Viruses in Food and Water - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857094308, 9780857098870

Viruses in Food and Water

1st Edition

Risks, Surveillance and Control

Editors: N Cook
eBook ISBN: 9780857098870
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094308
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 10th May 2013
Page Count: 560
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Part I: An introduction to food and environmental virology

Chapter 1: An introduction to food- and waterborne viral disease

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction to enteric viruses

1.2 Food and water as vehicles of virus transmission

1.3 Outbreaks of food- and waterborne viral illness

1.4 Virus detection

1.5 Control of virus contamination of food and water

Chapter 2: Prevalence of viruses in food and the environment

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The prevalence of virus contamination in food and water

2.3 Gaps in current knowledge

2.4 Conclusion and future trends

2.5 Acknowledgements

Part II: Detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water

Chapter 3: Molecular detection of viruses in foods and food-processing environments

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Molecular detection of viruses in foods: the process

3.3 Current issues in molecular detection of viruses in foods

3.4 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Sampling strategies for virus detection in foods, food-processing environments, water and air

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Virus monitoring at different levels of the food supply chain

4.3 The significance of water, air and surface sampling during food chain monitoring

4.4 Sampling strategy in relation to food- and waterborne outbreaks

4.5 Conclusion

4.6 Sources of further information and advice

4.8 Appendix: sampling from food and air

Chapter 5: Molecular detection of viruses in water and sewage

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sample treatment: adsorption-elution methods

5.3 Sample treatment: ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation

5.4 Key assays for virus detection

5.5 Advantages and disadvantages of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and related methods

5.6 Current applications and results

Chapter 6: Quality control in the analytical laboratory: analysing food- and waterborne viruses

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Controls for the sample treatment step

6.3 Controls for the nucleic acid extraction step

6.4 Controls for the amplification step

6.5 Additional recommended controls

6.6 Reference materials

6.7 Conclusion

Chapter 7: Tracing the sources of outbreaks of food- and waterborne viral disease and outbreak investigation using molecular methods

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Challenges in food- and waterborne outbreak tracing and investigation

7.3 Microbial source tracking

7.4 Molecular-based source tracking

7.5 Molecular tracing in outbreaks

7.6 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Quantitative risk assessment for food- and waterborne viruses

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) and their outcomes

8.3 Data gaps and needs

8.4 Future trends

8.5 Conclusion

Part III: Virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination

Chapter 9: Natural persistence of food- and waterborne viruses

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Methods for studying persistence

9.3 General factors affecting the natural persistence of viruses

9.4 Persistence in aquatic environments

9.5 Persistence in soils

9.6 Persistence on food-related surfaces

9.7 Persistence in food

9.8 Acknowledgement

Chapter 10: Occurrence and transmission of food- and waterborne viruses by fomites

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction: the role of fomites in virus transmission

10.2 Occurrence and survival of viruses on fomites

10.3 Virus transfer and modeling transmission

10.4 Disinfection and other interventions to prevent fomite transmission

10.5 Future trends

Chapter 11: Viral contamination by food handlers and recommended procedural controls

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Role of food handlers in virus transmission

11.3 Current knowledge and hygiene practices among food handlers

11.4 Guidance documents on food hygiene

11.5 Guidelines on the application of general principles of food hygiene to the control of viruses in food

11.6 Designing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) with the viruses NoV and HAV in mind

11.7 Conclusion and future trends

11.8 Acknowledgement

Chapter 12: Foodborne virus inactivation by thermal and non-thermal processes

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Thermal processes

12.3 Non-thermal processes

12.4 Appropriateness of surrogates

12.5 Future trends

12.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 13: Preventing and controlling viral contamination of fresh produce

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction: why food contamination occurs

13.2 Contamination of produce

13.3 Attachment, adsorption and internalization

13.4 Prevention

13.5 Recommendations

13.6 Additional intervention strategies

13.7 Future trends

13.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: Preventing and controlling viral contamination of shellfish

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Human enteric viruses in the environment

