Woman - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483166711, 9781483194196


1st Edition

An Historical Gynæcological and Anthropological Compendium

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Authors: Hermann Heinrich Ploss Max Bartels Paul Bartels
Editors: Eric John Dingwall
eBook ISBN: 9781483194196
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1935
Page Count: 834
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Woman: An Historical Gynælogical and Anthropological Compendium, Volume Two provides information pertinent to relationships of women to the male sex. This book discusses the concepts of modesty, chastity, and respects for women in cultural history.

Organized into 39 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the sexual relation of woman to man. This text then explores various topics, including love and the artificial arousing of love, various forms of betrothal, marriage, procreation, impregnation, and conception. Other chapters consider the position of woman in the family and in the nation. This book discusses as well the reciprocal relations between husband and wife, which are of the highest significance for the stage of morality to which each people has attained. The final chapter deals with the different kinds of customs that are associated with or directly attached to parturition.

This book is a valuable resource for anthropologists, ethnologists, and research workers.

Table of Contents

Volume Two

C. Woman in the Sex Relationship

Chapter I Initiation Into Sexual Experience

Woman's Relationships with the Male Sex

Female "Modesty"

Female Modesty Among Savages

Modesty Among the More Highly Civilised Races

Chastity in Woman

Chastity in Modern European Civilisation

Chapter II Virginity : Woman as Maiden

Magic and Oracles for Determining Virginity

The Disregard for Virginity

Regard for Virginity

Loss of Virginity

Artificial Simulation or Restoration of Virginity

Chapter III Woman in the Sexual Act

Sexual Intercourse

Ordinances and Abstinence

Ceremonial Abstinence

Position in Coitus

Ritual Coitus

Masturbation, Tribadism and Bestiality

Chapter IV Prostitution

Definition and Origin of Prostitution

Ethnography of Professional Prostitution

Compulsory Prostitution of Wives

Temporary and Professional Prostitution

History of Professional Prostitution in Europe

Abolition and Re-Introduction of Brothels

The Prevention of Prostitution

The Anthropology of Prostitution

Chapter V Religious Creeds and Social Customs in Marriage and Prostitution

Prostitution as a Form of Hospitality

Prostitution as a Religious Duty

Ritual Orgies and Erotic Festivals

Child Marriages

Child Marriage in its Physiological Significance

The Campaign Against Child Marriages in India

Primitive Concepts of Impregnation

Jus Primce Noctis

Sexual Intercourse with Gods, Spirits, Devils and Demons

Nuptial Abstinence

The Christ Child Embryo

Chapter VI Love and Courtship


The Love Spell

Love's Helpers

Means to Avert Love

Marriage Oracles and Prognostications

Courtship and Betrothal

Chapter VII Marriage

Development of the Institution

The Levirate and the Halizah

Trial Marriages

Impediments to Marriage

Marriage Between Blood Relations

Age at Marriage and the First-Born Among Civilised Peoples

Age at Marriage and the First-Bom Among Savage Peoples



Chapter VIII The Pregnant Woman

Generation and Reproduction

Conception and Fertilisation

Climatic, Seasonal and Social Influences of Conception

Chapter IX Sterility in Woman

Why are Women Sterile ?

Physical Causes of Sterility

The Way in Which Sterility is Regarded

The Prevention of Conception

Prevention of Sterility

Indications of Sterility

Medical and Mechanical Means of Promoting Conception

The Use of Baths and Springs Against Sterility

Supernatural Help Against Sterility

Supernatural Human Help Against Sterility

The Help of the Dead Against Sterility

Souls of Trees, Sparks of Fire and Other Aids Against Sterility

Chapter Χ Fertility

Racial Differences in Fertility

Fertility Among Asiatic Peoples

Fertility Among American Peoples

Fertility Among African Peoples

Fertility Among Australians and Oceanians

Chapter XI Mother and Child

The Sex of the Unborn Child

Sex Determination in Folklore

Chapter XII Multiple Pregnancy


Twins and Double Monsters


Triplets, Quadruplets, Quintuplets, Etc.

