Vitamin A - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127098753, 9780080475165

Vitamin A, Volume 75

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780080475165
Hardcover ISBN: 9780127098753
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th March 2007
Page Count: 432
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Table of Contents

  • Former Editor
    • Publisher Summary
  • Contributors to Volume 75
    • Publisher Summary
  • Preface
    • Publisher Summary
  • 1: RXR: From Partnership to Leadership in Metabolic Regulations
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II RXRs and Their Many Partners Belong to the Nuclear Receptor Superfamily
    • III RXR in Partnership: The Permissive Heterodimers as Metabolic Sensors
    • IV The Rexinoid-Signaling Pathways: From Partnership to Leadership
    • V Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • 2: The Intersection Between the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)- and Retinoic Acid-Signaling Pathways
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Retinoid Signaling
    • III The AhR/Arnt Pathway
    • IV AhR and RA Availability
    • V Molecular Interactions Between the RA and AhR Pathways
  • 3: Role of Retinoic Acid in the Differentiation of Embryonal Carcinoma and Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Molecular Mechanism of Action of RA
    • III Model Systems to Study Differentiation
    • IV Role of RARs
    • V RA-Regulated Genes
    • VI Role of Specific RA-Regulated Genes
    • VII Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • 4: Metabolism of Retinol During Mammalian Placental and Embryonic Development
    • Abstract
    • I General Aspects of Retinol Transport and Metabolism in Mammalian Species
    • II Placental Transport and Metabolism of Retinol During Mammalian Development
    • III Embryonic Metabolism of Retinol During Mammalian Development
    • Acknowledgments
  • 5: Conversion of β-Carotene to Retinal Pigment
    • Abstract
    • I General Aspects of Vitamin A Metabolism
    • II Conversion of β-Carotene to Vitamin A
    • III β-Carotene as Provitamin A in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
    • IV Alternative Routes of Vitamin A Supply
  • 6: Vitamin A-Storing Cells (Stellate Cells)
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Morphology of HSCs
    • III Regulation of Vitamin A Homeostasis by HSCs
    • IV HSCs in Arctic Animals
    • V Roles of HSCs During Liver Regeneration
    • VI Production and Degradation of ECM Components by HSCs
    • VII Reversible Regulation of Morphology, Proliferation, and Function of the HSCs by 3D Structure of ECM
    • VIII Stimulation of Proliferation of HSCs and Tissue Formation of the Liver by a Long-Acting Vitamin C Derivative
    • IX Extrahepatic Stellate Cells
    • X Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • 7: Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis to Study Vitamin A Kinetics and Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Highlights of Whole-Body Vitamin A Metabolism
    • III Early Kinetic Studies of Vitamin A Metabolism
    • IV Overview of Compartmental Analysis
    • V Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis to Study Vitamin A Kinetics
    • VI Conclusions
  • 8: Vitamin A Supplementation and Retinoic Acid Treatment in the Regulation of Antibody Responses In Vivo
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Rationale for Interest in VA Supplementation and Antibody Production
    • III VA and the Response to Immunization in Children
    • IV Experimental Studies of VA or RA Supplementation and Antibody Production In Vivo
    • V Innate Immune Cells and Factors Regulated by VA and RA That May Affect Immunization Outcome
    • VI Discussion and Perspectives
    • Acknowledgments
  • 9: Physiological Role of Retinyl Palmitate in the Skin
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Structure and Physiological Functions of the Skin
    • III Cutaneous Absorption and Deposition of Dietary and Topically Applied Retinol and Retinyl Esters
    • IV Mobilization and Metabolism of Retinol and Retinyl Esters in the Skin
    • V Effects on Selected Biological Responses of the Skin
    • VI Summary
  • 10: Retinoic Acid and the Heart
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Role of RA in Heart Development and Congenital Heart Defects
    • III Postnatal Development Effects of RA in the Heart
    • IV Conclusions
  • 11: Tocotrienols in Cardioprotection
    • Publisher Summary
    • I Introduction
    • II A Brief History of Vitamin
    • III Tocotrienols and Cardioprotection
    • IV Atherosclerosis
    • V Tocotrienols in Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activity
    • VI Tocotrienols in Ischemic Heart Disease
    • VII Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • 12: Cytodifferentiation by Retinoids, a Novel Therapeutic Option in Oncology: Rational Combinations with Other Therapeutic Agents
    • Abstract
    • I Premise and Scope: Differentiation Therapy with Retinoids Is a Significant Goal in the Management of the Neoplastic Diseases
    • II The Classical Nuclear RAR Pathway Is Complex and Has Led to the Development of Different Types of Synthetic Retinoids
    • III Retinoids Promote Differentiation in Numerous Types of Neoplastic Cells
    • IV Retinoids Exert Pleiotropic Effects Interacting with Multiple Intracellular Pathways: An Opportunity for Combination Therapy
    • V Retinoid-Based Differentiation Therapy, General Observations, and Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
  • 13: Effects of Vitamins, Including Vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS Patients
    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Vitamins and Immune Function
    • III Vitamins, HIV Transmission, and Pregnancy Outcomes
    • IV Vitamins and HIV Disease Progression in Adults
    • V Vitamins, Growth, and Disease Progression in HIV-Infected Children and HIV-Negative Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers
    • VI Comment
    • VII Future Research
    • Acknowledgments
  • 14: Vitamin A and Emphysema
    • Abstract
    • I Does Vitamin A Protect Against Pulmonary Emphysema?
    • II Conclusions
  • Index
    • Publisher Summary

Description

First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. In the early days of the serial, the subjects of vitamins and hormones were quite distinct. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology, and enzyme mechanisms. Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

Readership

Endocrinologists, biochemists, researchers, professors, and graduate students studying the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors


Details

No. of pages:
432
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2007
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080475165
Hardcover ISBN:
9780127098753

About the Editor-in-Chiefs

Gerald Litwack Editor-in-Chief

Following a liberal arts education with a major in chemistry and biology at Hobart College, Gerald (Gerry) Litwack earned M.S. and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where he served as a Lecturer in Enzymology before starting a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne in Paris. His first academic position was assistant professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University where he started his work on hormone action for six years. During this period, he did a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, where he concentrated on rapid enzyme kinetics. In 1960 he accepted an offer of an associate professorship at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. In 1964, he was invited to be full professor of biochemistry at The Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple Medical School, simultaneously with a Career Development Award from the NIH, where he later was named Deputy Director of the Institute and the Laura H. Carnell Professor in biochemistry. Subsequently, he was given the Faculty Research Award. He co-discovered ligandin, later found to be in the family of glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that protect the body from carcinogens. In 1991, he moved to the Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University as Professor of Biochemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Deputy Director of the Kimmel Cancer Research Institute. Later, he became chair of the combined Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and concurrently held the position of Vice Dean for Research. In 2003, he moved to Los Angeles and from 2004-2006 was a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine and, in this period, wrote “Human Biochemistry and Disease” a volume of 1254 pages. In 2007, he moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania, as Founding Chair of Basic Sciences and Acting Associate Dean for Research to start a new medical school, The Commonwealth Medical College. Having completing his mission in 2010, he moved to The Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, as Professor of Biochemistry and Associate Director. Currently, he is retired and lives in North Hollywood, California, where he continues as an author and as Series Editor of Vitamins and Hormones. He is involved in writing another textbook and has written a first novel, “One-Eighty”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA