VLSI Handbook - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122341007, 9780323141994

VLSI Handbook

1st Edition

Editors: Norman Einspruch
eBook ISBN: 9780323141994
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th November 1985
Page Count: 928
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Description

VLSI Handbook is a reference guide on very large scale integration (VLSI) microelectronics and its aspects such as circuits, fabrication, and systems applications. This handbook readily answers specific questions and presents a systematic compilation of information regarding the VLSI technology. There are a total of 52 chapters in this book and are grouped according to the fields of design, materials and processes, and examples of specific system applications. Some of the chapters under fields of design are design automation for integrated circuits and computer tools for integrated circuit design. For the materials and processes, there are many chapters that discuss this aspect. Some of them are manufacturing process technology for metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) VLSI; MOS VLSI circuit technology; and facilities for VLSI circuit fabrication. Other concepts and materials discussed in the book are the use of silicon material in different processes of VLSI, nitrides, silicides, metallization, and plasma. This handbook is very useful to students of engineering and physics. Also, researchers (in physics and chemistry of materials and processes), device designers, and system designers can also benefit from this book.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Acronyms

Chapter 1 Factors Contributing to Increased VLSI Circuit Density

I. Introduction

II. Factors Influencing Circuit Density

Chapter 2 Fundamental Principles of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit Design

I. Introduction

II. VLSI Design Methodology

III. Elements of VLSI Circuit Design

IV. Basics of Layout Design

V. Future Developments

References

Chapter 3 Design Automation for Integrated Circuits

I. Introduction

II. A Design through Various Levels of Abstraction

III. A Typical Design Procedure

IV. Semicustom Design Methodologies

V. Building of Cell or Macro Library

VI. Semicustom Layout

VII. Comparison between Semicustom Methodologies

VIII. Trends in Design Automation

IX. Conclusion

Glossary

Bibliography

Chapter 4 Computer Tools for Integrated Circuit Design

I. IC Design and Development

II. Applying Computers in the Development Process

III. Availability of CAD Tools

References

Chapter 5 VLSI to Go: The Silicon Foundry

I. Introduction

II. The Silicon Foundry Concept

III. The Foundry Interface

IV. Processing

V. Post Processing

References

Chapter 6 Manufacturing Process Technology for MOS VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Directions in Process Technology

III. Process Control

References

Chapter 7 Facilities for VLSI Circuit Fabrication

I. Clean Air

II. Water

III. Provision of Other Supplies

IV. Vacuum

V. Waste Disposal

VI. Physical Considerations

VII. Protection of Personnel, Equipment, and Product

VIII. Personnel Efficiency

IX. Facility Management System

References

Chapter 8 MOS VLSI Circuit Technology

I. Introduction

II. MOSFET Structures

III. MOS Circuits

IV. Power-Delay Performance of MOS and Bipolar Circuits

V. Conclusion

References

Chapter 9 Bipolar VLSI Circuit Technology

I. Introduction

II. Bipolar Transistors

III. Bipolar Digital Gate Circuits

References

Chapter 10 CMOS VLSI Technology

I. Advantages of Circuit Design with CMOS

II. A State-of-the-Art CMOS Process Flow

III. Problems of Optimization of CMOS Processing

IV. Problems of Interconnects for CMOS

V. Discontinuities in CMOS Technology

Bibliography

Chapter 11 New Directions in Microprocessors

I. Introduction

II. Memory Management

III. Cache

IV. Pipelining

V. System Timing

VI. Peripheral Controllers

VII. Current Implementations

Chapter 12 VLSI Random Access Memories

I. Introduction

II. Static RAM

III. Dynamic RAM

IV. Specialty RAMs

Glossary

Chapter 13 VLSI Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

I. Principle of Operation

II. Programming Characteristics

III. Performance and Reliability

IV. Scaling

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 14 Electrical Transport Properties of Silicon

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Transport: The Transport Equation

