Whiplash - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780729539463, 9780729583237


1st Edition

evidence base for clinical practice

Authors: Michele Sterling Justin Kenardy
eBook ISBN: 9780729583237
eBook ISBN: 9780729579469
Imprint: Churchill Livingstone Australia
Published Date: 18th February 2011

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An exceptional medical resource for all professions involved in the management of whiplash patients

Whiplash is one of the most debated and controversial musculoskeletal conditions. This is, in part, due to the often compensable nature of whiplash injuries and the fact that a precise pathoanatomical diagnosis is not usually achievable.

Whiplash: Evidence base for clinical practice presents the evidence underpinning the complexity of whiplash associated disorders (WADs).

This ranges from the specifics of current physiological and psychological manifestations of whiplash to broader issues such as compensation and litigation.

This new medical textbook turns the spotlight on whiplash injuries and makes essential reading for anyone involved in the management whiplash patients.

This includes physiotherapy, chiropractic, osteopathy, occupational therapy and health psychology practitioners and postgraduate students, as well as practitioners in rehabilitation therapies and primary care.

Key Features

• discrete chapters on litigation and the role of compensation in whiplash injuries
• case studies on acute and chronic whiplash conditions
• covers the spectrum of the current evidence base for whiplash
• includes perspectives from a wide range of disciplines
• an invaluable resource for clinicians and policy makers alike

Table of Contents

Contributor list

Reviewer list




Structure of the book

Chapter 1 Epidemiology of whiplash associated disorders


Cumulative incidence of and risk factors for WAD

Course and prognosis of WAD after a motor vehicle crash

An epidemiological approach to aetiology

The economic burden of WAD


Chapter 2 Clinical presentation of whiplash associated disorders

Patterns of recovery

Physical and psychological characteristics

Classification systems for WAD


Chapter 3 Mechanism of injury

Head–neck kinematics: global and segmental

Injury theories

Injury metrics

Influencing factors for injury potential


Chapter 4 The evidence for pathoanatomical lesions


Pathomechanics of whiplash injury

Pathological lesions in whiplash injury


Chapter 5 Pain-processing mechanisms in whiplash associated disorders


Mechanisms for post-injury central hyperexcitability

Evidence for central hyperexcitability in chronic WAD

Evidence for central hyperexcitability in acute WAD and in the transition to chronicity

Relationships between sensory hypersensitivity and psychological distress

Implications for clinical management of whiplash


Chapter 6 Neuromuscular dysfunction in whiplash associated disorders

Changes in the properties of the cervical muscles

Altered neuromuscular control in WAD

Implications for the management of the patient with whiplash


Chapter 7 Dizziness, visual and sensorimotor control disturbances following whiplash injury

Aetiology of dizziness, visual disturbances and sensorimotor control

Disturbances in whiplash associated disorders

Signs and symptoms of sensorimotor disturbance following a whiplash injury

Implications for assessment

Implications for management


Chapter 8 Psychological aspects of whiplash associated disorders

Accident-related psychological factors


Catastrophising and kinesiophobia

Attributions, beliefs and expectations


Chapter 9 Potential role of stress systems in the pathogenesis of whiplash associated disorders

Sympathetic nervous system

Neuropeptide Y


Clinical implications

Current research needs and future research directions

Chapter 10 Prognostic indicators of non-recovery following whiplash injury

Prognostic factors for non-recovery

Prediction of outcomes other than pain and disability

Clinical implications


Chapter 11 Primary care management of acute whiplash injury

Current evidence for the management of acute WAD

The provision of advice and education

Is pain control important?

Physical characteristics of acute WAD and implications for management

Psychological characteristics of acute WAD and implications for management

Early multidisciplinary management


Chapter 12 Evidence-based management of chronic whiplash associated disorders

Evidence base for management of chronic whiplash

Evidence for physical interventions

Evidence for psychological interventions

Evidence for medical interventions

Implementation of evidence in clinical practice


Chapter 13 Psychological management of chronic whiplash associated disorders

Theory-derived psychological interventions

Evidence-based practice

Remaining issues and future prospects


Chapter 14 Compensation and health outcomes


Compensation and related concepts

Compensation: empirical considerations

Health: the concept and its measurement


Chapter 15 Whiplash and the law

The test for compensability

Canadian Transport Accident



Chapter 16 Malingering and symptom magnification in whiplash

Associated disorders

Why study malingering in the area of whiplash?

What is meant by ‘malingering’?

Approaches to detection of malingering

Differential diagnosis of psychological disorders where symptom production or magnification is a feature

Empirical studies of malingering and symptom magnification in pain

A decision-making template for possible and probable malingering

Chapter 17 Case descriptions

Case description 1: acute whiplash

Case description 2: acute whiplash

Summary of cases 1 and 2

Case description 3: chronic whiplash


Chapter 18 Future directions

Intervention trials

Do some patients have a pre-existing risk of developing chronic pain after whiplash injury?

Improving prognostic models

Identification of a peripheral lesion



© Churchill Livingstone Australia 2011
18th February 2011
Churchill Livingstone Australia
eBook ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Michele Sterling

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Investigator, CCRE Spine; Associate Professor, School of Medicine and School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences; Associate Director, Centre for National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine (CONROD); Director Rehabilitation Research Program (CONROD); Senior Lecturer, Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Justin Kenardy

Affiliations and Expertise

clinical health psychologist and Deputy Director of the Centre of National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine (CONROD), and Professor in Clinical Psychology a the School of Psychology