Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils

2nd Edition

Authors: Charles Bishop
Print ISBN: 9781437778670
eBook ISBN: 9781437778687
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 8th July 2011
Page Count: 544
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Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass.

This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metallized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scaleable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology:

  • solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile
  • in a similar way, electronic circuit ‘boards’ can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of ‘flexible electronics’ products
  • flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging.

Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a trainer and consultant to the vacuum coatings industry, for a non-mathematical guide to the technologies, equipment, processes and applications of vacuum deposition. His book is aimed at a wide audience of engineers, technicians and production management. It also provides a guide to the subject for sectors where vacuum deposition is a novel technology, such as solar energy and flexible electronics.

Table of Contents


1. What Is a Vacuum?

1.1. What Is a Vacuum?

1.2. What Is a Gas?

1.3. Pressure

1.4. Partial Pressure

1.5. Vapor Pressure

1.6. Saturated Vapor Pressure

1.7. Why Do We Need a Vacuum?

1.8. Mean Free Path

2. Products Using Vacuum Deposited Coatings

2.1. Metallized Packaging Film

2.2. Capacitor Films

2.3. Optical Data Storage Tapes

2.4. Holographic Coatings

2.5. Flake Pigments

2.6. Barrier Coatings

2.7. Transparent Conducting Oxides

2.8. Energy Conservation Windows

2.9. Solar Cells

2.10. Solar Absorbers

2.11. Flexible Circuits

2.12. Optical Variable Devices

2.13. Magnetic Electronic Article Surveillance Tags

2.14. Pyrotechnics

2.15. Thin Film Batteries

3. Pressure Measurement

3.1. Bourdon Gauge

3.2. Pirani and Thermocouple Gauges

3.3. Capacitance Manometer

3.4. Penning or Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge

3.5. Ion or Hot Cathode Ionization Gauge

4. Pumping

4.1. Rotary or Roughing Pumps

4.2. Roots Pumps or Blowers

4.3. Diffusion Pumps

4.4. Turbomolecular Pumps

4.5. Getter or Sputter Ion Pump

4.6. Cryopumps

4.7. Cryopanels

4.8. Pumping Strategy

4.9. System Pumping

4.10. Filtering

4.11. Conclusions

5. Process Diagnostics and Coating Characteristics

5.1. Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T), and Absorptance (A) Measurements

5.2. Optical Density

5.3. Conductivity/Resistivity

5.4. Online Resistance Monitoring

5.5. Transparent Conducting Coatings

5.6. Residual Gas Analyzers

5.7. Plasma Emission Monitors

5.8. Thickness

5.9. Barrier

5.10. Pinholes

5.11. Artificial Intelligen


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© William Andrew 2011
William Andrew
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About the Author

Charles Bishop

Charles started his working life as an apprentice in mechanical engineering finishing as a toolmaker. He has a degree in Materials Engineering and Masters and Doctorate Degrees by research in vacuum deposition onto polymer webs. He now has accumulated over 35 years experience in vacuum deposition onto webs with the last 15 spent running his own consultancy business. He has published over 85 technical articles and papers, has 5 patents & has run training courses in Asia, Europe and USA. He has written two books ‘A guide to roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings’ and ‘Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films & Foils’, now into the 2nd edition and contributed chapters on transparent conducting coatings and packaging coatings in two other books. Charles is a Blog editor on behalf of AIMCAL and has a regular column in Converting Quarterly.

Affiliations and Expertise

CAB Consulting, Ltd.