Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483230917, 9781483259888

Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense

1st Edition

Editors: Hugh Davson
eBook ISBN: 9781483259888
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 450
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The Eye, Volume 4: Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense provides a well-integrated and authoritative account of the physiology of the eye. The book is organized into two parts. Part I on visual optics begins with a discussion of the branches of optics and the basic principles of geometrical optics. This is followed by separate chapters on refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; the thin spherical lens in air; reflexion at plane and spherical surfaces; the astigmatic lens; aberrations of optical images; ametropia and its correction; and retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Part II on the optical space sense includes discusses of objective and subjective space; spatial localization according to direction; perception of distance and of size; spatial localization through binocular vision; special topics in binocular spatial localization; and ocular dominance and binocular retinal rivalry. Whilst the emphasis has been on readability rather than exhaustiveness, the various accounts are sufficiently well documented to make the treatise valuable not only to teachers in physiology, psychology and ophthalmology, but also to research workers in all branches of ocular physiology.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Volume 1

Contents of Volume 2

Contents of Volume 3

Part I: Visual Optics

1. Introduction

I. Branches of Optics

II. Basic Principles of Geometrical Optics


2. Refraction at Plane and Spherical Surfaces

I. Eefraction at a Single Surface

II. Eefraction by a Parallel Plate

III. Eefraction by a Prism

IV. Ophthalmic Prism

V. Refraction at a Spherical Surface

3. The Thin Spherical Lens in Air

I. Definitions

II. Lens Forms

III. Surface Powers: Thin Lens Power

IV. Conjugate Foci Relationships

V. Principal Foci and Focal Lengths

VI. Graphical Construction of Images

VII. Newton's Relation

VIII. Magnification Formula

IX. Thin Lenses in Contact

X. Vision Through a Lens

XI. Prismatic Effect of Spherical Lenses

XII. Effective Power of a Lens

4. Reflexion at Plane and Spherical Surfaces

I. Reflexion at a Plane Surface

II. Reflexion at a Spherical Surface

5. Optical Systems in General

I. The Gaussian Theory

II. Equivalent Power

III. Principal Points and Planes

IV. Graphical Construction of Images

V. Conjugate Foci Relationships

VI. Vertex Powers and Focal Lengths

VII. Unequifocal Systems: the Nodal Points

VIII. Calculation of Equivalent Power

IX. The Thick Lens

X. Combinations of Lenses or Systems

XI. Afocal Systems

XII. Lens-Mirror Systems


6. The Astigmatic Lens

I. Introduction: The Cylindrical Surface

II. Piano- and Sphero-Cylinders

III. Ophthalmic Prescriptions

IV. Principal Meridians and Principal Powers

V. Transposition

VI. Image Formation: The Astigmatic Pencil

VII. The Toroidal Surface: Toric Lenses

VIII. Prismatic Effects of Astigmatic Lenses

IX. Astigmatic Lenses in Contact: Obliquely Crossed Cylinders


7. Aberrations of Optical Images

I. Aberrations in General

II. Spherical Aberration

III. Coma

IV. Oblique Astigmatism

V. Curvature of the Image

VI. Distortion

VII. Chromatic Aberration


8. The Eye as an Optical System

I. The Schematic Eye

II. The Purkinje Images

III. Dimensions of the Living Eye

IV. Aberrations of the Eye


9. Ametropia and Its Correction

I. Spherical Ametropia

II. Ametropia in General

III. Aphakia

IV. Astigmatism

V. Accommodation

VI. Detection and Measurement of Ametropia and Astigmatism

VII. Methods of Correcting Ametropia

VIII. The Magnification Properties of Correcting Lenses


10. Retinoscopy and Ophthalmoscopy

I. Retinoscopy

II. Ophthalmoscopy


Part II: The Optical Space Sense

11. Introduction to the Optical Space Sense

I. Sensation and Perception

II. Stimulus

III. Three-Dimensional Perception


12. Objective and Subjective Space

I. Actual and Perceived


13. Spatial Localization According to Direction

I. Basic Concepts

II. The Blind Spot

III. Identical Visual Directions and Corresponding Retinal Points

IV. Discrepancies between Visual and Objective Direction

V. The Form Sense

VI. Comparative Discrimination of Lengths

VII. Visual Discrimination of the Vertical

VIII. Perception of Motion


14. Perception of Distance and of Size

I. The Monocular Image—Perspective

II. Spatial Localization from the Monocular Image

III. Secondary Cues to Spatial Localization

IV. Ambiguous Depth Perception from Drawn Figures


15. Spatial Localization Through Binocular Vision

I. Stereopsis

II. Aspects of Stereoscopic Vision Revealed in Studies of Stereoscopic Acuity


16. The Problem of the Horopter

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Determination

III. Analytical Method of Describing Horopter Curves

IV. Evaluation of Methods

V. Apparent Fronto-Parallel Plane and Viewing Distance


17. Special Topics in Binocular Spatial Localization

I. Apparent Distortion in Stereoscopic Perception of Space

II. The Induced Effect

III. Color Stereoscopy

IV. Validity of Stereoscopic Depth

V. Stereoscopy in the Monocular Fields of Peripheral Vision

VI. Panum's Limiting Case

VII. The Hoefer Effect

VIII. Binocular Secondary Spatial Cues

IX. Concomitant Koles of Secondary Depth Cues and Stereoscopic Depth Perception

X. Nature of Stereopsis

XI. A Metric for Binocular Visual Space

XII. Instrumentation


18. Ocular Dominance and Binocular Retinal Rivalry

I. Ocular Dominance

II. Binocular Retinal Rivalry


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1962
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Hugh Davson