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Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781437778670, 9781437778687

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils

2nd Edition

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Author: Charles Bishop
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437778670
eBook ISBN: 9781437778687
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 8th July 2011
Page Count: 544
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Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass.

This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology:

  • solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile
  • in a similar way, electronic circuit ‘boards’ can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of ‘flexible electronics’ products
  • flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging

Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a trainer and consultant to the vacuum coatings industry, for a non-mathematical guide to the technologies, equipment, processes and applications of vacuum deposition. His book is aimed at a wide audience of engineers, technicians and production management. It also provides a guide to the subject for sectors in which vacuum deposition is a novel technology, such as solar energy and flexible electronics.

Key Features

  • Bishop’s non-mathematical explanation of vacuum deposition technologies will empower a wide range of technicians, production managers and engineers in related disciplines to improve performance and maximize productivity from vacuum coating systems
  • Provides the knowledge and understanding needed to specify systems more effectively and enhance the dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers / engineers
  • Provides those in the rapidly expanding fields of solar energy, display panels and flexible electronics with the know-how to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products


Professionals and practitioners in the vacuum coating / vacuum metalizing industry: Engineers and technicians (systems, quality, process, maintenance), production managers, machinery designers and engineers and vendor sales and tech support staff. Engineers and managers in the main industry sectors utilizing vacuum coating: food packaging, electronics, pigment manufacturing, solar energy. Recommended reading for university courses dealing with vacuum deposition: vacuum deposition, surface engineering, vacuum engineering and applications, display technology, thin film processes and characterization

Table of Contents


1. What Is a Vacuum?

1.1. What Is a Vacuum?

1.2. What Is a Gas?

1.3. Pressure

1.4. Partial Pressure

1.5. Vapor Pressure

1.6. Saturated Vapor Pressure

1.7. Why Do We Need a Vacuum?

1.8. Mean Free Path

2. Products Using Vacuum Deposited Coatings

2.1. Metallized Packaging Film

2.2. Capacitor Films

2.3. Optical Data Storage Tapes

2.4. Holographic Coatings

2.5. Flake Pigments

2.6. Barrier Coatings

2.7. Transparent Conducting Oxides

2.8. Energy Conservation Windows

2.9. Solar Cells

2.10. Solar Absorbers

2.11. Flexible Circuits

2.12. Optical Variable Devices

2.13. Magnetic Electronic Article Surveillance Tags

2.14. Pyrotechnics

2.15. Thin Film Batteries

3. Pressure Measurement

3.1. Bourdon Gauge

3.2. Pirani and Thermocouple Gauges

3.3. Capacitance Manometer

3.4. Penning or Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge

3.5. Ion or Hot Cathode Ionization Gauge

4. Pumping

4.1. Rotary or Roughing Pumps

4.2. Roots Pumps or Blowers

4.3. Diffusion Pumps

4.4. Turbomolecular Pumps

4.5. Getter or Sputter Ion Pump

4.6. Cryopumps

4.7. Cryopanels

4.8. Pumping Strategy

4.9. System Pumping

4.10. Filtering

4.11. Conclusions

5. Process Diagnostics and Coating Characteristics

5.1. Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T), and Absorptance (A) Measurements

5.2. Optical Density

5.3. Conductivity/Resistivity

5.4. Online Resistance Monitoring

5.5. Transparent Conducting Coatings

5.6. Residual Gas Analyzers

5.7. Plasma Emission Monitors

5.8. Thickness

5.9. Barrier

5.10. Pinholes

5.11. Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network Control Systems

