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Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics, 3rd Edition paves an easier and more efficient way for people seeking basic knowledge about this discipline. This book's focus is on systems with galvanic contact with tissue, with specific detail on the geometry of the measuring system. Both authors are internationally recognized experts in the field.
The highly effective, easily followed organization of the second edition has been retained, with a new discussion of state-of-the-art advances in data analysis, modelling, endogenic sources, tissue electrical properties, electrodes, instrumentation and measurements.
This book provides the basic knowledge of electrochemistry, electronic engineering, physics, physiology, mathematics, and model thinking that is needed to understand this key area in biomedicine and biophysics.
- Covers tissue immittance from the ground up in an intuitive manner, supported with figures and examples
- New chapters on electrodes and statistical analysis
- Discusses in detail dielectric and electrochemical aspects, geometry and instrumentation as well as electrical engineering concepts of network theory, providing a cross-disciplinary resource for engineers, life scientists, and physicists
Graduate and post-graduate students in biomedical engineering and biophysics. Researchers in biotechnology, electrophysiology, odontology, pharmacy and plant biology
Chapter 1. Introduction
- 1.1. What Is Bioimpedance and Biopermittivity?
- 1.2. What Is Bioelectricity?
- 1.3. How Are the Quantities of Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Measured and Controlled?
- 1.4. Models
- 1.5. What Are the Applications of Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity?
- 1.6. Some Unsolved Basic Problems
- 1.7. Who Is Working with Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity?
Chapter 2. Electrolytics
- 2.1. Ionic and Electronic DC Conduction
- 2.2. Basic Electrolytic DC Experiment
- 2.3. Bulk Electrolytic DC Conductance
- 2.4. Particle Migration and Diffusion
- 2.5. Electrokinetics
- 2.6. Problems
Chapter 3. Dielectrics
- 3.1. Polarization in a Uniform Dielectric
- 3.2. Basic Capacitor Experiment
- 3.3. Complex Variables and Material Constants
- 3.4. AC Polarization and Relaxation in a Uniform Dielectric
- 3.5. Interfacial Polarization
- 3.6. Basic Membrane Experiment
- 3.7. Basic Suspension Experiment
- 3.8. Dispersion and Dielectric Spectroscopy
- 3.9. Problems
Chapter 4. Passive Tissue Electrical Properties
- 4.1. Basic Biomaterials
- 4.2. Tissue and Organs
- 4.3. Special Electrical Properties
- 4.4. Problems
Chapter 5. Excitable Tissue and Bioelectric Signals
- 5.1. Cell Polarization
- 5.2. Action Potential
- 5.3. The Neuron
- 5.4. Axon Transmission
- 5.5. Receptors
- 5.6. Problems
Chapter 6. Geometrical Analysis
- 6.1. Volume Conductors
- 6.2. Sphere Sources, Ideal Three-Dimensional Models
- 6.3. Line Sources, Ideal Two-Dimensional Models
- 6.4. Signal Transfer
- 6.5. Finite Element Method
- 6.6. Imaging, Electrical Impedance Tomography
- 6.7. Duality of Dielectric and Conductor Theory
- 6.8. Problems
Chapter 7. Electrodes
- 7.1. Electrode Pair
- 7.2. Single Electrode
- 7.3. Electrode Metals
- 7.4. Contact Electrolytes
- 7.5. Electrode Double Layer
- 7.6. DC Potentials, No Current Flow
- 7.7. Basic Experiment with DC Current Flow
- 7.8. Faraday's Law of Electrolysis
- 7.9. Electrode Polarization
- 7.10. Multiple Electrode Systems
- 7.11. Electrode Terminology
- 7.12. Electrode Designs
- 7.13. Vulnerable Electrode Technology
- 7.14. Problems
Chapter 8. Instrumentation and Measurements
- 8.1. General Network Theory, the Black-Box
- 8.2. Signals and Measurement, Noise
- 8.3. Amplifiers, Bridges, Analyzers
- 8.4. Nonlinear Phenomena
- 8.5. Problems
Chapter 9. Data and Models
- 9.1. Models, Descriptive and Explanatory
- 9.2. Equations, Laws, and Equivalent Circuits
- 9.3. Data Calculation and Presentation
- 9.4. Statistical Methods for Bioimpedance Analysis1
- 9.5. More Data Analysis Methods
- 9.6. Problems
Chapter 10. Selected Applications
- 10.1. Heart as a Bioelectric Source (ECG)
- 10.2. Other Organs as Bioelectric Sources
- 10.3. Electrodermal Activity, Psychophysiology
- 10.4. Other Skin Applications
- 10.5. Impedance Plethysmography
- 10.6. Impedance Cardiography
- 10.7. Imaging of Lungs
- 10.8. Body Composition
- 10.9. Defibrillation and Electroshock
- 10.10. Electrosurgery
- 10.11. Cell Suspensions
- 10.12. Implanted Active Thoracic Devices
- 10.13. Electrotherapy
- 10.14. Nonmedical Applications
- 10.15. Discoveries, Innovations
- 10.16. Electrical Safety
Chapter 11. History of Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity
- 11.1. Electrocardiogram—Heart Muscle Activity
- 11.2. Electroencephalogram—Brain, Nervous Tissue
- 11.3. Electrodermal Activity—Skin, Sweat Activity
- 11.4. Kenneth S. Cole (1928a,b Papers)
- 11.5. Peter Debye (1929 Book)
- 11.6. Hugo Fricke (1932 Paper)
- 11.7. Kenneth S. Cole (1932 Paper)
- 11.8. Kenneth S. Cole (1940 Paper)
- 11.9. Kenneth S. Cole and Robert H. Cole (1941 Paper)
- 11.10. Herman Paul Schwan (1915–2005)
- 11.11. Surface Potentials Generated by a Bioelectric Source in a Volume Conductor
Chapter 12. Appendix
- 12.1. Vectors and Scalars, Complex Numbers
- 12.2. Equivalent Circuit Equations
- 12.3. Global Symbols (Table 12.1)
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2014
- 14th August 2014
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
- Hardcover ISBN:
- Paperback ISBN:
Sverre Grimnes graduated in 1963 as an electronic engineer from the Technical University of Trondheim. He spent four years at SI, Oslo followed by a year at Sorbonne in Paris before moving to the University of Oslo’s Department of Chemistry. From 1973-2001 he was Head of the Department of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering at Rikshospitalet and since 1984 has also been Professor at the Department of Physics at the University of Oslo.
His research interests include electrical and physiological properties of human skin, patient electrical safety, and bioimpedance basic theory and instrumentation.
Professor Grimnes authored a hugely successful Norwegian book series on Medical Technology and has been awarded the Herman P Schwan Award and the Kings Gold Medal of Merit.
Professor Emeritus, Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway
Ørjan G. Martinsen received his M.Sc. and PhD in electronic engineering from the Department of Physics at the University of Oslo, with both of his theses focusing on the electrical properties of human skin. Since completing his PhD in 1995, Martinsen has held a permanent position in the same department and currently leads the electronics research section and is Coordinator of the Oslo Bioimpedance Group. As well as his work at the university, Martinsen also holds a part time research position in the Department of Clinical and Biomedical Engineering at Oslo University Hospital, his main research interest being electrical bioimpedance.
With Sverre Grimnes he is the founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance (www.bioimpedance.net).
Professor, Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway
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