Variable plants and herbivores in natural and managed systems

Variable plants and herbivores in natural and managed systems

1st Edition - June 28, 1983

Write a review

  • Editor: Robert Denno
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142878

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems examines individual, population, species, and community responses of herbivores to plant variation, with emphasis on insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. It is divided into five parts encompassing 18 chapters that discuss variability as a mechanism of defense used by plants against their parasites and the effects of variability on herbivores at several different levels of complexity. After a brief discussion on plant-herbivore interactions, the first part of this book considers sources of within-plant variation and effects on the distribution and abundance of herbivores. Part II examines interplant variation, the co-evolutionary problems it poses for herbivores, and the ecological and evolutionary responses of these animals. It discusses the effects of host-plant variability on the fitness of sedentary herbivorous insects. Part III discusses the role of host variability in the evolution of feeding specialization, genetic differentiation, and race formation. The importance of host variation to the organization of herbivore communities and the manipulation of host-plant variability for the management of herbivore pest populations are presented in the remaining parts. This book will be helpful to agriculturists, silviculturists, biologists, and researchers who wish to expand their knowledge in dynamics of plant-herbivore relationships.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Introduction. Variability: A Key to Understanding Plant-Herbivore Interactions

    Text

    References

    Part I. Sources of Intraplant Variation and Consequences for Herbivores

    1. Host Manipulation of Parasites: Within-Plant Variation as a Defense against Rapidly Evolving Pests

    I. Introduction

    II. Variation as a Plant Defense

    III. Host Selection by Pemphigus Gall Aphids

    IV. Between-Plant Variation in Resistance

    V Within-Plant Variation in Resistance

    VI. Impact of Within-Plant Variation on Parasites

    VII. Discussion

    VIII. Summary

    References

    2. Insect-Induced Chemical Signals Regulating Natural Plant Protection Responses

    I. Introduction

    II. Proteinase Inhibitors and Natural Plant Protection

    III. Summary

    References

    3. Habitat Selection and Foraging Tactics of Caterpillars in Heterogeneous Trees

    I. Introduction

    II. Patterns of Feeding-Site Variation in Tree Canopies

    III. The Impact of Variability on Defoliating Insects

    IV Conclusions

    References

    4. Leaf Age as a Predictor of Herbivore Distribution and Abundance

    I. Introduction

    II. Temporal Variation in Leaf Quality

    III. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Herbivory

    IV A Case Study of Within-Plant Variation and Its Effects on Herbivore Distribution

    V Concluding Remarks

    References

    5. Competition between Herbivores and Increased Resource Heterogeneity

    I. Introduction

    II. Introduced Species: A Unique Encounter between Plant and Herbivore

    III. Nutritional Requirements of Herbivorous Insects

    IV Foliar Nitrogen: A Basis for Fitness in Elongate Hemlock Scale

    V Quality and Availability of Food for Exotic Hemlock Scales

    VI. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    6. Herbivore Population Dynamics and Plant Chemistry

    I. Introduction

    II. Effects of Stressful Environments on the Proximate Nutritional Quality of Plants

    III. Theory of Plant Defense

    IV Effect of Physical Stress on Plant Defenses

    V. Defensive Responses of Plants to Herbivore Attack

    VI. Offensive Adaptations of Herbivores for Discrimination between Suitable and Unsuitable Food and for Synchronizing Reproduction with the Availability of Suitable Food

    VII. Offensive Adaptations of Herbivores that Stress, Increase the Nutritional Quality of, or Circumvent Induced Defensive Responses of Plants

    VIII. Direct and Indirect Effects of Food-Plant Nutritional Quality and Defensive Posture on Fitness of Herbivores

    IX. Changes in Herbivore Properties during Population Fluctuations

    X. Possible Pheromonal Interactions among Plants and Herbivores

    XI. Theory of Herbivore Outbreaks

    XII. Conclusion

    XIII. Summary

    References

    Part II. Sources of Interplant Variation and Consequences for Herbivores

    7. Ecology of Host-Selection Behavior in Phytophagous Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. Habitat Selection