III. Conversion between Resistivity and Dopant Density

IV. Mobility of Charge Carriers

V. Temperature Dependence of Resistivity and Mobility

VI. Dependence of Drift Velocity on Electric Fields

VII. Minority-Carrier Mobility, Lifetime, and Diffusion Length

VIII. Mobility in a MOS Inversion Layer

References

Chapter 15 VLSI Silicon Material Criteria

I. Introduction

II. Product Characteristics

III. Tabulation of Engineering Properties

IV. VLSI Silicon Product Trends

V. VLSI and ULSI Silicon Product Recommendation

Tables

Figures

References

Chapter 16 Characterization of Bulk Silicon Materials

I. Polycrystalline Silicon

II. Bulk Single Crystal Silicon

III. Single Crystal Silicon Wafers

References

Chapter 17 Growth of Epitaxial Films For VLSI Applications

I. Introduction

II. Epitaxial Growth of Silicon Films

III. Characterization of Epitaxial Silicon Films

IV. Epitaxial Growth of Gallium Arsenide Films

References

Chapter 18 Epitaxial Silicon: Material Characterization

I. Introduction

II. Growth Characterization

III. Electrical Characterization

IV. Physical and Optical Characterization

V. Epitaxial Defect Characterization

VI. Epitaxial Defect Measurements

References

Chapter 19 Resist Technology in VLSI Device Processing

I. Introduction

II. Optical Patterning

III. Multilevel Resists

IV. Electron Beam Patterning

V. X-Ray Resists

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter 20 Electron Beam Lithography

I. Introduction

II. Mask Making

III. Direct Writing

IV. Resists

V. Electron Optics

VI. Raster Scan

VII. Vector Scan

References

Chapter 21 X-Ray Lithography

I. Introduction

II. X-Ray Proximity Printing

III. Sources

IV. Masks

V. Resists

VI. Mask Alignment

VII. Exposure Systems

VIII. Applications

References

Chapter 22 Oxides for VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Thermal Oxidation

III. Leakage and Breakdown

IV. Oxide Charges

V. Special Considerations

References

Chapter 23 Nitrides for VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Film Formation

III. Electrical Properties

IV. Applications of Nitrides

References

Chapter 24 Silicides

Introduction to Tables

References

Chapter 25 Metallization for VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Aluminum and Its Alloys

III. Barrier Layers for Metallization

References

Chapter 26 Application of Ion Implantation in VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Aspects of Ion Implantation

III. Doping Applications in MOS Technology

IV. Doping Applications in Bipolar Technology

V. Recent Advances and Other Applications

References

Chapter 27 Plasma Processing for VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Etching

III. Sputtering

IV. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

References

Chapter 28 Silicon-on-Insulator for VLSI Applications

I. Introduction

II. Heteroepitaxy

III. SOI by Thin Film Recrystallization

IV. Formation of Buried Insulating Layers by Ion Implantation

V. Full Isolation by Porous Oxidized Silicon (FIPOS)

VI. Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth

VII. LPCVD Polysilicon SOI Thin Film Transistors (TFT)

VIII. Grain Boundary Passivation

IX. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

X. Summary

References

Chapter 29 Testing of VLSI Parametrics

I. Purpose

II. Implications of VLSI

III. Test Types

IV. Test Structures

V. Instrumentation

VI. Data Analysis-Information Retrieval

References

Chapter 30 VLSI Testing from Design through Production

I. Semiconductor Testing

II. Testing with Automatic Test Equipment

III. Test Descriptions

IV. Logic Testing

V. Memory Testing

VI. Testing Throughput

VII. Quality Assurance and Sample Testing

References

Chapter 31 VLSI Failure Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Initial Nondestructive Procedures

III. Input-Output Failures

IV. Single Node Failures

V. Nonfunctional Defects

VI. Conclusion

Chapter 32 Radiation Effects and Radiation Hardening of VLSI Circuits

I. Introduction

II. Radiation-Induced Effects in IC Materials

III. Principal Radiation Effects in Devices and ICs

IV. Radiation Hardening of Semiconductor Devices and ICs

V. Single Event Upset

VI. Radiation Hardness of GaAs ICs

VII. Hardness Trends of Silicon Devices

References

Chapter 33 VLSI Imagers

I. Introduction

II. Chip Architectures

III. Fabrication Technologies

IV. Performance Variables versus Design Variables

Bibliography

References

Chapter 34 Noise in VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Various VLSI Circuits