The Cause of Multiple Births

Condemnation of and Esteem for Multiple Births

Esteem for Twin Births


Chapter XIII The Physical Hygiene of Pregnancy

The Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Supernatural Signs of Pregnancy

Pregnancy in Art

Early Ideas of the Development of the Embryo

The Duration of Pregnancy

Unusually Protracted Pregnancy

Chapter XIV Normal and Abnormal Pregnancy

The Position of the Child

The Views of Extra-European Nations on the Position of the Embryo in the Uterus

Extra-Uterine Pregnancy

False Pregnancies

Chapter XV Social Procedure During Pregnancy

Religious Rites on Recognition of Pregnancy

Protection Against Evil Spirits and Demons During Pregnancy

Pregnancy Demons Among Civilised Nations

The Girdle of Pregnancy

The Legal Rights of Pregnancy

Prohibitions During Pregnancy

Chapter XVI The Hygienic Treatment of Pregnancy

Medical Prescriptions

Diet in Pregnancy

Dress in Pregnancy

The Longings of Pregnancy

Mental Care in Pregnancy

Chapter XVII Dangers and Help in Pregnancy

Shocks in Pregnancy

Superstitious Rules During Pregnancy

Duties of the Husband During Pregnancy

Chapter XVIII The Therapy and Prognosis of Pregnancy

Mechanical and Pharmaceutical Treatment

Bathing and Rubbing with Ointment During Pregnancy

Blood-Letting During Pregnancy

Medicamental Treatment in Pregnancy

The Superstitious Prognosis of Pregnancy

Chapter XIX Premature Delivery and Miscarriage

Variations in Prematurity

When is the Fœtus Viable ?

Induction of Premature Labour


Chapter XX Accidental or Spontaneous Miscarriage

Spontaneous Miscarriage : Causes and Prevalence

Prevention of Miscarriage

The Disposal of the Fœtus

The Symptoms of Incipient Miscarriage

Chapter XXI

Intentional Abortion or Termination of Pregnancy

Significance of Intentional Abortion

The Prevalence of Abortion at the Present Day

Intentional Abortion in Civilisation

Motives for Abortion

Methods of Abortion Up to the Middle Ages

Present-Day Methods of Abortion Among Extra-European Peoples

Methods in Use in Europe

Attempts to Limit or Prevent Abortion

Chapte XXII Normal Birth At Term

Birth in General

The So-Called Instinct in Parturition and its Use in Science and Practice

Birth in Language and Metaphor

Sex and Birth in Hieroglyphs, Etc.

Chapter XXIII Birth in Religions and Popular Belief

Mysticism of Birth

The Woman in Childbirth Regarded as Unclean

The Parturient Woman Must have Peace

Chapter XXIV Demonic Influences and Guardian Deities

Supernatural Influences on Birth

Maternal Divinities in the Near and Middle East

the Gods of Birth Among the Iranian Peoples

The Gods of Birth Among the Hindus

The Gods of Birth Among the Greeks

the Gods of Birth Among the Romans and Etruscans

Indo-Germanic Birth Divinities

Birth Divinities Among the Lapps, Finns, Magyars, Moravians, Letts, Votiaks and Tunguses

Birth Divinities Among the Chinese, Japanese, Annamites and Others

Birth Divinities Among the Civilised Nations of America

Birth Divinities Among "Monotheistic" Peoples

Chapter XXV Where Birth Takes Place

The Choice of Place

Birth Alone and Out-of-Doors

Birth Out-of-Doors with Help from Others

The Sudden Onset of Labour and Delivery in the Open

Parturition in Public

Birth at Home

Birth in the Bath-Houses

Birth Huts

Chapter XXVI Health at Birth

Are Births Easier Among Civilised or Primitive Nations ?

