Vitamin D Hormone

Vitamin D Hormone

1st Edition - January 30, 2016

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  • Editor: Gerald Litwack
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128052402
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128048245

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First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Series provides up-to-date information on vitamin and hormone research spanning data from molecular biology to the clinic. A volume can focus on a single molecule or on a disease that is related to vitamins or hormones.  A hormone is interpreted broadly so that related substances, such as transmitters, cytokines, growth factors and others can be reviewed. This volume focuses on vitamin D hormone.

Key Features

  • Expertise of the contributors
  • Coverage of a vast array of subjects
  • In depth current information at the molecular to the clinical levels


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge reviews concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.

Table of Contents

    • Former Editors
    • Preface
    • Chapter One: Vitamin D: Historical Overview
      • Abstract
      • 1 The Discovery of Vitamin D
      • 2 The Discovery of the Physiological Functions of Vitamin D
      • 3 The Discovery of the Hormonal Form of Vitamin D
      • 4 The Isolation of the Final Active Form of Vitamin D
      • 5 Discovery of the Vitamin D Endocrine System (Fig. 5)
      • 6 Other Metabolism of Vitamin D
      • 7 Discovery of the Vitamin D Receptor
    • Chapter Two: Genomic Determinants of Vitamin D-Regulated Gene Expression
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals New Concepts in Vitamin D Action
      • 3 Novel Principles of Vitamin D Action
      • 4 The Influence of Cellular Differentiation on Vitamin D Activity
      • 5 VDR Modulates Histone Acetylation at Target Genes
      • 6 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Three: Inhibitors for the Vitamin D Receptor–Coregulator Interaction
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Peptide-Based Inhibitors of the VDR–Coregulator Interaction
      • 3 Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the VDR–Coregulator Interaction
      • 4 VDR Antagonists or Allosteric Inhibition of the VDR–Coregulators Interaction
      • 5 Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Four: Structural Studies of Vitamin D Nuclear Receptor Ligand-Binding Properties
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Crystal Structures of VDR LBD in Complex with 1,25(OH)2D3
      • 3 Secosteroidal Derivatives of 1,25(OH)2D3
      • 4 Synthetic Mimics of 1,25(OH)2D3
      • 5 Crystal Structures of VDR LBD with Lithocholic Acid
      • 6 Crystal Structures of HVDRR-Associated VDR Mutants
      • 7 Dynamic Process of Ligand Binding
      • 8 Conclusion and Perspectives
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Five: Crystal Structure of the Vitamin D Receptor Ligand-Binding Domain with Lithocholic Acids
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Lithocholic Acids
      • 3 Structures of the VDR LBD with LCAs
      • 4 Mechanism of Agonist Activities of LCA to VDR
      • 5 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Chapter Six: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase: A Key Regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3 Catabolism and Calcium Homeostasis
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction and Catalytic Properties
      • 2 CYP24A1 Gene and Crystal Structure of CYP24A1
      • 3 Cyp24a1-Null Mice
      • 4 Genetic Defect in CYP24A1: A Cause of Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia
      • 5 Regulation of CYP24A1
      • 6 Aging and CYP24A1
      • 7 Placental CYP24A1
      • 8 Genomic Mechanisms Mediating 1,25(OH)2D3 Regulation of CYP24A1
      • 9 Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter Seven: Analogs of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Clinical Use
      • Abstract
      • 1 Discovery of the Vitamin D Endocrine System
      • 2 Vitamin D Metabolites
      • 3 Precursors to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3
      • 4 Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3
      • 5 Functions of Vitamin D Beyond Bone, Parathyroid, Calcium, and Phosphorus
    • Chapter Eight: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Klotho: A Tale of Two Renal Hormones Coming of Age
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D
      • 3 Klotho
      • 4 Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Nine: Hedgehog and Vitamin D Signaling Pathways in Development and Disease
      • Abstract
      • 1 The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
      • 2 Vitamin D Metabolism and Regulation
      • 3 Vitamin D/Hh Pathway Regulation in the Skin
      • 4 Inhibition of Hh Signaling by Vitamin D-Based Small Molecules
      • 5 Discussion and Conclusions
    • Chapter Ten: Molecular Approaches for Optimizing Vitamin D Supplementation
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 A View from Evolution
      • 3 Vitamin D and the Epigenome
      • 4 Molecular Insight from Vitamin D Intervention Trials
      • 5 Consequences for Vitamin D Supplementation
      • 6 Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Eleven: The Role of Vitamin D3 in the Development and Neuroprotection of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Vitamin D3
      • 3 Vitamin D3 and Health
