Volatile Biomarkers

Volatile Biomarkers

Non-Invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine

1st Edition - March 27, 2013

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  • Editors: Cristina Davis, Jonathan Beauchamp
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626134
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444626202

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, sweat or urine carry much information on the state of human health. The role of VOCs in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring is expected to become increasingly significant due to recent advances in the field. Volatile Biomarkers: Non-Invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine includes the latest discoveries and applications for VOCs from the world's foremost scientists and clinicians working in this emerging analytic area.

Key Features

  • Appeals to a multidisciplinary audience, including scientists, researchers, and clinicians with an interest in breath analysis
  • Features the latest scientific research and technical breakthroughs in the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of volatile organic compounds
  • Includes case presentations documenting applications in multiple areas of human health and safety


Chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, physiologists, and clinicians with an interest in breath analysis

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    PART A Interpretation of Breath Analysis Data

    Chapter 1. Mathematical and Statistical Approaches for Interpreting Biomarker Compounds in Exhaled Human Breath

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Data interpretation

    1.3 Conclusions and recommendations



    Chapter 2. Issues and Challenges in Human Breath Research: Perspectives from Our Experience

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Defining normal in clinical practice: the case of a routine liver blood test

    2.3 Developing a breath test: can the blood assay be unseated?

    2.4 Convincing clinicians

    2.5 Breath markers

    2.6 Conclusion


    PART B Real-Time Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    Chapter 3. Physiological Modeling for Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Real-time measurements: experimental basics

    3.3 Modeling

    3.4 Concluding remarks


    PART C Physiological and Clinical Studies

    Chapter 4. Recent SIFT-MS Studies of Volatile Compounds in Physiology, Medicine and Cell Biology

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Direct breath analysis

    4.3 VOC emission from skin; comparison with VOCs in breath

    4.4 Exhaled breath condensate and broncoalveolar lavage

    4.5 VOCs in urine headspace; ketones and ovulation; 3-HBA

    4.6 Volatile biomarkers of cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo

    4.7 Alcohol ingestion and detection and cannabis

    4.8 Flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, and total body water

    4.9 Summary remarks; future prospects for SIFT-MS and FA-MS in medicine


    Chapter 5. The Analysis of Oral Air by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry Using Indole and Methylindole as Examples

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Oral malodor

    5.3 Oral air sampling considerations

    5.4 Indoles

    5.5 Summary and conclusion


    Chapter 6. Smokers Breath as Seen by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS)

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Materials and methods

    6.3 Results and discussion

    6.4 Conclusion


    Chapter 7. Exhaled Breath Analysis in Occupational Medicine

    7.1 Rationale for the use of exhaled breath analysis in occupational medicine

    7.2 Exhaled nitric oxide

    7.3 Exhaled breath condensate (EBC)

    7.4 Exhaled volatile organic compounds


    Chapter 8. Volatile Organic Compounds in Human Breath: Biogenic Origin and Point-of-Care Analysis Approaches

    8.1 Biogenic origin of volatile compounds in human exhaled breath

    8.2 Miniature mobile point-of-care diagnostic systems for VOC breath biomarkers: trends and future requirements

    8.3 Advances in data analysis required for breath sensor technologies


    Chapter 9. Breath Analysis in Critically Ill Patients—Potential and Limitations

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Technical aspects of breath analysis in critically ill patients

    9.3 Methodological aspects

    9.4 Clinical aspects of breath analysis in critically ill patients

    9.5 Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Analysis of Cancer Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath and Comparison with Sensory Indications by Dogs

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Experimental

    10.3 Results and Discussion

    10.4 Conclusions


    PART D Nitric Oxide, NO, and Carbon Monoxide, CO

    Chapter 11. Added Value with Extended NO Analysis

    11.1 Background

    11.2 A two compartment model

    11.3 Different no models

    11.4 Corrections for axial back diffusion

    11.5 Limitations

    11.6 Values from non-smoking healthy subjects

    11.7 The usefulness of extended no analysis

    11.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 12. Carbon Monoxide as an Exhaled Biomarker of Pulmonary Diseases

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Chemical and biochemical properties of CO

    12.3 Environmental sources of CO

    12.4 Endogenous sources of CO: the heme oxygenase enzyme system

    12.5 Signaling properties of CO

    12.6 CYTO- and tissue-protective effects of CO

    12.7 Methods for breath CO detection

    12.8 Exhaled CO in human diseases

    12.9 Conclusions


    Chapter 13. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Clinical Practice: Recent Advances and New Challenges

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Exhaled nitric oxide

    13.3 Technical aspects of measurement

    13.4 NO in clinical decision making

    13.5 Conclusions and directions for future areas of research


    PART E Clinical Breath Tests

    Chapter 14. An Update on 13C-Breath Tests: The Transition to Acceptability into Clinical Practice

