Vascular Responses to Pathogens - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128010785, 9780128013250

Vascular Responses to Pathogens

1st Edition

Editors: Felicity N.E. Gavins Karen Y. Stokes
eBook ISBN: 9780128013250
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128010785
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th October 2015
Page Count: 252
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Description

Vascular Responses to Pathogens focuses on the growing research from leaders in the field for both the short and long-term impact of pathogens on the vasculature. It discusses various organisms, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses, and their role in key events leading to vascular disease.

Formatted to discuss the topic of the interaction of pathogens with the vascular rather than individual diseases described separately, this reference demonstrates that common mechanisms are at play in many different diseases because they have a similar context, their vasculature.

This all-inclusive reference book is a must-have tool for researchers and practicing clinicians in the areas of vascular biology, microvasculature, cardiology, and infectious disease.

Key Features

  • Covers a wide spectrum of organisms and provides analysis of pathogens and current therapeutic strategies in the context of their vasculature
  • Provides detailed perspectives on key components contributing to vascular pathogens from leaders in the field
  • Interfaces between both vascular biology and microbiology by encompassing information on how pathogens affect both macro and microvasculature
  • Includes coverage of the clinical aspects of sepsis and current therapeutic strategies and anti-sepsis drugs

Readership

Cardiovascular researchers, cardiologists, and infectologists in particular in the areas of vascular biology, cardiology, and infectious disease

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Overview
  • Chapter 1: Sepsis
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • The microcirculation in sepsis
    • The endothelium
    • Nitric oxide and sepsis
    • Arterioles
    • Capillaries
    • Venules
    • Permeability
    • Blood cells
    • Platelets in sepsis
    • Thrombosis and coagulation in sepsis
    • Models
    • Genetics and sepsis
    • Treatments for sepsis
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 2: Neutrophil-Mediated Vascular Host Defense
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Bloodstream infections
    • Conventional vascular host defense
    • Neutrophil extracellular trap mediated vascular immunity
    • Immunothrombosis
    • NET-mediated tissue damage
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 3: Platelets as Mediators of the Vascular Response to Infection
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Platelet and hemostasis
    • Platelets and the response to infection
    • Platelet–bacteria interactions
    • Direct binding
    • Indirect binding
    • Shear stress
    • Secreted products
    • Platelet activation
    • Platelets and sepsis
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 4: Mechanisms of Bacterial Interaction with Cells of the Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Bacterial meningitis
    • Blood–brain barrier/blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier
    • Bacterial ligand–receptor interactions
    • Signal-transduction mechanisms
    • Analysis of the host cell transcriptome in response to bacterial infection
    • Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 5: Vascular Responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Direct interaction with vascular cells
    • Systemic responses to infection and the impact on the vasculature
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 6: Bartonella Species and Vascular Pathology
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Bartonellosis: the historical perspective
    • Pathogenesis of Bartonella-induced vasculoproliferative disease
    • Clinical manifestations of bartonellosis and Bartonella-associated vasoproliferative disease
    • Therapeutic strategies
    • Conclusions
    • Future research directions
  • Chapter 7: Periodontal Innate Immune Mechanisms Relevant to Atherosclerosis
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Periodontal disease’s impact on the immune response
    • Homotolerance
    • Role of periodontal disease and its related bacteria in atherosclerosis
    • Immune response: role of NOD in infection-inflammation and atherosclerosis
    • Role of NOD2 in P. gingivalis detection within the endothelial and its association with atherosclerosis
    • Discussion
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 8: Helicobacter pylori
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • The contribution of H. pylori to cardiovascular risk due to overall pathogen burden
    • Epidemiological studies of H. pylori in vascular disease
    • The role of H. pylori virulence factors in vascular disease risk
    • Potential mechanisms
    • Concluding remarks and perspective
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 9: Endothelial Activation and Injury: The Mechanisms of Rickettsial Vasculiti
    • Abstract
    • Rickettsial diseases and host cell tropism in vivo
    • Rickettsial interactions with vascular endothelium: adhesion and invasion
    • Rickettsia infection of cultured human endothelial cells in vitro
    • Endothelial cell activation in response to Rickettsia infection in vitro
    • Endothelial cell activation consequent to Rickettsia infection in vivo
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 10: Herpesviruses
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Epidemiology
    • Viral dissemination
    • Association of herpesviruses with vascular diseases
    • Herpesviruses may alter nitric oxide and cause oxidative stress
    • Herpesviruses induce inflammatory and immune responses
    • Platelets and thrombosis
    • Angiogenesis
    • Herpesviruses may alter other cardiovascular risk factors
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 11: HIV-1 Infection, Antiretroviral Therapies, and HIV-Associated Atherosclerosis
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Epidemiological support for HIV-associated atherosclerosis
    • Mechanisms of vascular damage
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 12: Viral Myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Mechanisms of Cardiac Injury, Inflammation, and Fibrosis
    • Abstract
    • Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy
    • Stages in the viral myocarditis/DCM disease process
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 13: Viruses Responsible for Hemorrhagic Fevers
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Viral factors mediating direct effects on vascular endothelium
    • Indirect mechanisms of endothelial activation and their effects on vascular barrier and plasma leakage
    • Vascular endothelium and hemostasis: thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy during VHD
    • Activation of the coagulation system during VHD
    • Conclusions
    • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 14: Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas Disease: Innate Immunity, ROS, and Cardiovascular System
    • Abstract
    • Life cycle and epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
    • Clinical Chagas disease
    • Pathomechanisms of Chagas disease
    • Summary and future perspectives
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 15: Endothelial Cells as Targets of the Intravascular Parasitic Disease Schistosomiasis
    • Abstract
    • Introduction to schistosomiasis
    • The intravascular parasite life cycle: dangerous liaisons
    • Clinical manifestations and immunological responses in schistosomiasis
    • Lung vascular responses during schistosomiasis
    • Portal and mesenteric vascular system alterations during schistosomiasis
    • Ectopic schistosomiasis
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 16: Vascular Responses in Human Lymphatic Filariasis
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Clinical manifestations
    • Vascular responses in lymphatic filariasis
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgment
    • Conflict of Interest Disclosure
  • Chapter 17: The Treatment of Sepsis: From Failed Therapies to New Possibilities
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • What is sepsis?
    • Problem with the definition
    • Moving from bench-side research to clinical use
    • Forty years of trials (and error)
    • Current therapies in sepsis
    • Conclusions (a primer for future preclinical studies into sepsis)
  • Subject Index
  • Customer survey

