Biology of Stress in Fish - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128027288, 9780128027370

Biology of Stress in Fish, Volume 35

1st Edition

Authors: Carl B. Schreck Lluis Tort Anthony Farrell Colin Brauner
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128027288
eBook ISBN: 9780128027370
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th October 2016
Page Count: 602
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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • 1. The Concept of Stress in Fish
    • 1 Introduction
    • References
  • 2. Variation in the Neuroendocrine Stress Response
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Ontogeny of the Teleost Stress Response
    • 3 Neuronal Substrate for Stress and Variation in Stress Responses
    • 4 Divergent Stress Coping Styles, Animal Personalities, and Behavioral Syndromes
    • 5 Agonistic Interactions: Stress and Aggression
    • 6 Nutritional Factors Affecting Stress Responses
    • 7 Directions For Future Research
    • References
  • 3. The Endocrinology of the Stress Response in Fish: An Adaptation-Physiological View
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Stress and the Brain: The (Neuro-)Endocrine Hypothalamus
    • 3 Stress and the Pituitary Gland
    • 4 Stress and the Head Kidney
    • 5 Synthesis and Perspective
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 4. The Molecular Stress Response
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Molecular Regulation of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Interrenal (HPI) Axis
    • 3 Genomic Cortisol Signaling
    • 4 Genomic Effects of Cortisol
    • 5 Significance of Molecular Responses
    • 6 Approaches to Study Molecular Responses to Stress
    • 7 Concluding Remarks and the Unknowns
    • References
  • 5. Stress and Growth
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 A Conceptual Framework for Growth
    • 3 Stress Effect on Energy Available for Growth
    • 4 Stress Effects on Promoters of Muscle Formation
    • 5 Conclusion and Knowledge Gaps
    • References
  • 6. Homeostatic Responses to Osmotic Stress
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Responses to Hyperosmotic Stress
    • 3 Responses to Hypoosmotic Stress
    • 4 Stress Sensing to Homeostasis
    • 5 Energy Metabolism in Response to Osmotic Stress
    • 6 Conclusions and Perspectives
    • References
  • 7. The Stress and Stress Mitigation Effects of Exercise: Cardiovascular, Metabolic, and Skeletal Muscle Adjustments
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Physiological Demands of Swimming Exercise and the Stress Continuum
    • 3 Physiological Adaptations to Swimming and Relevance to Stress
    • References
  • 8. Reproduction and Development
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Regulation of Reproduction
    • 3 Effects of Stress on Reproduction
    • 4 Mechanisms of Stress Action
    • 5 Stress Effects on Reproduction in Natural Environments
    • 6 Future Directions
    • References
  • 9. Cognition, Learning, and Behavior
    • 1 How Stress Can Affect Behavior, and Vice Versa
    • 2 Optimality, Preferences, and Decision-Making
    • 3 Salmon as Model Species
    • 4 Learning in Relation to Stress in Fishes
    • 5 Some Critical Knowledge Gaps
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 10. Stress and Disease Resistance: Immune System and Immunoendocrine Interactions
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Effects of Stressors on the Immune Response
    • 3 Organization of the Immune Response Following Stress: The Neuroimmunoendocrine Connection and the Role of the Head Kidney
    • 4 Effects of Hormones on the Immune System
    • 5 Environmental Stressors and Fish Immunity
    • 6 Future Directions
    • References
  • 11. Stress Indicators in Fish
    • 1 Why Do We Measure Stress?
    • 2 Quantifying Stress
    • 3 Specific Measures of Fish Stress
    • 4 Considerations for Measuring and Interpreting Stress
    • 5 From Individual Indicators to Ecosystem Health
    • 6 Stress Indicators of the Future
    • 7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 12. Stress Management and Welfare
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Managing Stress in Fish
    • 3 The Impact of Stress on Fish Welfare
    • 4 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • References
  • 13. Stress in Fish as Model Organisms
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Indicators of Stress in Laboratory Fish
    • 3 Factors Impacting Stress in Laboratory Fish Handling
    • 4 Housing
    • 5 Feeding and Stress
    • 6 Sex and Hierarchies
    • 7 Sex Determination and Reversal
    • 8 Stress, Cortisol, and Reproduction
    • 9 Anesthetics
    • 10 Underlying Diseases
    • 11 Consistency
    • 12 Conclusion and Key Unknowns
    • References
  • Index
  • Other Volumes in the Fish Physiology Series


Biology of Stress in Fish: Fish Physiology provides a general understanding on the topic of stress biology, including most of the recent advances in the field. The book starts with a general discussion of stress, providing answers to issues such as its definition, the nature of the physiological stress response, and the factors that affect the stress response.

It also considers the biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in the stress response, how the stress response is generated and controlled, its effect on physiological and organismic function and performance, and applied assessment of stress, animal welfare, and stress as related to model species.

Key Features

  • Provides the definitive reference on stress in fish as written by world-renowned experts in the field
  • Includes the most recent advances and up-to-date thinking about the causes of stress in fish, their implications, and how to minimize the negative effects
  • Considers the biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in the stress response


Fish physiologists, fish pathologists, fish biologists, professional aquaculturists, ornamental fish managers and hobbyists, researchers of wild, laboratory and aquaculture fish, animal welfare and fish welfare regulatory bodies


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
28th October 2016
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Authors

Carl B. Schreck Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Oregon State University, USA

Lluis Tort Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

Anthony Farrell

Anthony Farrell Author

Tony Farrell is a graduate of Bath University, where he was fortunate to study with Peter Lutz. His fortunes grew further when he moved in 1974 to Canada and the Zoology Department at the University of British Columbia to complete his Ph.D. degree under the superb tutelage of Dave Randall. In 2004, Tony returned to UBC when he accepted an endowed research chair in Sustainable Aquaculture.

In between these positions at UBC, Tony was employed at the University of Southern California (PDF), the University of New Brunswick (sessional lecturer), Mount Allison University (first real job) and Simon Fraser University (moving through the ranks to a full professor). In addition to highly controlled laboratory experiments on fish cardiorespiratory physiology, Tony is committed to working on animals in their own environment. Therefore, his research on fish physiology has taken him on an Alpha Helix expedition to the Amazon, the University of Gothenburg and the Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Sweden, the Portobello Marine Biological Station in New Zealand, the University of Christchurch and Massey University in New Zealand, the Bamfield Marine Science Station and the Huntsman Marine Station in Canada, the University of Aarhus in Denmark, the University of Adelaide Charles and Darwin University in Australia, and to the Danish Arctic Marine Station on Disco Island in Greenland. These travels have allowed him to work and with many superb collaborators word-wide, as well as study the physiology of over 70 different species of fish. Tony has received a number of awards for his scientific contributions: an honorary degree from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden; Awards of Excellence from the American Fisheries Society for Fish Physiology, Conservation and Management; the Fry Medal from the Canadian Society of Zoologists; and the Beverton Medal from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Colin Brauner Author

The primary goal of his research program is to investigate environmental adaptations (both mechanistic and evolutionary) in relation to gas-exchange, acid-base balance and ion regulation in fish, integrating responses from the molecular, cellular and organismal level. The ultimate goal is to understand how evolutionary pressures have shaped physiological systems among vertebrates and to determine the degree to which physiological systems can adapt/acclimate to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes. This information is crucial for basic biology and understanding the diversity of biological systems, but much of his research conducted to date can also be applied to issues of aquaculture, toxicology and water quality criteria development, as well as fisheries management.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada