Volcanic Hazards

Volcanic Hazards

A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions

1st Edition - December 12, 1984

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  • Author: R. Blong
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483288208

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Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions provides a comprehensive discussion of volcanic eruptions and their effects. This volume provides background data on volcanic activity with attention directed specifically at those types of activity and those characteristics which are hazardous. It establishes the direct effects of volcanic eruptions on humans in terms of death and injuries, and social aspects such as perception of eruption hazards, evacuation, panic, looting, and religious beliefs. It discusses the indirect consequences of volcanic eruptions for humans by illustrating the effects on buildings, utilities, communication networks and machinery, agriculture, and commercial activity. This book should be of interest to planners, engineers, city administrators, agriculturalists, and emergency services personnel who must deal with the effects of volcanic hazards; to volcanologists and geologists who did not know eruptions affected so many things; to geographers, environmentalists, and natural hazard scientists who are interested in the interrelatedness of phenomena; and to citizens who have experienced, or might yet experience, some of these effects.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1 Volcanic Activity and Volcanic Hazards

    1.1 Volcanic Settings

    1.2 Types of Eruption

    1.3 Volcanic Activity

    1.4 Eruption Size

    1.5 Volcanic Hazards

    Chapter 2 Hazards Produced by Volcanic Eruptions

    2.1 Lava Flows

    2.2 Ballistic Projectiles and Tephra Falls

    2.3 Pyroclastic Flows and Debris Avalanches

    2.4 Lahars and Jökulhlaups

    2.5 Earthquakes and Ground Deformation

    2.6 Tsunami

    2.7 Atmospheric Phenomena

    2.8 Acid Rains and Gases

    2.9 Some Conclusions

    Chapter 3 Effects on Humans: Deaths and Injuries

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Some General Statistics

    3.3 Lava Flows

    3.4 Ballistic Projectiles

    3.5 Tephra Falls

    3.6 Pyroclastic Flows and Debris Avalanches

    3.7 Lahars

    3.8 Earthquakes and Ground Deformation

    3.9 Tsunami

    3.10 Atmospheric Effects

    3.11 Gases and Acid Rains

    3.12 Other Causes of Death

    3.13 Conclusions

    Chapter 4 Social Aspects of Volcanic Eruptions

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Human Perceptions of Eruption Risk

    4.3 Mental Health Problems

    4.4 Evacuation

    4.5 Panic, Rumors, Crime

    4.6 Disaster Relief

    4.7 The Effects on Rescuers, Officials, Politicians

    4.8 Volcanic Eruptions and Religious Beliefs

    4.9 Longer Term Social Changes Resulting from Eruptions

    4.10 Conclusions

    Chapter 5 Volcanic Hazards and Buildings

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Lava Flows

    5.3 Tephra Falls

    5.4 Pyroclastic Flows

    5.5 Lahars

    5.6 Earthquakes and Ground Deformation

    5.7 Tsunami

    5.8 Atmospheric Effects

    5.9 Acid Rains and Gases

    Chapter 6 The Effects on Utilities and Machinery

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Water Supply Systems

    6.3 Waste Water Systems

    6.4 Electrical Supply Systems

    6.5 Telecommunications

    6.6 Airports and Aeroplanes

    6.7 Railroads

    6.8 Shipping

    6.9 Roads

    6.10 The Effects of Mount St Helens Tephra on Roads

    6.11 Vehicles

    6.12 Other Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

    Chapter 7 The Effects on Agriculture

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Crops

    7.3 Livestock and Other Mammals

    7.4 Aquatic Life

    7.5 Birdlife

    7.6 Insects and Others

    7.7 Recovery

    Chapter 8 The Effects on Economic Activity

    8.1 The Range of Effects

    8.2 Some General Considerations

    8.3 Agriculture

    8.4 Tourism

    8.5 Commercial Activity

    8.6 Government

    8.7 Some Perspectives

    Chapter 9 Summary, Conclusions, Implications

    9.1 A Summary and Some Conclusions

    9.2 Hazard Perception

    9.3 The Future


    List of Publications Referred to in the Text


Product details

  • No. of pages: 424
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: December 12, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483288208

About the Author

R. Blong

Affiliations and Expertise

Macquarie University, Sydney

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