechanisms.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Utah, USA

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