Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys

Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys

State of the Art, Challenges and Opportunities

1st Edition - June 17, 2016

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  • Authors: Bhaskar Dutta, Francis Froes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128047835
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128047828

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Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys: State of the Art, Challenges and Opportunities provides alternative methods to the conventional approach for the fabrication of the majority of titanium components produced via the cast and wrought technique, a process which involves a considerable amount of expensive machining. In contrast, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) approach allows very close to final part configuration to be directly fabricated minimizing machining cost, while achieving mechanical properties at least at cast and wrought levels. In addition, the book offers the benefit of significant savings through better material utilization for parts with high buy-to-fly ratios (ratio of initial stock mass to final part mass before and after manufacturing). As titanium additive manufacturing has attracted considerable attention from both academicians and technologists, and has already led to many applications in aerospace and terrestrial systems, as well as in the medical industry, this book explores the unique shape making capabilities and attractive mechanical properties which make titanium an ideal material for the additive manufacturing industry.

Key Features

  • Includes coverage of the fundamentals of microstructural evolution in titanium alloys
  • Introduces readers to the various Additive Manufacturing Technologies, such as Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) and Directed Energy Deposition (DED)
  • Looks at the future of Titanium Additive Manufacturing
  • Provides a complete review of the science, technology, and applications of Titanium Additive Manufacturing (AM)


Scientists, scholars and technologists who are working in the field of additive manufacturing of Titanium and those who plan to pursue research in this field; researchers involved in alloy development and design.

Table of Contents

    • About the Authors
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. The Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Introduction to AM, Including a History of AM
      • 1.3 Brief Introduction of Various AM Technologies
      • 1.4 AM of Titanium in the Forefront of the Metal AM Industry
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Raw Materials for Additive Manufacturing of Titanium
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Titanium Powder Preparation Techniques
      • 2.3 Wire Feed Stock
      • 2.4 Issues and Qualification of Titanium Powders for Additive Manufacturing
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Additive Manufacturing Technology
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 3.1 Technology Overview
      • 3.2 Software for AM
      • 3.3 Part Building Technology
      • 3.4 Process Control and In Situ Monitoring
      • 3.5 Postprocessing of AM Parts
      • 3.6 Inspection and Qualification of AM Parts
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Microstructures
      • 4.3 Mechanical Properties from Various AM Technologies
      • 4.4 Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Correlation
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Comparison of Titanium AM Technologies
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 5.1 Technology Comparison
      • 5.2 Free Form Capability
      • 5.3 Remanufacturing
      • 5.4 Hybrid Manufacturing for Large Part AM
      • 5.5 Bi-Structural (Less Than 100% Dense Structures) Concepts
      • 5.6 Bimaterial or Multimaterial Manufacturing Using AM
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Markets, Applications, and Costs
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 6.1 Markets and Applications for Ti AM
      • 6.2 Cost Analysis of AM Part Manufacturing and Comparison with Conventional Methods
      • 6.3 Economics of AM
      • 6.4 Sustainability of AM
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Recent Developments and Projections for the Future of Titanium AM
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations and Glossary
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 New Developments in AM Materials
      • 7.3 Research and Development in Titanium AM
      • 7.4 New Design Initiatives
      • 7.5 Low-Cost Titanium AM
      • 7.6 Large Part Capabilities
      • 7.7 New Inspection Technologies
      • 7.8 Projected Use of AM for Fabrication of Titanium Components
      • References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 94
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2016
  • Published: June 17, 2016
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128047835
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128047828

About the Authors

Bhaskar Dutta

Bhaskar Dutta, Ph.D. has over 26 years of experience in the field of metallurgy and metal processing, including 11 years in the Additive Manufacturing (AM) industry. He has been directly involved in participating and directing AM research and technology development as well as commercial product development using AM. He has over 15 publications and more than 30 presentations in the field of AM. He also has 7 pending patents in this area.

Affiliations and Expertise

COO, DM3D Technology, LLC

Francis Froes

Francis H Froes, Ph.D. has been involved in the Titanium field with an emphasis on Powder Metallurgy (P/M) for more than 40 years. He was employed by a primary Titanium producer-Crucible Steel Company-where he was leader of the Titanium group. He was the program manager on a multi-million dollar US Air Force (USAF) contract on Titanium P/M. He then spent time at the USAF Materials Lab where he was supervisor of the Light Metals group (which included Titanium). This was followed by 17 years at the University of Idaho where he was a Director and Department Head of the Materials Science and Engineering Department. He has over 800 publications, in excess of 60 patents, and has edited almost 30 books-the majority on various aspects of Titanium again with an emphasis on P/M. He gave the key-note presentation at the first TDA (ITA) Conference. In recent years he has co-sponsored four TMS Symposia on Cost Effective Titanium featuring numerous papers on P/M. He is a Fellow of ASM, is a member of the Russian Academy of Science, and was awarded the Service to Powder Metallurgy by the Metal Powder Association. Recently he has been a co-author of three comprehensive papers on the Additive Manufacturing of Titanium.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department Chair, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Idaho (retired), Director, Institute for Materials and Advanced Processes (IMAP) (retired)

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