Viruses in Food and Water

Viruses in Food and Water

Risks, Surveillance and Control

1st Edition - May 10, 2013

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  • Editor: N Cook
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098870

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Description

Viruses can be highly infectious and are capable of causing widespread disease outbreaks. The significance of viral pathogens in food and waterborne illness is increasingly being recognised and viruses transferred by these routes are important areas of research. Viruses in food and water reviews the risks, surveillance and control of food and waterborne viral disease.Part one provides an introduction to food and environmental virology. Part two goes on to explore methods of detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water; it includes chapters on molecular detection of viruses in foods and food processing environments, quality control in the analytical laboratory, and quantitative risk assessment for food and waterborne viruses. Part three focuses on virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination. It contains chapters on fresh produce, shellfish and viral presence, and control methods in waste water and sewage. Finally, part four highlights particular pathogens including norovirus, hepatitis A and emerging zoonotic viruses.Viruses in food and water is a standard reference book for microbiologists in academia, analytical labs and the food and water treatment industries, as well as environmental health professionals and researchers working on foodborne viruses.

Key Features

  • Explores methods of detection, surveilance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water
  • Considers virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination
  • Highlights advances in the understanding of specific pathogens, including norovirus, hepatitis A and rotaviruses and the advances in vaccine development

Readership

Food and water virologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, professionals in the fields of public health, food production and control and environmental hygiene; Public health and food microbiology laboratories; Graduate students in applied biological science, agricultural science, food science and microbiology; Regulatory agencies involved in the microbiological control of food and water

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

    Part I: An introduction to food and environmental virology

    Chapter 1: An introduction to food- and waterborne viral disease

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction to enteric viruses

    1.2 Food and water as vehicles of virus transmission

    1.3 Outbreaks of food- and waterborne viral illness

    1.4 Virus detection

    1.5 Control of virus contamination of food and water

    Chapter 2: Prevalence of viruses in food and the environment

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The prevalence of virus contamination in food and water

    2.3 Gaps in current knowledge

    2.4 Conclusion and future trends

    2.5 Acknowledgements

    Part II: Detection, surveillance and risk assessment of viruses in food and water

    Chapter 3: Molecular detection of viruses in foods and food-processing environments

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Molecular detection of viruses in foods: the process

    3.3 Current issues in molecular detection of viruses in foods

    3.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 4: Sampling strategies for virus detection in foods, food-processing environments, water and air

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Virus monitoring at different levels of the food supply chain

    4.3 The significance of water, air and surface sampling during food chain monitoring

    4.4 Sampling strategy in relation to food- and waterborne outbreaks

    4.5 Conclusion

    4.6 Sources of further information and advice

    4.8 Appendix: sampling from food and air

    Chapter 5: Molecular detection of viruses in water and sewage

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Sample treatment: adsorption-elution methods

    5.3 Sample treatment: ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation

    5.4 Key assays for virus detection

    5.5 Advantages and disadvantages of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and related methods

    5.6 Current applications and results

    Chapter 6: Quality control in the analytical laboratory: analysing food- and waterborne viruses

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Controls for the sample treatment step

    6.3 Controls for the nucleic acid extraction step

    6.4 Controls for the amplification step

    6.5 Additional recommended controls

    6.6 Reference materials

    6.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 7: Tracing the sources of outbreaks of food- and waterborne viral disease and outbreak investigation using molecular methods

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Challenges in food- and waterborne outbreak tracing and investigation

    7.3 Microbial source tracking

    7.4 Molecular-based source tracking

    7.5 Molecular tracing in outbreaks

    7.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 8: Quantitative risk assessment for food- and waterborne viruses

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) and their outcomes

    8.3 Data gaps and needs

    8.4 Future trends

    8.5 Conclusion

    Part III: Virus transmission routes and control of food and water contamination

    Chapter 9: Natural persistence of food- and waterborne viruses

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Methods for studying persistence