The Process of Birth in Australia and Oceania

The Process of Birth in Asia

The Process of Birth in Africa

The Process of Birth in America

The Process of Birth in Europe

Causes and Conditions of Easy Parturition

Birth of Children of Mixed Races

Chapter XXVII Normal Processes of Birth

The Stages of Birth

The Labour Pains

Internal Signs of the Process of Birth

The Active Participation of the Child and of the Pelvic Bones in Birth

Normal and Other Presentations

The Position of the Child at Birth and the Prognosis of Sex

Chapter XXVIII Midwifery and Medicine

The Development of Midwifery and Obstetrics

Habits of Life and Midwifery

Primitive Customs and Abuses

The Husband as Obstetrician

Primitive Midwives

The Origins of Professional Midwifery

Degenerate and Dishonest Midwifery

Male Assistance at Birth

Chapter XXIV Ancient and Medieval Obstetrics

General Survey of the History of Obstetrics in Europe

Methods Used in Ancient Israel

Methods Used in Persia and India

Methods in Midwifery Used in Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Etc.

Methods Used in Ancient Greece

Methods of Midwifery Used in Ancient Rome

Midwifery in Islam

Among the Mediaeval Teutons

Chapter XXX The Evolution of Obstetrics in Europe

Obstetrics in Italy

The Development of Midwifery in Germany and Switzerland During the Middle Ages

The Development of Midwifery in Germany and Switzerland in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

Midwifery in Modern Germany and Switzerland

The Development of Midwifery in England

Midwifery in Holland

The Development of Midwifery in France

Chapter XXXI The Development of Obstetrics in the Rest of Modern Europe

In Russia

Midwifery in Extra-European Russia

Midwifery in Sweden, Finland and Esthonia

Midwifery Among the Southem Slavs and in Modern Greece

Chapter XXXII Evolution of Obstetrics in Modern Asia

Midwifery in Turkey

Midwifery in China

Midwifery in Japan

Chapter XXXIII Midwives in Proverbs and Folklore

The Name and Designation, the Importance and Influence of Midwives

The Midwife in Superstition

Chapter XXXIV Technique of Normal Delivery

The Origin of Methods of Assistance

Customary Positions of the Body in Parturition

Survey of the Positions of the Body Customary in Parturition

The Distribution of the Positions in Parturition

Apparatus Used in Parturition

The Parturition Chair

Parturition on the Lap

The Use of Medicaments in Normal Delivery

Chapter XXXV Manual and Mechanical Aid in Normal Labour

Treatment by Anointings, Fomentations and Bathing

Bearing-Down in Labour

Pressure and Massage in Normal Parturition

Artiflcial Dilatation of the Genitals

Protection and Support of the Perineum

Pulling the Presenting Parts of the Child

Chapter XXXVI The Position Assumed During Labour Among the Ancient Civilised Nations

Delivery Among the Ancient Egyptians

Delivery Among the Greeks

Delivery in Ancient Rome

Delivery Among the Ancient Civilised Nations of America

Chapter XXXVII The Separation of the New-Born Child

Is there an Instinct Guiding Human Beings in the Stages of Placental Delivery ?

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord in Oceania

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord in Asia

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord Among the American Indians

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord in Africa

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord in Ancient Civilisations

Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord in Europe

Survey of the Methods of Ligature and Division of the Umbilical Cord

Chapter XXXVIII The Third Stage of Labour

The Expulsion of the Placenta

Procedure Among Savage Peoples

Retention of the Placenta

Supernatural and Sympathetic Expedients for Hastening the Expulsion of the Placenta

The Use of the Umbihcal Cord for the Withdrawal of the Placenta

The Expression of the Placenta

Internal Manipulations for Placental Delivery

The Expulsion of the Placenta Among the Japanese

The Expulsion and Removal of the Placenta Among the Greeks and Romans

The Expulsion and Removal of the Placenta in Modern Civilisation

The Removal of the Placenta in Popular Midwifery in Europe

Chapter XXXIX The Placenta in Ethnography

Conception of the After-Birth

Division and Ligature of the Umbilical Cord in Popular Belief

The Umbilical Cord and the Stump in Folklore

The Placenta in Folklore

The Placenta as Twin

The Burial of the Placenta

Varied Methods of Elimination and Burial of the Placenta

The Foetal Membranes in Folklore

Artificial Wombs and Adult Rebirth


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2035
1st January 1935
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Hermann Heinrich Ploss

Max Bartels

Paul Bartels

About the Editor

Eric John Dingwall

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