The purpose of this book is to provide a base of information and analysis to assist in implementation of the policy of reducing and/or minimizing hazardous waste generation in manufacturing and more specifically in the process industries. What is the significance of reducing the generation of all process wastes? This book examines the technical nature of waste reduction and the extent to which waste reduction can likely be implemented. Also explored is the extent to which technology itself, as well as information and resources, is a barrier to waste reduction. In what ways are waste reduction decisions dependent on specific circumstances? Can the amount of feasible waste reduction be estimated? Auditing of manufacturing and unit operations and processes are particularly significant and useful in the chemical process industries (food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, fertilizer, petrochemicals, etc.) since it is estimated that these industries account for more than half of the hazardous wastes generated. This book presents a compilation of complete information on potential sources of waste loss or generation through technical inspection. Also presented are calculation methods for determining air-waste-solid wastes material balances, informational requirements and waste reduction analysis. The reader should find the book useful in the areas of auditing and waste minimization. It is replete with useful information as well as specific case histories, which should make it a practical tool for the user.


Chemical process industries (food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, fertilizer, petrochemicals, etc.)

Table of Contents

1. Waste Reduction Background Objectives Prevention and Control International Dimensions Waste Reduction Methods Broad Approaches to Waste Reduction Waste Reduction Examples Waste Reduction Decisions Technology and Information How Much Waste Reduction Waste Reduction Data Information Needs Waste Reduction Information Measure Waste Reduction Hazardous Waste Reduction International Perspective 2. Auditing Environmental Factors and Audit Summary Checklist Overview 3. Waste Minimization Data/Information Requirements Getting Started List Process Steps and Identify Wasteful Streams Analyzing Process Steps - Preparing Process Flow Charts Material and Energy Balances Technical Feasibility Environmental Aspects Implementation Solutions Monitor and Evaluate Results Audit Studies Identification Required of Water Pollution Sources for Waste Reduction/Minimization Potentials 4. Estimating Releases to the Environment Data to be Determined Sources of Wastes/Releases Overview of Analysis Definitions of Major Approaches Observations on the Use of Data Approach to Use Estimating Releases to Air Sources of Release to Air and Release Estimation Methods Estimating Releases in Wastewater Sources of Wastewater and Methods for its Disposal Sources and Disposal Methods for Solid, Slurry and Nonaqueous Liquid Wastes Methods for Calculating Releases in Solid, Slurry


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© 1995
William Andrew
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About the author

Paul N. Cheremisinoff

Affiliations and Expertise

United States Agency for International Development


"The book presents an in-depth exploration of waste minimization practices..."- The Air Pollution Consultant