14.3 Enteric viruses in sewage and shellfish

14.4 Survival of enteric viruses in the environment

14.5 Mitigation strategies and depuration

14.6 Current regulations

14.7 Conclusion

Chapter 15: Viral presence in waste water and sewage and control methods

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction: virus occurrence in wastewater

15.2 Natural treatment systems

15.3 Disinfection of wastewaters

15.4 Future trends

Part IV: Particular pathogens and future directions

Chapter 16: Advances in understanding of norovirus as a food- and waterborne pathogen and progress with vaccine development

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Norovirus virology and clinical manifestations

16.3 Susceptibility, immunity and diagnosis

16.4 Epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with food, water and the environment

16.5 Prevention and control

16.6 Conclusion

Chapter 17: Advances in understanding of hepatitis A virus as a food- and waterborne pathogen and progress with vaccine development

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction: hepatitis A infection

17.2 Susceptibility in different sectors of the population

17.3 Highly effective vaccines for hepatitis A prevention

17.4 Risk assessment and risk management in water and food

17.5 Unique properties of hepatitis A virus

17.6 Quasispecies dynamics of evolution and virus fitness

17.7 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Advances in understanding of rotaviruses as food- and waterborne pathogens and progress with vaccine development

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Background

18.3 Clinical manifestation

18.4 Rotavirus detection in different samples

18.5 Epidemic outbreaks

18.6 Zoonotic transmission

18.7 Future trends

Chapter 19: Advances in understanding of hepatitis E virus as a food- and waterborne pathogen

Abstract:

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Viral proteins

19.3 Hepatitis E virus replication, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms

19.4 Susceptibility and effects in different sectors of the population

19.5 Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus

19.6 Hepatitis E virus stability and inactivation

19.7 Diagnostic procedures

19.8 Hepatitis E virus prevention and control

Chapter 20: Epidemiology, control, and prevention of emerging zoonotic viruses

Abstract:

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Emerging viruses: geographical factors

20.3 Clinical manifestations of some emerging types

20.4 Possible control measures

20.5 Conclusion

Chapter 21: Impact of climate change and weather variability on viral pathogens in food and water

Abstract:

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Viruses of concern

21.3 Impact of short-term climate changes

21.4 Impact of long-term climate changes

21.5 Conclusion

Chapter 22: Virus indicators for food and water

Abstract:

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Usage and definition of viral indicators

22.3 Viruses proposed as indicators

22.4 Viruses as microbial source-tracking (MST) tools

22.5 Future trends

Index


Description

Viruses can be highly infectious and are capable of causing widespread disease outbreaks. The significance of viral pathogens in food and waterborne illness is increasingly being recognised and viruses transferred by these routes are important areas of research. Viruses in food and water reviews the risks, surveillance and control of food and waterborne viral disease.

Part one provides an introduction to food and environmental virology. Part two goes on to explore methods of detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water; it includes chapters on molecular detection of viruses in foods and food processing environments, quality control in the analytical laboratory, and quantitative risk assessment for food and waterborne viruses. Part three focuses on virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination. It contains chapters on fresh produce, shellfish and viral presence, and control methods in waste water and sewage. Finally, part four highlights particular pathogens including norovirus, hepatitis A and emerging zoonotic viruses.

Viruses in food and water is a standard reference book for microbiologists in academia, analytical labs and the food and water treatment industries, as well as environmental health professionals and researchers working on foodborne viruses.

Key Features

  • Explores methods of detection, surveilance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water
  • Considers virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination
  • Highlights advances in the understanding of specific pathogens, including norovirus, hepatitis A and rotaviruses and the advances in vaccine development

Readership

Food and water virologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, professionals in the fields of public health, food production and control and environmental hygiene; Public health and food microbiology laboratories; Graduate students in applied biological science, agricultural science, food science and microbiology; Regulatory agencies involved in the microbiological control of food and water


Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857098870
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857094308

About the Editors

N Cook Editor

Nigel Cook is a senior microbiologist at The Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA) in the UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

FERA, UK