Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124017160, 9780124046047

Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health

1st Edition

Benefits, risks and mechanisms of whole grains in health promotion

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson Victor Preedy Sherma Zibadi
eBook ISBN: 9780124046047
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124017160
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th February 2014
Page Count: 576
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Description

Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health reviews the wide range of studies focusing on the health benefits and disease prevention associated with the consumption of wheat and rice, the two most widely consumed whole grains. This book provides researchers, clinicians, and students with a comprehensive, definitive, and up-to-date compendium on the diverse basic and translational aspects of whole grain consumption and its protective effects across human health and disease. It serves as both a resource for current researchers as well as a guide to assist those in related disciplines to enter the realm of whole grain and nutrition research.

Overall, studies have shown that a decrease in the amount of whole grains in the modern diet is related to a corresponding increase in health problems that are attributed to this all-too-common dietary imbalance. The resulting health issues associated with an over-processed diet, which provides inadequate levels of nutrients from whole grains, may include obesity, diabetes, high blood lipids, chronic inflammatory states, and an excess of oxidative stress. Strength and endurance may also suffer as a result of these nutrient deficiencies, followed by declines in energy and immunity.

Key Features

  • Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the latest details on a broad range of nutritional and epidemiological issues
  • Provides a common language for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, epidemiologists, and dietitians to discuss how the action of wheat and rice protect against disease and modify human health
  • Preclinical, clinical, and population studies help nutritionists, dieticians, and clinicians map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations

Readership

Academic, government, and corporate researchers in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; graduate students in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; and practicing nutritionists, dietitians, and epidemiologists.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Contributors

Part I Wheat and Health

Section A Wheat Components in Disease Prevention: Overview

Chapter 1. Whole Wheat Pasta and Health

Current Health Condition and Whole Grains

Use of Whole Grain in Pasta Products

Bioactive Compounds of Whole Grain Found in Pasta

Nutrients in Whole Grain Pasta

Chapter 2. Whole Grain and Phytate-Degrading Human Bifidobacteria

Lines of Evolution in Consumption of Whole Grains

The Role of Cereals in the Diet

Phytic Acid (Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate, InsP6)

Section B Wheat in Commercial Animal Production

Chapter 3. Effect of Whole Wheat Feeding on Gut Function and Nutrient Utilization in Poultry

Introduction

Effect of Modern Processing Technology on the Development of the Digestive Tract

Methods of Whole Wheat Feeding

Effect of Whole Wheat Feeding on gut Health

Effect of Whole Grain Inclusion on Nutrient Utilization

Use of Other Whole Grains

Conclusions

Chapter 4. Whole Wheat in Commercial Poultry Production

Wheat as a Feed Grain

Whole Wheat Grain in Relation to Production Level and Livability as an Indicator of Health Status in Poultry

Whole Wheat as Related to Quality of Poultry Products and Human Health

Whole Wheat as Related to Digestive Tract Morphology, Intestinal Microflora, Activity of Digestive Enzymes, and Health of Farmed Birds

Section C Wheat in Diabetes and Heart Disease Prevention

Chapter 5. Wheat Fiber in Postprandial Metabolic Profile and Health

Introduction

Effects of Wheat on Postprandial Insulin and Glucose Responses

Potential Mechanisms of Action

Conclusions

Chapter 6. Bioavailability of Calcium, Iron, and Zinc in Whole Wheat Flour

Introduction

Mineral Requirements and Consequences of Deficiency

Phytic Acid: A Potential Inhibitor of Minerals

Micronutrient Interactions

Bioavailability Studies

Conclusion

Chapter 7. Nutritive and Digestive Effects of Starch and Fiber in Whole Wheat

Introduction

Starch

Fiber

Nutritional Effects – Whole Wheat Flour and Obesity

Whole Wheat Flour and Glucose Metabolism

Section D Wheat in Cancer Prevention

Chapter 8. Colorectal Cancer Prevention by Wheat Consumption

Introduction

Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology

Screening for Colorectal Cancer

Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

Wheat Cultivation, Cropping, and Biology

The History of Wheat Domestication

The Definition of Wheat Bran and Dietary Fiber, and a Brief Chemistry

Biological Activity of Wheat Bran and Dietary Fiber Compounds in Colorectal Normal and Cancer Cells

Wheat Bran Consumption, Adenomatous Polyps, and Colorectal Cancer

Conclusion

Chapter 9. Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer

Introduction

Experimental and Clinical Studies Suggesting a Prostate Cancer-Protective Effect of Whole Grains

Mechanisms Suggested for Dietary Fiber and Whole Grains to Play a Role in Prostate Cancer Etiology

Epidemiological Studies Relating Habitual Intake of Whole Grains or Dietary Fiber to Risk of Prostate Cancer

Conclusion

Chapter 10. Bioactive Phytochemicals in Wheat Bran for Colon Cancer Prevention

Introduction

Wheat Bran and Colon Cancer

Bioactive Phytochemicals in Wheat Bran

Conclusions

Section E Gluten and Disease

Chapter 11. Immunologic Reactions to Wheat

Background

Celiac Disease

Wheat Allergy

Gluten Sensitivity

Why is it Important to know the Difference Between Celiac Disease, Wheat Allergy, and Gluten Sensitivity?