    9.3 General factors affecting the natural persistence of viruses

    9.4 Persistence in aquatic environments

    9.5 Persistence in soils

    9.6 Persistence on food-related surfaces

    9.7 Persistence in food

    9.8 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 10: Occurrence and transmission of food- and waterborne viruses by fomites

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction: the role of fomites in virus transmission

    10.2 Occurrence and survival of viruses on fomites

    10.3 Virus transfer and modeling transmission

    10.4 Disinfection and other interventions to prevent fomite transmission

    10.5 Future trends

    Chapter 11: Viral contamination by food handlers and recommended procedural controls

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Role of food handlers in virus transmission

    11.3 Current knowledge and hygiene practices among food handlers

    11.4 Guidance documents on food hygiene

    11.5 Guidelines on the application of general principles of food hygiene to the control of viruses in food

    11.6 Designing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) with the viruses NoV and HAV in mind

    11.7 Conclusion and future trends

    11.8 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 12: Foodborne virus inactivation by thermal and non-thermal processes

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Thermal processes

    12.3 Non-thermal processes

    12.4 Appropriateness of surrogates

    12.5 Future trends

    12.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 13: Preventing and controlling viral contamination of fresh produce

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction: why food contamination occurs

    13.2 Contamination of produce

    13.3 Attachment, adsorption and internalization

    13.4 Prevention

    13.5 Recommendations

    13.6 Additional intervention strategies

    13.7 Future trends

    13.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 14: Preventing and controlling viral contamination of shellfish

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Human enteric viruses in the environment

    14.3 Enteric viruses in sewage and shellfish

    14.4 Survival of enteric viruses in the environment

    14.5 Mitigation strategies and depuration

    14.6 Current regulations

    14.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 15: Viral presence in waste water and sewage and control methods

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction: virus occurrence in wastewater

    15.2 Natural treatment systems

    15.3 Disinfection of wastewaters

    15.4 Future trends

    Part IV: Particular pathogens and future directions

    Chapter 16: Advances in understanding of norovirus as a food- and waterborne pathogen and progress with vaccine development

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Norovirus virology and clinical manifestations

    16.3 Susceptibility, immunity and diagnosis

    16.4 Epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with food, water and the environment

    16.5 Prevention and control

    16.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 17: Advances in understanding of hepatitis A virus as a food- and waterborne pathogen and progress with vaccine development

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction: hepatitis A infection

    17.2 Susceptibility in different sectors of the population

    17.3 Highly effective vaccines for hepatitis A prevention

    17.4 Risk assessment and risk management in water and food

    17.5 Unique properties of hepatitis A virus

    17.6 Quasispecies dynamics of evolution and virus fitness

    17.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 18: Advances in understanding of rotaviruses as food- and waterborne pathogens and progress with vaccine development

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Background

    18.3 Clinical manifestation

    18.4 Rotavirus detection in different samples

    18.5 Epidemic outbreaks

    18.6 Zoonotic transmission

    18.7 Future trends

    Chapter 19: Advances in understanding of hepatitis E virus as a food- and waterborne pathogen

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Viral proteins

    19.3 Hepatitis E virus replication, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms

    19.4 Susceptibility and effects in different sectors of the population

    19.5 Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus

    19.6 Hepatitis E virus stability and inactivation

    19.7 Diagnostic procedures

    19.8 Hepatitis E virus prevention and control

    Chapter 20: Epidemiology, control, and prevention of emerging zoonotic viruses

    Abstract:

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Emerging viruses: geographical factors

    20.3 Clinical manifestations of some emerging types

    20.4 Possible control measures

    20.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 21: Impact of climate change and weather variability on viral pathogens in food and water

    Abstract:

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Viruses of concern

    21.3 Impact of short-term climate changes

    21.4 Impact of long-term climate changes

    21.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 22: Virus indicators for food and water

    Abstract:

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Usage and definition of viral indicators

    22.3 Viruses proposed as indicators

    22.4 Viruses as microbial source-tracking (MST) tools

    22.5 Future trends

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: May 10, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098870

About the Editor

N Cook

Nigel Cook is a senior microbiologist at The Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA) in the UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

FERA, UK

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