III. Threshold Voltages

IV. Crosstalk

V. Alpha-Particle- and Cosmic-Ray-Induced Soft Errors in VLSI Circuits

References

Chapter 35 Limits to Performance of VLSI Circuits

I. Introduction

II. Fundamental Limits

III. Materials Limits

IV. Device Limits

V. Circuit and System Limits

References

Chapter 36 Superconducting Integrated Circuits

I. Model of a Josephson Junction

II. Digital Devices

III. Switching Speed of Josephson Junctions

IV. Other Considerations

References

Chapter 37 GaAs Digital Integrated Circuit Technology

I. Properties of GaAs

II. GaAs MESFET Devices

III. Planar GaAs Fabrication Process

IV. GaAs MESFET Circuits

V. Performance and Applications

VI. Advanced GaAs Technologies

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 38 VLSI in Personal Computers

I. Introduction

II. Microprocessor Evolution

III. The Evolution of a Personal Computer

IV. The Future of Personal Computers

References

Chapter 39 VLSI in the Design of Large Computers

I. Introduction

II. Performance

III. VLSI Design Considerations

IV. Design Tools and Staff

V. Summary

References

Chapter 40 Electronic Warfare Applications of VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Electronic Warfare Support Measures

III. Electronic Countermeasures

IV. Electronic Counter-Countermeasures (ECCM)

List of Symbols

References

Chapter 41 VLSI in Encryption Applications

I. Introduction

II. Cryptography Overview

III. Data Encryption Standard

IV. Public Keys

V. Commercial Device Implementations

VI. VLSI Impact on Future

References

Chapter 42 Application of VLSI to Radar Systems

I. Overview

II. Functional Requirements and Radar Overview

III. Key VLSI Microelectronic Technologies

IV. Summary

References

Chapter 43 Medical Applications of VLSI Circuits

I. Introduction

II. Dual-Chamber Programmable Implantable Pacemaker

III. Digital Hearing Aid

IV. Computerized Tomography

V. Ultrasound Imaging

VI. A Computerized Local Area Network for an Intensive Care Unit

VII. Evoked Potentials

VIII. Neural Stimulators

References

Chapter 44 Cardiac Pacer Systems

I. Introduction

II. Cardiac Cycle and the Pacer Implant

III. System Description

IV. Pacemaker Design Considerations

V. Pacing Modalities

VI. Future Trends in Cardiac Pacing

Bibliography

References

Chapter 45 VLSI in a Complex Medical Instrument

I. System Architecture

II. Sample Handling and Preparation

III. A/D Conversion and Data Accumulation

IV. Central Data Processor

Chapter 46 Impact of VLSI on Speech Processing

I. Introduction

II. The Nature of Speech and Speech Processing

III. Spectral Estimation: Algorithms and Hardware

IV. Speech Recognition

V. Speech Coding and Speech Synthesis

VI. The Future

References

Chapter 47 Application of VLSI to Pattern Recognition and Image Processing

I. Introduction

II. Image Processing and Pattern Recognition

III. VLSI Architectures for Pattern Recognition

IV. LSI/VLSI Image Processing: Architectures and Systems

References

Chapter 48 VLSI Approach to FM Defection

I. Introduction

II. Frequency Modulation

III. VLSI Approach to Frequency Modulation Detection

IV. System Implementation Example: An Implantable Pulsed Doppler Flowmeter

V. Conclusion

References

Chapter 49 VLSI Impact on Modem Design and Performance

I. Introduction

II. Modem Overview

III. Incentives for VLSI Use in Modems

IV. Custom Implementations

V. Commercial Devices

VI. VLSI and Value-Added Features

VII. Future Trends

References

Chapter 50 Impact of VLSI On Distributed Communications

I. Introduction

II. VLSI Technology and Trends

III. Distributed Communications

IV. Future Trends

References

Chapter 51 Applications of VLSI to the Automobile

I. Introduction

II. Driving Forces

III. Automotive Electronics Market

IV. Reliability

V. Engine Controls

VI. Body Computers

VII. Entertainment Systems

VIII. Cellular Telephones

IX. Conclusion

References

Chapter 52 How to Protect VLSI Intellectual Property

I. Patent Protection

II. Copyright Protection

III. Trade Secret Protection

IV. Other Key Aspects in the Protection Program

V. Summary

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
928
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323141994

About the Editor

Norman Einspruch