Chapter 12. Celiac Disease and its Therapy

Introduction

Epidemiology

Clinical Presentation

Diagnosis

Treatment

Conclusion

Chapter 13. Gluten Metabolism in Humans

Introduction

Gluten

Gluten Metabolism in Healthy People

Gluten Toxicity, Celiac Disease and Gluten Metabolism

Conclusions

Chapter 14. Adverse Reactions to Gluten

Introduction

Sourdough and Celiac Disease

Sourdough and Cereal Allergies

Sourdough and Gluten Sensitivity

Concluding Remarks

Section F Wheat Fiber

Chapter 15. Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran against Oxidative Stress

Introduction

What is Stress?

Oxidative Stress

Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran

Conclusion

Chapter 16. Wheat and Rice Dietary Fiber in Colorectal Cancer Prevention and the Maintenance of Health

Introduction

Changes in the Definition of Dietary Fiber

Dietary Fiber Components

Changes in Analytical Methods for Determining Dietary Fiber

Implications of Changing Definitions of Dietary Fiber for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer by Whole Grain Wheat and Rice Dietary Fiber

Cohort Studies on Dietary Fiber Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk

Dietary Intervention Studies

The Capp Trials

Chapter 17. Sensory, Technological, and Health Aspects of Adding Fiber to Wheat-Based Pasta

Introduction

Health Effects of Pasta Supplementation with Fiber

Sensory and Technological Impacts

Discussion

Chapter 18. Dietary Fiber and Wheat Bran in Childhood Constipation and Health

Introduction

Prevention of Childhood Functional Constipation

Population Surveys of DF Intake

The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Treatment of Childhood Functional Constipation

Final Remarks

Chapter 19. Wheat Bran and Cadmium in Human Health

Introduction

Dietary Factors Affecting Mineral Bioavailability

Cadmium

Wheat Bran and Cadmium Exposure

Conclusion

Section G Wheat Toxicity

Chapter 20. Wheat Contaminants (Pesticides) and their Dissipation during Processing

Introduction

Mode of Entry of Pesticide Residues and Their Impact on Health

Pesticide Residues in Wheat at Harvest and During Storage

Fate of Pesticide Residues in Wheat Milling

Dissipation of Pesticide Residues in Baked Wheat Products

Conclusion

Part II Rice and Other Whole Grains in Health

Section A Overview of Rice and Health

A1 Nutrients and Rice Consumption

Chapter 21. Genetically Modified Rice with Health Benefits as a Means to Reduce Micronutrient Malnutrition

Introduction

What’s at Stake? The Global Burden of Micronutrient Malnutrition

GM Biofortification as a Novel Micronutrient Intervention

GM Biofortification as a Novel Approach to Crop Improvement

The Global Status of (GM) Biofortification and GM Rice

GM Rice Crop with Health Benefits: The Case of Rice Biofortification

Published Research Coverage on GM Food, GM Rice, Biofortification, and Golden Rice

Consumer Preferences for GM Biofortified Rice

Potential Cost-Effectiveness of GM Biofortified Rice

Key Challenges of the Commercialization of GM Biofortified Rice

Conclusions

Chapter 22. Rice Bran

Introduction

Common Terminology For Dietary Rice Bran and Public Health Opportunities

Current Challenges for Dietary Rice Bran

Dietary Rice Bran Opportunities Throughout the Lifespan

Global Rice Genetic Variation

Conclusion

Chapter 23. Rice Bran Oil

Introduction

Rice Bran Oil: Extraction and Composition

Potential Biomedical Applications of Rice Bran Oil

Trends in the use of Rice Bran Oil or its Derivates in Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, and Nutraceutical Formulations

Conclusion

Chapter 24. Rice Intake, Weight Change and Metabolic Syndrome

Introduction

History and Consumption of Rice

Nutrition and Metabolic Characteristics of Rice

Rice Intake and Weight Change

Association Between Rice Consumption and Individual Components of Metabolic Syndrome

Association Between Rice Intake and Mets

Physiological Mechanisms

Conclusion

A2 Rice in Diabetes Prevention and Treatment

Chapter 25. Glycemic Index of Indian Cereal Staple Foods and their Relationship to Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

