Biology of Stress in Fish

Biology of Stress in Fish

1st Edition - October 28, 2016

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  • Authors: Carl B. Schreck, Lluis Tort, Anthony Farrell, Colin Brauner
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128027288
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128027370

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Biology of Stress in Fish: Fish Physiology provides a general understanding on the topic of stress biology, including most of the recent advances in the field. The book starts with a general discussion of stress, providing answers to issues such as its definition, the nature of the physiological stress response, and the factors that affect the stress response. It also considers the biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in the stress response, how the stress response is generated and controlled, its effect on physiological and organismic function and performance, and applied assessment of stress, animal welfare, and stress as related to model species.

Key Features

  • Provides the definitive reference on stress in fish as written by world-renowned experts in the field
  • Includes the most recent advances and up-to-date thinking about the causes of stress in fish, their implications, and how to minimize the negative effects
  • Considers the biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in the stress response


Fish physiologists, fish pathologists, fish biologists, professional aquaculturists, ornamental fish managers and hobbyists, researchers of wild, laboratory and aquaculture fish, animal welfare and fish welfare regulatory bodies

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • 1. The Concept of Stress in Fish
      • 1 Introduction
      • References
    • 2. Variation in the Neuroendocrine Stress Response
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Ontogeny of the Teleost Stress Response
      • 3 Neuronal Substrate for Stress and Variation in Stress Responses
      • 4 Divergent Stress Coping Styles, Animal Personalities, and Behavioral Syndromes
      • 5 Agonistic Interactions: Stress and Aggression
      • 6 Nutritional Factors Affecting Stress Responses
      • 7 Directions For Future Research
      • References
    • 3. The Endocrinology of the Stress Response in Fish: An Adaptation-Physiological View
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Stress and the Brain: The (Neuro-)Endocrine Hypothalamus
      • 3 Stress and the Pituitary Gland
      • 4 Stress and the Head Kidney
      • 5 Synthesis and Perspective
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • 4. The Molecular Stress Response
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Molecular Regulation of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Interrenal (HPI) Axis
      • 3 Genomic Cortisol Signaling
      • 4 Genomic Effects of Cortisol
      • 5 Significance of Molecular Responses
      • 6 Approaches to Study Molecular Responses to Stress
      • 7 Concluding Remarks and the Unknowns
      • References
    • 5. Stress and Growth
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 A Conceptual Framework for Growth
      • 3 Stress Effect on Energy Available for Growth
      • 4 Stress Effects on Promoters of Muscle Formation
      • 5 Conclusion and Knowledge Gaps
      • References
    • 6. Homeostatic Responses to Osmotic Stress
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Responses to Hyperosmotic Stress
      • 3 Responses to Hypoosmotic Stress
      • 4 Stress Sensing to Homeostasis
      • 5 Energy Metabolism in Response to Osmotic Stress
      • 6 Conclusions and Perspectives
      • References
    • 7. The Stress and Stress Mitigation Effects of Exercise: Cardiovascular, Metabolic, and Skeletal Muscle Adjustments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Physiological Demands of Swimming Exercise and the Stress Continuum
      • 3 Physiological Adaptations to Swimming and Relevance to Stress
      • References
    • 8. Reproduction and Development
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Regulation of Reproduction
      • 3 Effects of Stress on Reproduction
      • 4 Mechanisms of Stress Action
      • 5 Stress Effects on Reproduction in Natural Environments
      • 6 Future Directions
      • References
    • 9. Cognition, Learning, and Behavior
      • 1 How Stress Can Affect Behavior, and Vice Versa
      • 2 Optimality, Preferences, and Decision-Making
      • 3 Salmon as Model Species
      • 4 Learning in Relation to Stress in Fishes
      • 5 Some Critical Knowledge Gaps
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • 10. Stress and Disease Resistance: Immune System and Immunoendocrine Interactions
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Effects of Stressors on the Immune Response
      • 3 Organization of the Immune Response Following Stress: The Neuroimmunoendocrine Connection and the Role of the Head Kidney
      • 4 Effects of Hormones on the Immune System
      • 5 Environmental Stressors and Fish Immunity
      • 6 Future Directions
      • References
    • 11. Stress Indicators in Fish
      • 1 Why Do We Measure Stress?
      • 2 Quantifying Stress
      • 3 Specific Measures of Fish Stress
      • 4 Considerations for Measuring and Interpreting Stress
      • 5 From Individual Indicators to Ecosystem Health
      • 6 Stress Indicators of the Future
      • 7 Conclusion
      • References
    • 12. Stress Management and Welfare
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Managing Stress in Fish
      • 3 The Impact of Stress on Fish Welfare
      • 4 Conclusions and Future Directions
      • References
    • 13. Stress in Fish as Model Organisms
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Indicators of Stress in Laboratory Fish
      • 3 Factors Impacting Stress in Laboratory Fish Handling
      • 4 Housing
      • 5 Feeding and Stress
      • 6 Sex and Hierarchies
      • 7 Sex Determination and Reversal
      • 8 Stress, Cortisol, and Reproduction
      • 9 Anesthetics
      • 10 Underlying Diseases
      • 11 Consistency
      • 12 Conclusion and Key Unknowns
      • References
    • Index
    • Other Volumes in the Fish Physiology Series