Details

No. of pages:
252
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128013250
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128010785

About the Editor

Felicity N.E. Gavins

Felicity N.E. Gavins

Dr Gavins’ research interest focuses on inflammation and the regulation of leukocyte trafficking in the microcirculation. In particular, Dr Gavins and her team use the specialized technique of intravital microscopy to study cellular interactions in the microvasculature (brain, mesentery, cremaster, lymph node) of animals with inflammation. This technique enables a qualitative and quantitative measurement of a variety of different events e.g. measurements of platelet-leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, endothelial surface expression of adhesion molecules in vascular beds, in vivo measurements of oxidant stress, and endothelial barrier function. Dr Gavins also runs the MRes in Experimental Physiology and Drug Discovery (Bio-Imaging) programme and chairs a monthly seminar/ workshop for the Centre of Integrative Mammalian Physiology and Pharmacology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Director of the Small Animal Research Facility, LSU Health, Department of Molecular & Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA, USA

Karen Y. Stokes

Dr. Stokes major area of research is the inflammatory impact of cytomegalovirus on the microvasculature. Her diverse research team is comprised of post-doctoral scientists and students, with an international reputation. Their research crosses the boundaries between Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology and uses multidisciplinary approaches to advance understanding of the vascular physiology and pathophysiology of inflammatory and related disorders, at the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. In particular she and her team focus on the microcirculation, studying leukocyte trafficking and endothelial dysfunction in both the brain and the periphery.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA, USA