5.12. Chemometrics

5.13. Surface Energy Measurements

5.14. Emissivity

5.15. Lambda Probe/Sensor/Gauge

5.16. X-ray Fluorescence Sensor

5.17. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

6. Leaks, Water Vapor, and Leak Testing

6.1. Real Leaks

6.2. Imaginary Leaks

6.3. Outgassing and Water Vapor

6.4. Leak Detection

7. Mass Spectrometers, Helium Leak Detectors, and Residual Gas Analyzers

8. Substrates and Surface Quality

8.1. Substrates

8.2. Polymer Surface Quality

8.3. Polymer Substrate Cleaning

8.4. Polymer Surface Etching

8.5. Higher Specification Polymer Substrates

8.6. Metal Web and Surface Quality

8.7. Metal Surface Contamination and Cleaning

8.8. Paper

8.9. Foams, Nonwovens, and Textiles

8.10. Cores

8.11. Packaging

8.12. Cost Benefit

9. Adhesion and Adhesion Tests

9.1. The “Sellotape” Test

9.2. Adhesion Tests

9.3. Adhesion and Surface Analysis

10. Surface Treatment of Webs and Foils

10.1. Atmospheric Treatments

10.2. Cleaning and Sealing

10.3. Cleaning

10.4. System Design Considerations

11. Polymer Coating Basic Information

11.1. Polymer Coating Processes

11.2. Coating Options

11.3. Radiation Cured Polymers—Acrylates


12. Nucleation, Coalescence, and Film Growth

12.1. Thin Film–Thick Film

12.2. Nucleation

12.3. Coalescence

12.4. Network and Percolation Threshold

12.5. Holes

12.6. Film Growth

12.7. Energy

12.8. Electrical and Optical Performance

12.9. Nodule Formation

12.10. Crystal Structure

12.11. Deposition Rules of Thumb

13. Pattern Metallization

13.1. Atmospheric Patterning

13.2. In-Vacuum Patterning

14. The DC Glow Discharge or Plasma

14.1. The Townsend Discharge

14.2. The Breakdown Voltage

14.3. The Transition Region

14.4. The Normal Glow Discharge

14.5. The Abnormal Glow Discharge

14.6. The Arc

14.7. Triodes and Magnetically Enhanced Plasmas

15. Electron Beam (E-beam) Evaporation

15.1. Filaments and Electron Emission

15.2. E-beam Control

15.3. Power Supply

15.4. Crucibles and Feed Systems

15.5. System Design

16. Thermal Evaporation

16.1. Boats

16.2. Wire Feeding

16.3. Wire

16.4. Spitting and Pinholes

16.5. Thin Film Measurement

16.6. Power Supplies and Control

16.7. Coating Uniformity

16.8. Coating Strategy

16.9. Reactive Thermal Evaporation of Aluminum Oxide

17. Radiant-Heated, Induction-Heated, and Other Sources

17.1. Radiant-Heated Sources

17.2. Radiation Shields

17.3. Induction-Heated Sources

17.4. Magnetic Levitation Aluminum Deposition Source

17.5. Jet Vapor Sources

17.6. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Sources

18. Chemical Vapor Deposition/Polymerization onto Webs

18.1. Substrate Temperature

18.2. Power

18.3. Pressure

18.4. Substrate Bias

18.5. Fluorinated Plasma Polymerization

18.6. Carbon–Fluorine Plasmas

18.7. CVD of Barrier Coatings

18.8. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition

19. Atomic Layer Deposition

20. Magnetron Sputtering Source Design and Operation

20.1. DC Planar Magnetron Sputtering Source

20.2. Balanced and Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

20.3. Anodes

20.4. Radio Frequency Sputtering

20.5. Arcing and Control of Arcs

20.6. Water Cooling

20.7. End Effects

20.8. Troubleshooting Magnetron Sputtering Sources

21. Magnetron Sputtering Source Design Options

21.1. Single or Dual Magnetron Sputtering Source

21.2. Anode Included or Not

21.3. Balanced or Unbalanced Magnetic Fields

21.4. Fixed or Variable Magnetic Performance

21.5. Internal or External Fitting

21.6. Direct or Indirect Cooling

21.7. Single or Multiple Materials

21.8. Linked or Isolated Cathodes

21.9. Cost Implications

21.10. Coating Uniformity

21.11. Magnets

21.12. Planar or Rotatable?

21.13. Power Supply Choices

22. Reactive Sputter Deposition

22.1. Target Preconditioning

22.2. Control Options

22.3. Hysteresis Loop

22.4. Monitors

22.5. Time Constants

22.6. Pumping

22.7. Control of Arcs

22.8. RF Sputtering

22.9. Other Processes

23. Machine Specification and Build Issues—Risk Analysis—Process

23.1. Risk Analysis: Process

23.2. Mistake-Proofing or Fool-Proofing

23.3. Project Management

23.4. Safety

23.5. Costs

23.6. Machine Specification

23.7. Maintenance and Spares

24. Heat Load on the Webs/Foils

24.1. Introduction

24.2. Cooling Webs

24.3. Free Span Deposition

24.4. Heated Substrates

24.5. Potential Winding Problems

24.6. Characteristic Winding Problems Associated with Too Much Heat

24.7. Heating Webs

25. Process Variables

25.1. Drum Surface Roughness

25.2. Polymer Surface Roughness

25.3. Material Properties

25.4. Deposition Rate and Winding Speed

25.5. Water Content of Polymer

25.6. Drum Temperature

25.7. Single or Double Side Coating

25.8. Source Type

25.9. Heat Load Calculations

25.10. Heat Transfer Coefficient

26. Mechanical Design

26.1. Pumping

26.2. Nonuniform Pumping

26.3. Shields

27. Winding Webs in Vacuum

27.1. System Design

27.2. Tension Measurement: Load Cells

27.3. Alignment and Spacing

27.4. Materials

27.5. Other Related Items and Materials

27.6. Substrates: Thermally and Dimensionally Variable

27.7. Safety

27.8. Key Points on Winding

28. Machine Building Trends

28.1. Metallizers

28.2. Speciality Vacuum Coaters

29. System Design

29.1. System Choices

29.2. Batch Versus Air-to-Air Processing

29.3. Source Choices

29.4. Summary

30. Hazards

30.1. Risk Assessment

30.2. Mechanical

30.3. Electrical

30.4. Thermal

30.5. Chemical

30.6. Material Interactions

30.7. Deposition Material and By-products

30.8. Hazardous Gases

30.9. Cold Traps and Cryopumps

30.10. Cleaning Hazards

30.11. Ergonomic and Miscellaneous

31. Troubleshooting

31.1. Troubleshooting Vacuum

31.2. Troubleshooting Process

31.3. Troubleshooting Winding Problems

31.4. Troubleshooting Adhesion

31.5. Troubleshooting—Loss of Barrier

31.6. Troubleshooting—Common Problems and Diagnostic Tools

31.7. Thermal Evaporation by Resistance-Heated Boats

31.8. Electron Beam Deposition

31.9. Magnetron Sputtering

32. Final Thoughts



No. of pages:
© William Andrew 2011
8th July 2011
William Andrew
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Charles Bishop

Charles started his working life as an apprentice in mechanical engineering finishing as a toolmaker. He has a degree in Materials Engineering and Masters and Doctorate Degrees by research in vacuum deposition onto polymer webs. He now has accumulated over 35 years experience in vacuum deposition onto webs with the last 15 spent running his own consultancy business. He has published over 85 technical articles and papers, has 5 patents & has run training courses in Asia, Europe and USA. He has written two books ‘A guide to roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings’ and ‘Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films & Foils’, now into the 2nd edition and contributed chapters on transparent conducting coatings and packaging coatings in two other books. Charles is a Blog editor on behalf of AIMCAL and has a regular column in Converting Quarterly.

Affiliations and Expertise

CAB Consulting, Ltd.

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