Description

Water at the Surface of the Earth: An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics provides an introduction to the ways in which biological, physical, cultural, and urban systems at the surface of the earth operate, with a particular focus on the hydrodynamics of ecosystems, i.e., water and its association with other forms of matter, including pollutants, and with several forms of energy. The chapter sequence in this book follows the downward progress of water from the lower atmosphere, through ecosystems at the earth's surface, through the soil and mantle rock, to the ""waters under the earth."" In other words, the book begins with input of water to ecosystems, then describes how it is processed in these systems, and ends with the liquid water yield from them. The book first discusses storms in the atmosphere. These are systems that convert inflows of water vapor into outflows of raindrops and snowflakes that are precipitated to the underlying surface. This is followed by separate chapters on how water is delivered from the atmosphere to surface ecosystems; water budgets at the surface and in the soil; evaporation from these systems back to the atmosphere; water in the local air and rocks; and horizontal movement of water transformed by ecosystems where the preceding storages and fluxes were located.

Table of Contents

Preface Chapter I Introduction Just What is the Earth's Surface? The Budget Idea Water in Systems Water Supplied by the Atmosphere to the Earth's Surface Chapter II Atmospheric Vapor Flows and Atmospheric Storms Water Vapor and Its Movement over the Earth's Surface Atmospheric Storms Sizes and Movement of Atmospheric Storms Atmospheric Storms: Causes of Variability in Rainfall References Chapter III Point Rainfall-The Delivery of Water to an Ecosystem Measuring Rain and Snow The Dimensions of Point Rainfall The Frequency of Precipitation-Intensity Events Water Delivery to Ecosystems References Chapter IV Hydrologic Storms The Area of Hydrologic Storms Areal Syntheses The Episodic Occurrence of Hydrologic Storms Closing References Chapter V Large-Scale Organization of Rainfall Organization of Storms in Time Spatial Grouping of Rainfall Spatial Pattern of Annual Precipitation Areal Pattern of Long-Term Changes in Rainfall Associated Mass Fluxes Time and Space Organization of the Water Delivered to Ecosystems References Chapter VI Reception of Water by Ecosystems Ecosystem Hydrodynamics Delivery of Rain and Snow to Vegetation Interception of Water by Vegetation Storage of Rain and Snow on Foliage during Storms The Outflows from Interception Storage of Rain and Snow Evaporation as a Mode of Outflow from Interception Storage Water Intercepted by Litter Areal Redistribution of Water by Vegetation above the Soil References Chapter VII Water Detained on the Soil Surface Snow Cover Liquid Water on the Ground Outflows from Detention Storage References Chapter VIII Infiltration of Water into the Soil of an Ecosystem The Soil as Environment of Water Infiltration of Water into the Soil Influences of Vegetation on Infiltrati

Details

No. of pages:
557
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Electronic ISBN:
9780080924779
Print ISBN:
9780124967526

About the author

David Miller

Deptartment of Cell Biology