Product details

  • No. of pages: 602
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: October 28, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128027288
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128027370

About the Authors

Carl B. Schreck

Affiliations and Expertise

Oregon State University, USA

Lluis Tort

Affiliations and Expertise

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

Anthony Farrell

Anthony Farrell
Dr. Tony Farrell is a professor in the Department of Zoology & Faculty of Land and Food Systems at the University of British Columbia and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. His research had provided an understanding of fish cardiorespiratory systems and has applied this knowledge to salmon migratory passage, fish stress handling and their recovery, sustainable aquaculture and aquatic toxicology. He has over 470 research publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and an h-factor of 92. He has co-edited of 30 volumes of the Fish Physiology series, as well as an award-winning Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology. As part of his application of physiology to aquaculture, he has studied the sub-lethal impacts of sea lice and piscine orthoreovirus on the physiology of juvenile salmon. Dr. Farrell has received multiple awards, including the Fry Medal, which is the highest honour to a scientist from the Canadian Society of Zoologists, the Beverton Medal, which is the highest honour to a scientist from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles, the Award of Excellence, which is the highest honour of the American Fisheries Society and the Murray A. Newman Awards both for Research and for Conservation from the Vancouver Marine Sciences Centre. He is a former President of the Society of Experimental Biologists and a former Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Fish Biology. He served as a member of the Minister’s Aquaculture Advisory Committee on Finfish Aquaculture for British Columbia and was a member of the Federal Independent Expert Panel on Aquaculture Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Zoology and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia and Fellow, Royal Society of Canada, Vancouver, Canada

Colin Brauner

Colin Brauner
Dr. Colin Brauner was educated in Canada at the University of British Columbia (Ph D), followed by a Post-doctoral fellowship at Aarhus University and the University of Southern Denmark, and was a Research Associate at McMaster University. He is a Professor of Zoology, UBC and Director of the UBC Aquatics Facility. He has been a Co-Editor of the Fish Physiology series since 2006. His research investigates environmental adaptations (both mechanistic and evolutionary) in relation to gas-exchange, acid-base balance and ion regulation in fish, integrating responses from the molecular, cellular and organismal level. The ultimate goal is to understand how evolutionary pressures have shaped physiological systems among vertebrates and to determine the degree to which physiological systems can adapt/acclimate to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes. This information is crucial for basic biology and understanding the diversity of biological systems, but much of his research conducted to date can also be applied to issues of aquaculture, toxicology and water quality criteria development, as well as fisheries management. His achievements have been recognized by the Society for Experimental Biology, UK (President’s medal) and the Canadian Conference for Fisheries Research (J.C. Stevenson Memorial Lecturer) and the Vancouver Marine Sciences Centre (Murray A. Newman Award for Aquatic Research). He is a former President of the Canadian Society of Zoologists.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Zoology, UBC and Director of the UBC Aquatics Facility, Canada

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