For many decades, the lead-acid battery has been the most widely used energy-storage device for medium- and large-scale applications (approximately 100Wh and above). In recent years, the traditional, flooded design of the battery has begun to be replaced by an alternative design. This version - the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery - requires no replenishment of the water content of the electrolyte solution, does not spill liquids, and can be used in any desired orientation. Since the VRLA battery operates in a somewhat different manner from its flooded counterpart, considerable technological development has been necessary to meet the exacting performance requirements of the full range of applications in which rechargeable batteries are used. The valve-regulated design is now well established in the industrial battery sector, and also appears set to be adopted widely for automotive duty. This book provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. In the future, all industrial processes - including the manufacture of batteries - will be required to conform to the conventions of sustainability. Accordingly, the crucial areas of the environmental impact associated with the production and use of VRLA batteries and the recycling of spent units are also treated thoroughly. Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries gives an essential insight into the science that underlies the development and operation of VRLA batteries and is a comprehensive reference source for those involved in the practical use of the technology in key energy-storage applications.

Key Features

- Covers all major advances in the field. - Provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. - First book dedicated to this technology.


Battery companies, lead-acid battery users in industry (incl. automotive sector), designers and operators of remote-area power supply systems. University libraries. Researchers based in the following departments: Chemistry, Materials Science, Electrical Engineering.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Valve-regulated Battery ¾ A Paradigm Shift in Lead-acid Technology Chapter 2 Lead Alloys for Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries Chapter 3 Formation of Lead-acid Batteries and Structure of Positive and Negative Active Masses Chapter 4 Positive-plate Additives to Enhance Formation and Battery Performance Chapter 5 Negative Plates in Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries Chapter 6 The Function of the Separator in the Valve-regulated Lead-acid Battery Chapter 7 Separator Materials for Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries Chapter 8 Battery Management Chapter 9 Charging Techniques for VRLA Batteries Chapter 10 Battery Energy-storage Systems for Power-Supply Networks Chapter 11 Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries in Automotive Applications ¾ A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective Chapter 12 Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries in Automotive Applications ¾ A Battery Manufacturer's Perspective Chapter 13 Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries for Telecommunications and UPS Applications Chapter 14 Remote-area Power-supply (RAPS) Systems and the Valve-regulated Lead-acid Battery Chapter 15 Recovery and Recycling of Lead-acid Batteries Chapter 16 Environmental Aspects of Recycling Valve-regulated Lead-acid Batteries Chapter 17 The Next Great Challenge for Valve-regulated lead-acid Batteries: High-rate Partial-state-of-charge Operation in New-generation Road Vehicles


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© 2004
Elsevier Science
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Electronic ISBN:

About the authors

Patrick T. Moseley

Patrick Moseley PhD DSc graduated from the University of Durham, England. He worked for 23 years at the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, where he brought a background of crystal structure and materials chemistry to the study of lead–acid and other types of battery, thus supplementing the traditional electrochemical emphasis of the subject, and to the study of sensor materials. From1995, Pat was Manager of Electrochemistry at the International Lead Zinc Research Organization in North Carolina, USA, and Program Manager of the Advanced Lead–Acid Battery Consortium. In 2005 he became President of the Consortium. He is also a director of Atmospheric Sensors Ltd. Pat has been an Editor of the Journal of Power Sources since 1989 and, together with David Rand, was a Co-editor of the Encyclopaedia of Electrochemical Power Sources published by Elsevier in 2009. In 2008, he was awarded the Gaston Planté Medal by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Affiliations and Expertise

International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA

Jürgen Garche

Dr. Garche has more than 40 years experience in battery research & development. This was done in academic area (material development) but also in cell and system development of conventional (LAB, NiCd, NiMH) and advanced (Li-Ion, NaS, Redox-Flow) batteries. He worked also with fuel cells (mainly low temperature fuel cells) and supercaps. He established the battery & FC division of the ZSW in Ulm, an industrial related R&D institute. This institute has a very large battery testing center mainly related to safety battery tests for the German and international car and battery manufacturers. He is adviser for battery safety for the German Ministry for Transportation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fuel Cell and Battery Consulting, Ulm, Germany

C.D. Parker

Affiliations and Expertise

North Carolina, USA


@qu: "an excellent overview of batteries in all their applications. A wide variety of topics are covered in the 17 chapters...we can definitely recommend this book, even though the price of $160 appears to be very high. No developer can afford to miss out on this book as a reference."
@source: ZVEI (Central Association of the Electrical Engineering and Electronics Industry)