Wind Forces in Engineering

Wind Forces in Engineering

2nd Edition - January 1, 1978

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  • Author: Peter Sachs
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483148359

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Description

Wind Forces in Engineering, Second Edition covers the various aspects, principles, and engineering applications of wind forces. This book is composed of 10 chapters and starts with an introduction to the history of wind forces. The subsequent chapters consider the wind speeds for various topographies; particular "shape factors" for general and special structures; oscillatory wind forces of a random or single-frequency type; and the dynamic response of structures to oscillatory wind forces. Other chapters deal with specific structures, such as buildings, bridges, towers, radar antennas, for static and dynamic wind loadings. The final chapter provides the Code of Practice which has been republished since 1972, including those for Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the U.S.A. These codes do not provide similar responses and are all essentially in a transitional state between the old static force concept and an improved statistical analysis to be based on more experimental evidence. This book will prove useful to engineers and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Preface to the Second Edition

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1. Past and Present

    1.2. Basic Considerations

    1.3. History

    1.4. Thesis

    1.5. Principal Sources of Information

    1.6. Terminology

    Chapter 2 Wind Data

    2.1. Air Movement

    2.2. Wind Measurement

    2.3. Wind-speed Measurements

    2.3.1. Wind-speed Estimation

    2.3.2. Short-term Measurements

    2.3.3. Anemographs

    2.3.4. Gust records

    2.4. Wind Data Obtained

    2.4.1. Non-continuous Records

    2.4.2. Continuous Records

    2.4.3. Short-term Records

    2.4.4. Extreme Data

    2.4.5. Gust Factor�winds of Various Mean Periods

    2.5. Maxima for Non-recorded Sites

    2.6. Tropical Storms and Tornadoes

    2.6.1. Tropical Storms

    2.6.2. Mixed Storm Conditions

    2.6.3. Tornadoes

    2.7. Wind-speed Variation with Height

    2.8. Miscellaneous Effects

    2.9. Design Requirements

    Chapter 3 Basic Shape Factors

    3.1. Shape Factors

    3.1.1. Separation

    3.1.2. Model Laws

    3.1.3. Force and Moment System

    3.2. Pressure Distributions

    3.2.1. Flat Plates

    3.2.2. Rectangular Blocks

    3.2.3. Spheres and Cylinders

    3.3. Forces on Basic Shapes

    3.3.1. Aspect Ratio

    3.3.2. Drag factors

    3.3.3. Interference Effects

    3.3.4. Roughness Effects

    3.4. Trusses

    3.4.1. Masts and Towers

    3.4.2. Other Factors

    3.5.Meshes

    3.6. Moments

    3.6.1. Area Moments

    3.6.2. Pressure Moments

    3.6.3. Aerodynamic Moments

    3.6.4. Moments on a Rotating Structure

    3.7. Other Force and Moment Data

    Chapter 4 Wind-tunnel Techniques

    4.1. Wind-tunnels

    4.1.1. Closed-jet Tunnels

    4.1.2. Open-jet Tunnels

    4.1.3. Wind-tunnel Fittings

    4.1.4. Wind-flow Patterns

    4.2. Models

    4.2.1. Model Mountings

    4.2.2 Model Laws

    4.3. Wind-tunnel Conventions

    4.4. Measurement Corrections

    4.4.1. General

    4.4.2. Model Interference on the Measurement of Air Velocity

    4.4.3. Wall Constraint Corrections

    4.4.4. Blockage Corrections in Closed Wind-tunnel

    4.4.5. Blockage Corrections for Open-jet Tunnels

    4.5. Wind-tunnel Measurements and Calculations

    4.5.1. Rigid Models�forces and Moments

    4.5.2. Rigid Models�pressure Tests