    III. Discrimination between Host Species

    IV. Conspecific Host Discrimination

    V Conclusions

    References

    8. Influence of Vegetation Texture on Herbivore Populations: Resource Concentration and Herbivore Movement

    I. Introduction

    II. Testing the Resource-Concentration Hypothesis

    III. Mechanisms that Underlie the Responses of Herbivores to Vegetation Texture

    IV Questions of Scale and Some Issues in Experimental Design

    V A Plea for a Theory of Herbivore Search

    VI. Final Remarks

    References

    9. Tracking Variable Host Plants in Space and Time

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural History, Distribution, and Abundance of Prokelisia marginota

    III. Wing Dimorphism in Prokelisia marginata, Mechanisms of Its Determination, and Correlates with Reproduction

    IV Potential Competitors, Predators, and Parasites of Prokelisia marginata

    V Distribution, Structure, and Growth Dynamics of Spartina alterniflora

    VI. Food Items, Patches, and Habitats as Levels of Resource Organization

    VII. Microhabitat Distribution of Planthoppers on Grass Rosettes and the Definition of Favorable Food Items

    VIII. Within-Habitat Variation in the Favorableness of Spartina alterniflora: Differences in Patch Selection between Wing Forms

    IX. Between-Habitat Variation in the Favorableness of Spartina alterniflora: Differences in Habitat Selection between Wing Forms

    X. Geographic Differences in the Wing-Form Composition of Prokelisia marginata Populations

    XI. Conclusions and General Considerations

    References

    10. Effects of Host-Plant Variability on the Fitness of Sedentary Herbivorous Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. Measuring the Effect of Adaptations on Fitness

    III. Examples

    IV Discussion

    References

    Part III. Host Plants and Genetic Variation in Herbivore Populations

    11. Evolution of Feeding Specialization, Physiological Efficiency, and Host Races in Selected Papilionidae and Saturniidae

    I. Introduction: The Feeding-Specialization Hypothesis

    II. Conclusion

    References

    12. Adaptation, Host Specificity, and Gene Flow in the Black Pineleaf Scale

    I. Introduction

    II. Density Dependence

    III. How Does Colonizing Ability Vary with Density?

    IV Survivorship Patterns Affect the Scale Sex Ratio

    V A Genetic Model of Adaptation and Specificity

    VI. Discussion: Some Implications of Genetic Variation

    References

    13. An Evolutionary-Genetic View of Host-Plant Utilization by Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. Maintenance of Genetic Variation by Environmental Heterogeneity: Theory

    III. Evidence

    IV. Summary and Concluding Remarks

    References

    Part IV Host Variability and the Structure of Plant-Herbivore Communities

    14. Individual, Population, and Geographic Patterns in Plant Defense

    I. Introduction

    II. Effects of Defoliation on Plant Fitness

    III. Value of Leaf Tissue to the Plant

    IV. Seasonal Change in Allocation to Growth, Defense, and Reproduction

    V Patterns of Allocation in Plant Morphs, Cultivars, and Species

    VI. Differences in Leaf Defense between Plant Populations

    VII. Latitudinal, Altitudinal, and Island-Mainland Patterns in Plant Defense

    VIII. Summary and Conclusion

    References

    15. Phytochemical Variation, Colonization, and Insect Communities: The Case of Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Variation: Sources, Scales, and Impacts

    III. Bracken Defense and the Insect Community: An Overview

    IV Summary and Conclusion

    References

    16. Hypotheses on Organization and Evolution in Herbivorous Insect Communities

    I. Introduction

    II. The Evolution of Specialists

    III. Hypotheses on Community Organization

    IV Communities at Equilibrium or Nonequilibrium?

    V The Role of Competition

    VI. Vacant Niches in Ecological and Evolutionary Time

    VII. Compound Communities

    References

    Part V Host Variability and Herbivore Pest Management

    17. Genetics of Plant-Herbivore Systems: Interactions between Applied and Basic Study

    I. Introduction

    II. Current Procedures and Concepts in the Development and Deployment of Resistant Varieties

    III. Theoretical Considerations

    IV Available Data on the Genetics of Plant-Herbivore Interactions

    V The Need for Future Interaction between Resistance Breeders and Evolutionary Biologists

    References

    18. Manipulation of Host Suitability for Herbivore Pest Management

    I. Introduction

    II. Manipulation of the Suitability of Individual Host Plants

    III. Manipulation of the Spatial Variation in Host Suitability

    IV Effects of Host-Plant Variation on the Parasitoids of Phytophagous Insects

    V Conclusions and Directions for Further Research

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 734
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: June 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142878

About the Editor

Robert Denno

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Variable plants and herbivores in natural and managed systems"