      • 4 Vitamin D3 in the Central Nervous System
      • 5 Vitamin D and Neuroprotection in Parkinson's Disease
      • 6 Future Developments and Applications to Parkinson's Disease
    • Chapter Twelve: Vitamin D and Cardiac Differentiation
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Calcitriol and CVD
      • 3 Calcitriol Is Critical in the Modulation and Maintenance of Heart Cell Structure and Function
      • 4 Noncanonical Wnt11 Signaling and Cardiogenesis
      • 5 1,25-Vitamin D3 Promotes Cardiac Differentiation Through Modulation of the Wnt Signaling Pathway
      • 6 Regulation of Cardiac Function Through Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathway
      • 7 Conclusion and Future Directions
    • Chapter Thirteen: Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Vitamin D Metabolism: Synthesis, Degradation, Relevance to Prostate Cancer
      • 3 VDR-Regulated Gene Transcription: Ligand Specificity, DNA Response Elements, Domain-Induced Allostery
      • 4 Inhibition of Prostate Cancer by Vitamin D: Insights from Cell Culture and Preclinical Studies, and Clinical Trials
      • 5 Functional Interplay of AR and VDR in Prostate Cancer: Impact on Cell Growth and Intracrine Androgen Biosynthesis
      • 6 Summary and Future Possibilities
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Fourteen: Metabolism and Action of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3 in Human Prostate Cells
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 The Chemistry and Synthetic Schemes for 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3
      • 3 19-nor-Vitamin D3 Analogs as Therapeutic Agent for Human Prostate Cancer
      • 4 The Biological Activities of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3
      • 5 The Metabolism of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3 in Prostate Cells
      • 6 Novel Mechanism of Action of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D3
      • 7 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Chapter Fifteen: Vitamin D Analogs with Nitrogen Atom at C2 Substitution and Effect on Bone Formation
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Synthesis of New VDR Ligands: (Heteroaryl)ethyl Group at C2α
      • 3 Synthesis of New VDR Ligands: Cyanoalkyl or Cyanoalkoxy Group at C2α and C2β
      • 4 Biological Activity of New VDR Ligands
      • 5 New Ligands Bound to hVDR: X-Ray Cocrystallographic Analyses
      • 6 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Sixteen: Mechanistic Insights of Vitamin D Anticancer Effects
      • Abstract
      • 1 Overview of Vitamin D Anticancer Effects
      • 2 Epidemiological Studies
      • 3 Experimental Studies
      • 4 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter Seventeen: Vitamin D Signaling Modulators in Cancer Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Vitamin D Receptor and 1,25D3 Signaling
      • 3 Glucocorticoid, 1,25D3-Mediated Antitumor Effect and Hypercalcemia
      • 4 GR and VDR Signaling
      • 5 Regulation of CYP24A1 Expression
      • 6 CYP24A1 Expression in Cancer
      • 7 CYP24A1 Inhibitors
      • 8 Vitamin D Analogs
      • 9 Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 502
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: January 30, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128052402
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128048245

About the Serial Editor

Gerald Litwack

Gerald Litwack
Dr. Gerald Litwack obtained M.S. and PhD degrees from the University of Wisconsin Department of Biochemistry and remained there for a brief time as a Lecturer on Enzymes. Then he entered the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne as a Fellow of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. He next moved to Rutgers University as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and later as Associate Professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. After four years he moved to the Temple University School of Medicine as Professor of Biochemistry and Deputy Director of the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, soon after, becoming the Laura H. Carnell Professor. Subsequently he was appointed chair of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at the Jefferson Medical College as well as Vice Dean for Research and Deputy Director of the Jefferson Cancer Institute and Director of the Institute for Apoptosis. Following the move of his family, he became a Visiting Scholar at the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and then became the Founding Chair of the Department of Basic Sciences at the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, becoming Professor of Molecular and Cellular Medicine and Associate Director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the Texas A&M Health Science Center as his final position. During his career he was a visiting scientist at the University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, London and the Wistar Institute. He was appointed Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. He has published more than 300 scientific papers, authored three textbooks and edited more than sixty-five books. Currently he lives with his family and continues his authorship and editorial work in Los Angeles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, USA; Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA

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