Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense

Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Editor: Hugh Davson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483259888

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The Eye, Volume 4: Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense provides a well-integrated and authoritative account of the physiology of the eye. The book is organized into two parts. Part I on visual optics begins with a discussion of the branches of optics and the basic principles of geometrical optics. This is followed by separate chapters on refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; the thin spherical lens in air; reflexion at plane and spherical surfaces; the astigmatic lens; aberrations of optical images; ametropia and its correction; and retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Part II on the optical space sense includes discusses of objective and subjective space; spatial localization according to direction; perception of distance and of size; spatial localization through binocular vision; special topics in binocular spatial localization; and ocular dominance and binocular retinal rivalry. Whilst the emphasis has been on readability rather than exhaustiveness, the various accounts are sufficiently well documented to make the treatise valuable not only to teachers in physiology, psychology and ophthalmology, but also to research workers in all branches of ocular physiology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Contents of Volume 1

    Contents of Volume 2

    Contents of Volume 3

    Part I: Visual Optics

    1. Introduction

    I. Branches of Optics

    II. Basic Principles of Geometrical Optics


    2. Refraction at Plane and Spherical Surfaces

    I. Eefraction at a Single Surface

    II. Eefraction by a Parallel Plate

    III. Eefraction by a Prism

    IV. Ophthalmic Prism

    V. Refraction at a Spherical Surface

    3. The Thin Spherical Lens in Air

    I. Definitions

    II. Lens Forms

    III. Surface Powers: Thin Lens Power

    IV. Conjugate Foci Relationships

    V. Principal Foci and Focal Lengths

    VI. Graphical Construction of Images

    VII. Newton's Relation

    VIII. Magnification Formula

    IX. Thin Lenses in Contact

    X. Vision Through a Lens

    XI. Prismatic Effect of Spherical Lenses

    XII. Effective Power of a Lens

    4. Reflexion at Plane and Spherical Surfaces

    I. Reflexion at a Plane Surface

    II. Reflexion at a Spherical Surface

    5. Optical Systems in General

    I. The Gaussian Theory

    II. Equivalent Power

    III. Principal Points and Planes

    IV. Graphical Construction of Images

    V. Conjugate Foci Relationships

    VI. Vertex Powers and Focal Lengths

    VII. Unequifocal Systems: the Nodal Points

    VIII. Calculation of Equivalent Power

    IX. The Thick Lens

    X. Combinations of Lenses or Systems

    XI. Afocal Systems

    XII. Lens-Mirror Systems


    6. The Astigmatic Lens

    I. Introduction: The Cylindrical Surface

    II. Piano- and Sphero-Cylinders

    III. Ophthalmic Prescriptions

    IV. Principal Meridians and Principal Powers

    V. Transposition

    VI. Image Formation: The Astigmatic Pencil

    VII. The Toroidal Surface: Toric Lenses

    VIII. Prismatic Effects of Astigmatic Lenses

    IX. Astigmatic Lenses in Contact: Obliquely Crossed Cylinders


    7. Aberrations of Optical Images

    I. Aberrations in General

    II. Spherical Aberration

    III. Coma

    IV. Oblique Astigmatism

    V. Curvature of the Image

    VI. Distortion

    VII. Chromatic Aberration


    8. The Eye as an Optical System

    I. The Schematic Eye

    II. The Purkinje Images

    III. Dimensions of the Living Eye

    IV. Aberrations of the Eye


    9. Ametropia and Its Correction

    I. Spherical Ametropia

    II. Ametropia in General

    III. Aphakia

    IV. Astigmatism

    V. Accommodation

    VI. Detection and Measurement of Ametropia and Astigmatism

    VII. Methods of Correcting Ametropia

    VIII. The Magnification Properties of Correcting Lenses


    10. Retinoscopy and Ophthalmoscopy

    I. Retinoscopy

    II. Ophthalmoscopy


    Part II: The Optical Space Sense

    11. Introduction to the Optical Space Sense

    I. Sensation and Perception

    II. Stimulus

    III. Three-Dimensional Perception


    12. Objective and Subjective Space

    I. Actual and Perceived


    13. Spatial Localization According to Direction

    I. Basic Concepts

    II. The Blind Spot

    III. Identical Visual Directions and Corresponding Retinal Points

    IV. Discrepancies between Visual and Objective Direction

    V. The Form Sense

    VI. Comparative Discrimination of Lengths

    VII. Visual Discrimination of the Vertical

    VIII. Perception of Motion


    14. Perception of Distance and of Size

    I. The Monocular Image—Perspective

    II. Spatial Localization from the Monocular Image

    III. Secondary Cues to Spatial Localization

    IV. Ambiguous Depth Perception from Drawn Figures


    15. Spatial Localization Through Binocular Vision

    I. Stereopsis

    II. Aspects of Stereoscopic Vision Revealed in Studies of Stereoscopic Acuity


    16. The Problem of the Horopter

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Determination

    III. Analytical Method of Describing Horopter Curves

    IV. Evaluation of Methods

    V. Apparent Fronto-Parallel Plane and Viewing Distance


    17. Special Topics in Binocular Spatial Localization

    I. Apparent Distortion in Stereoscopic Perception of Space

    II. The Induced Effect

    III. Color Stereoscopy

    IV. Validity of Stereoscopic Depth

    V. Stereoscopy in the Monocular Fields of Peripheral Vision

    VI. Panum's Limiting Case

    VII. The Hoefer Effect

    VIII. Binocular Secondary Spatial Cues

    IX. Concomitant Koles of Secondary Depth Cues and Stereoscopic Depth Perception

    X. Nature of Stereopsis

    XI. A Metric for Binocular Visual Space

    XII. Instrumentation


    18. Ocular Dominance and Binocular Retinal Rivalry

    I. Ocular Dominance

    II. Binocular Retinal Rivalry


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 450
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483259888

About the Editor

Hugh Davson

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