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 History of 13C breath tests

    14.3 Standardization of instrumentation and breath collection bags

    14.4 Breath tests during the period 2005–2011

    14.5 The future of 13C-breath tests


    PART F Development and Use of Sensors

    Chapter 15. Sensors for Exhaled Gas Analysis: An Analytical Review

    15.1 Introduction. sensors as a prospective tool for implementation of fundamental findings in the area of exhaled gas analysis in the clinical setting

    15.2 Sensory metrological performance essential for exhaled breath measurements

    15.3 Types of sensors used for exhaled gas analysis

    15.4 Detection principles and concepts involved in breath analysis using sensors

    15.5 Medical applications of sensory breath analysis

    15.6 Concluding remarks


    Chapter 16. Arrays of Nanomaterial-Based Sensors for Breath Testing

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 The design of the sensor array

    16.3 Nanomaterials for sensor arrays

    16.4 Chemiresistive MCNP films for sensor arrays

    16.5 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTS) for sensors arrays

    16.6 Semiconducting nanowires for cross-reactive sensors

    16.7 Summary and conclusions


    Chapter 17. Smart Sensor Systems for Human Health Breath Monitoring Applications

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Smart sensor systems

    17.3 Breath monitoring: smart sensor system development

    17.4 Home asthma breath monitoring technology

    17.5 Asthma monitoring system miniaturization

    17.6 Summary and conclusion


    Chapter 18. VOC Analysis by SIFT-MS, GC-MS, and Electronic Nose for Diagnosing and Monitoring Disease

    18.1 Methodology and VOC analysis

    18.2 Healthy volunteers

    18.3 Acetone and diabetes

    18.4 Acetone from skin

    18.5 Tuberculosis and other infectious diseases

    18.6 Gastro-intestinal illness

    18.7 Bladder cancer

    18.8 Concluding remarks


    PART G Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) and Particulates

    Chapter 19. Measurement of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Airway Inflammation in Exhaled Breath Condensate: Methodology and Potential Applications in Patients with COPD and Healthy Smokers

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 EBC analysis: methodology

    19.3 Analysis of EBC from patients with COPD and healthy smokers

    19.4 Advantages and limitations of the EBC technique

    19.5 Future research


    Chapter 20. Particles in Exhaled Air—A Novel Method of Sampling Non-Volatiles in Exhaled Air

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Number of particles in exhaled breath

    20.3 Formation and origin of exhaled particles

    20.4 Composition of exhaled particles

    20.5 Sampling of exhaled particles in occupational medicine

    20.6 Conclusions


    PART H Volatiles of Microbial Origin: Urine, Stool and in vitro Cultures

    Chapter 21. Challenges in the Investigation of Volatile Disease Biomarkers in Urine

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Distinctive odors and/or volatile profiles associated with diseases are present in urine and detected by animals and analytical instruments

    21.3 Challenges in monitoring volatile disease biomarkers in urine

    21.4 Discussion


    Chapter 22. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Found in Urine and Stool

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Urine VOCs and disease

    22.3 Bacteria present in human urine, current test methods, and VOC analyses

    22.4 Stool VOCs and disease

    22.5 A comparison of VOCs found in urine and stool

    22.6 Summary


    Chapter 23. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Released by Pathogenic Microorganisms in vitro: Potential Breath Biomarkers for Early-Stage Diagnosis of Disease

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Methodology

    23.3 Results

    23.4 Discussion

    23.5 Summary


    PART I Urban Search and Rescue Operations

    Chapter 24. Potential Applications of Volatile Organic Compounds in Safety and Security

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Chemical analysis of breath

    24.3 Analytical instrumentation; field technology

    24.4 Factors affecting VOCs

    24.5 Volatiles in safety and security applications

    24.6 Urine as a potential source of markers of human presence

    24.7 Evaluation of IMS-based portable technologies for the detection of urine-borne human scent constituents

    24.8 SPATIO-temporal measurements of VOCs

    24.9 Real-time measurement of exhaled breath and skin emanations

    24.10 A hit list of compounds for urban search and rescue operations

    24.11 Summary



Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: March 27, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626134
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444626202

About the Editors

Cristina Davis

Cristina Davis is chair and professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of California Davis, United States. Her research focuses on development of novel chemical and biological sensor systems and biomarker identification in agriculture and human/animal health monitoring. She has 12 issued patents and has coauthored over 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. She is current chair-elect of IABR.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chair and professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, United States

Jonathan Beauchamp

Jonathan Beauchamp is manager of the Emissions Analytics and Diagnostics group at the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV in Freising, Germany. He has been involved in academic and industrial breath research for the past 15 years and is currently principal investigator in several breath-related projects. He is an active member and current treasurer of the International Association of Breath Research (IABR).

Affiliations and Expertise

Manager, Emissions Analytics and Diagnostics group, Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Freising, Germany

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