Generally, welding produces welding deformation and residual stress in the products, which influences the quality and performance of the products. Although many engineers and researchers have made great effort how to control these incidents, they have still remained unresolved. Welding Deformation and Residual Stress Prevention provides a unique computational approach to the prediction of the effects of deformation and residual stress on materials. The goal is to provide engineers and designers with the ability to create their own computational system for predicting and possibly avoiding the problem altogether.

Key Features

  • The basic theories including "theory of elastic-plastic analysis" and  "inherent strain theory" , and analysis procedures are described using a simple three-bar model.
  • Online simulation software to perform basic analysis on welding mechanics
  • Examples of strategic methods and procedures are illustrated to have solved various welding-related problems encountered in the process of construction.
  • Appendices present data bases for welding residual stresses, temperature dependent material properties, etc.


  • Welding Engineers
  • Civil Engineers: Construction Engineers, Structural Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Pipeline Designers
  • Mechanical Engineers: Machine Designers, Manufacturing Engineers, Product Designers

Table of Contents


List of Symbols

Chapter 1. Introduction to Welding Mechanics

1.1 Basic Concepts of Welding and Welding Mechanics

1.2 Process of the Production of Residual Stress and Inherent Strain

1.3 Reproduction of Residual Stress by Inherent Strain and Inverse Analysis for Inherent Strain

1.4 Numerical Examples of Residual Stress, Inherent Strain, and Inherent Displacement


Chapter 2. Introduction to Measurement and Prediction of Residual Stresses with the Help of Inherent Strains

2.1 Inherent Strains and Resulting Stresses

2.2 Measured Strains in Experiments and Inherent Strains

2.3 Effective and Noneffective Inherent Strains

2.4 Determination of Effective Inherent Strains from Measured Residual Stresses

2.5 Most Probable Value of Effective Inherent Strain and Accuracy of the Measurement of Residual Stress

2.6 Derivation of Elastic Response Matrix

2.7 Measuring Methods and Procedures of Residual Stresses in Two- and Three-Dimensional Models

2.8 Prediction of Welding Residual Stresses


Chapter 3. Mechanical Simulation of Welding

3.1 Heat Flow and Temperature During Welding

3.2 Basic Concepts of Mechanical Problems in Welding


Chapter 4. The Finite Element Method

4.1 Finite Element Method as A Powerful Tool for A Variety of Problems

4.2 Types of Problems and the Corresponding Basic Equations

4.3 Basic Concepts of the Variational Principle

4.4 How to Solve a Problem with More Than One Element

4.5 Incremental Method for Nonlinear Problems

4.6 Simple Examples of Analyzing Thermal Elastic-Plastic-Creep Behavior

4.7 Basic Theoretical Solutions to Validate Results Obtained by the FEM

4.8 Flow of Analysis for Welding Deformation and Residual Stress

4.9 Checklist for Rational Simulation

4.10 Tro


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