Table of Contents


1. What Is a Vacuum?

1.1. What Is a Vacuum?

1.2. What Is a Gas?

1.3. Pressure

1.4. Partial Pressure

1.5. Vapor Pressure

1.6. Saturated Vapor Pressure

1.7. Why Do We Need a Vacuum?

1.8. Mean Free Path

2. Products Using Vacuum Deposited Coatings

2.1. Metallized Packaging Film

2.2. Capacitor Films

2.3. Optical Data Storage Tapes

2.4. Holographic Coatings

2.5. Flake Pigments

2.6. Barrier Coatings

2.7. Transparent Conducting Oxides

2.8. Energy Conservation Windows

2.9. Solar Cells

2.10. Solar Absorbers

2.11. Flexible Circuits

2.12. Optical Variable Devices

2.13. Magnetic Electronic Article Surveillance Tags

2.14. Pyrotechnics

2.15. Thin Film Batteries

3. Pressure Measurement

3.1. Bourdon Gauge

3.2. Pirani and Thermocouple Gauges

3.3. Capacitance Manometer

3.4. Penning or Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge

3.5. Ion or Hot Cathode Ionization Gauge

4. Pumping

4.1. Rotary or Roughing Pumps

4.2. Roots Pumps or Blowers

4.3. Diffusion Pumps

4.4. Turbomolecular Pumps

4.5. Getter or Sputter Ion Pump

4.6. Cryopumps

4.7. Cryopanels

4.8. Pumping Strategy

4.9. System Pumping

4.10. Filtering

4.11. Conclusions

5. Process Diagnostics and Coating Characteristics

5.1. Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T), and Absorptance (A) Measurements

5.2. Optical Density

5.3. Conductivity/Resistivity

5.4. Online Resistance Monitoring

5.5. Transparent Conducting Coatings

5.6. Residual Gas Analyzers

5.7. Plasma Emission Monitors

5.8. Thickness

5.9. Barrier

5.10. Pinholes

5.11. Artificial Intelligen


No. of pages:
© 2011
William Andrew
Electronic ISBN:
Print ISBN:

About the author

Charles Bishop

Charles started his working life as an apprentice in mechanical engineering finishing as a toolmaker. He has a degree in Materials Engineering and Masters and Doctorate Degrees by research in vacuum deposition onto polymer webs. He now has accumulated over 35 years experience in vacuum deposition onto webs with the last 15 spent running his own consultancy business. He has published over 85 technical articles and papers, has 5 patents & has run training courses in Asia, Europe and USA. He has written two books ‘A guide to roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings’ and ‘Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films & Foils’, now into the 2nd edition and contributed chapters on transparent conducting coatings and packaging coatings in two other books. Charles is a Blog editor on behalf of AIMCAL and has a regular column in Converting Quarterly.