Introduction

Indian Cereal Staple Foods

Nutritional Composition of Cereal Staple Foods

Glycemic Index and Metabolic Health

Factors Influencing GI of Staple Foods

Conclusions

Chapter 26. Rice and Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction

Rice Intake in Japan

Rice Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective (JPHC) Study

Rice Intake and Type 2 Diabetes: Result of Meta-Analysis

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Type 2 Diabetes

Carbohydrate Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

Low-Carbohydrate Diet Score and Type 2 Diabetes

Conclusion

Chapter 27. Rice and the Glycemic Index

Introduction

GI and the Dietary Fiber Content of Rice

GI and the Particle Size and form of Rice

GI and Post-Harvest Treatment of Rice: Parboiling and Milling

GI and the Cooking of Rice: Gelatinization

A3 Rice Toxicity and Toxic Contaminants

Chapter 28. Arsenic in Rice

Introduction

Arsenic in Rice Grain

Arsenic Speciation in Rice Grain

Arsenic in Cooked Rice

Arsenic Speciation in Cooked Rice

Sources of Arsenic in Rice

Human Health Risk of Arsenic From Rice Diet

Mitigation of Arsenic Exposure From Rice

Chapter 29. Arsenic in Rice-Based Infant Foods

Introduction

Arsenic Contents in Rice-Based Infant Products

Arsenic Toxicity and Metabolism in the Human Body

Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Content During Rice Processing

Conclusions

Chapter 30. Inorganic Arsenic in Rice and Rice Bran

Introduction

Inorganic Arsenic Toxicity

Risk Assessment for Inorganic Arsenic

Accumulation of Arsenic in Rice

Inorganic Arsenic in Rice

Health Implications

A4 Rice Fiber

Chapter 31. Apoptosis and Arabinoxylan Rice Bran

The Manufacture of MGN-3/Biobran®

Synergy of MGN-3/Biobran with Interleukin-2 for the Activation of Human NK Cells

Synergy of MGN-3/Biobran with Other Therapeutic Modalities for the Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis

Conclusion

Chapter 32. γ-Oryzanol

Introduction

Classification and Biosynthesis of γ-Oryzanol

Extraction and Isolation Of γ-Oryzanol

γ-Oryzanol Analysis and Characterization – Identification of Different Components

Pharmacological Activities and Applications Of γ-Oryzanol

Applications

Conclusion

Chapter 33. Evaluation of Physical and Nutritional Properties of Extruded Products Based on Brown Rice and Wild Legume Mixtures

Introduction

Extruded Products

Conclusions

Chapter 34. Rice Bran Antioxidants in Health and Wellness

Rice Bran Antioxidants

Biomedical Importance of Rice Bran Antioxidants for Oxidative Stress

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Gastrointestinal Complaints

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Inflammation

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Hypercholesterolemic–Hyperlipidemic Patients

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Neoplasia

Rice Bran Antioxidants Ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes Via Increased Adiponectin Secretion

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Allergy Syndrome

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Post-Menopausal Syndrome

Rice Bran Antioxidants in Reducing Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Rice Bran Antioxidants in Preservation of Food and Skin Color

Miscellaneous Uses of Rice Bran Phytochemicals

Chapter 35. Organic Rice Bran Oils in Health

Introduction

Conventional RBO Production

Organic RBO Production

Effects of Processing on RBO Components

Health Benefits of RBO

Mechanisms

Conclusions

Chapter 36. Fermented Rice Bran Attenuates Oxidative Stress

Introduction

Fermented Cereal Foods and Prevention of Oxidative Disorders

Fermented Rice Bran

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Rice Bran on Oxidative Stress

Conclusion

Chapter 37. Rice Bran Oil’s Role in Health and Cooking

Introduction

Recovering Rice Bran Oil

Physicochemical Properties of Rice Bran Oil

Nutritional Aspects of Rice Bran Oil

Conclusion

Section B Novel Approaches to Bran and Whole Grains

Chapter 38. Amino Acid Production from Rice Straw Hydrolyzates

Introduction

Lignocellulosic Biomass as Wastes from Agro-Industry

Corynebacterium Glutamicum as a Workhorse for Biotechnology

Outlook

Chapter 39. Germinated Barley Foodstuff Dampens Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Introduction

Preparation of GBF and its Properties

GBF as a Prebiotic in Healthy Human Subjects and Animals

The Effects of GBF on Dysfunction of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Animal Models

GBF as a Benefical Food for Ulcerative Colitis Patients

Further Prospects for GBF as a Neutraceutical

Conclusions

Chapter 40. Development of Functional Foods (Enzyme-Treated Rice Fiber) from Rice By-products

Introduction

Preparation of Enzyme-Treated Rice Fiber (ERF) and its Characteristics

The Effects of ERF on Dysfunction of Gastrointestinal Tract in Animal Models

Modulation of Colonic Environment by Rice Bran and its Health Benefits

Conclusions

Chapter 41. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Fortification of Cereal-Based Foods to Increase Fiber and Phytochemical Content

Introduction

Carbohydrate and Antioxidant Profile of Chickpea Seeds

Technological Processes to Improve the Chickpea Nutritional Profile

Chickpea Flour in Cereal-Based Products

Conclusions

Index

Color Plates

Details

No. of pages:
576
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124046047
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124017160

About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK

Sherma Zibadi

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Research Associate of Public Health, Department of Pathology, University of South Florida Medical School, Tampa, USA