    4.5.3. Rotating Models�moments

    4.5.4. Rigid Models�oscillatory Tests

    4.5.5. Flexible (aeroelastic) Models

    4.6. Random Turbulence and Excitation

    Chapter 5 Dynamic Effects

    5.1. Basic Considerations

    5.2. Rigid Structures�Single-frequency Excitation

    5.3. Single-frequency Excitations

    5.3.1. Vortex Oscillations

    5.3.2. Suppression of Vortex Excitation

    5.3.3. Experimental Analysis

    5.3.4. Galloping Oscillations

    5.4. Flutter

    5.5. Rigid Structures�Random Excitation

    5.5.1. Maximum Response Amplitude

    5.5.2. Analysis of Random Excitation

    5.5.3. Randomly Fluctuating Eddy Effects

    5.6. Flexible Structures (multi-degree-offreedom Systems)

    5.6.1. Lagrange's Equation

    5.6.2. Deflections, Stresses and Bending Moments

    5.6.3. Discrete Vortex Excitation of a Flexible Structure

    5.6.4. Random Vortex Excitation of a Flexible Structure

    5.6.5. Random Gust Excitation of a Flexible Structure

    5.7. Fatigue Loading

    Chapter 6 Bridges

    6.1. Static Forces

    6.1.1. Plate-girder Construction

    6.1.2. Truss Construction

    6.2. Dynamic Forces

    6.2.1. Structural Characteristics

    6.2.2. Damping

    6.3. Excitation

    6.3.1. Complete Model Tests

    6.3.2. Complete Model Test: Truss Bridge

    6.3.3. Section Model Tests

    6.3.4. Summary of Aerodynamic Instabilities

    6.3.5. Erection Instabilities

    6.4. Buffeting

    Chapter 7 Buildings

    7.1. Static Wind Effects

    7.1.1. Tall Buildings

    7.1.2. Long Low Buildings

    7.1.3. Houses

    7.1.4. Roofs

    7.1.5.Cladding

    7.1.6. Chimneys

    7.1.7. Full-scale Effects

    7.2. Dynamic Effects on Buildings

    7.3. Design Procedure for Wind Forces on Buildings

    7.4. Air-flow around Buildings

    Chapter 8 Masts and Towers

    8.1. Shape Factors

    8.2. Mast and Tower Movement due to Gust Excitations

    8.3. Non-gusting Excitation of Masts and Towers

    8.3.1. Modal Shapes and Frequencies

    8.3.2. Damping

    8.3.3. Vortex Excitation

    8.3.4. Full-scale Vortex Excitation

    8.4. Miscellaneous Excitations

    Chapter 9 Special Structures

    9.1. Cables

    9.1.1. Static Forces on Cables

    9.1.2. Ice Formation on Cables

    9.1.3.Oscillating Forces on Cables

    9.1.4. Gust Excitation of Cables

    9.1.5. Vortex Excitation of Cables

    9.1.6. Galloping Excitation of Cables

    9.1.7. Oscillations of Twin Conductors

    9.2. Cooling Towers

    9.3. Radar and Communications Aerials

    9.3.1. Forces and Moments on Static Aerials

    9.3.2. Lattice Aerials

    9.3.3. Solid-surface Aerials

    9.3.4. Gust Effects

    9.3.5. Rotating Aerials

    9.4. Radomes

    Chapter 10 Codes of Practice

    10.1. Wind-speed Regions

    10.2. Topographical Factors

    10.3. Wind Variation with Height

    10.4. Ice and Snow Loads

    10.5. Gust Effects

    10.6. Shape Factors

    10.7. Pressure Coefficients

    10.8. Shielding Effects

    10.9. Buildings, Roofs and Cladding

    10.10. Cross-wind Effects

    10.11. Chimneys, Tanks, etc.

    10.12. Towers, Masts and Trusses

    10.13. Tables from Reference 136

    Appendixes

    Appendix 1. Notation Used in Chapters 1-9

    Appendix 2. Standard Aerodynamic and Conversion Data

    Appendix 3. Characteristics of Wind-measuring Instruments

    Appendix 4. Shelter Effects

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 410
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1978
  • Published: January 1, 1978
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483148359

About the Author

Peter Sachs

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