Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils

2nd Edition - June 21, 2011

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  • Author: Charles Bishop
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437778687

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Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology: solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile in a similar way, electronic circuit ‘boards’ can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of ‘flexible electronics’ products flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a trainer and consultant to the vacuum coatings industry, for a non-mathematical guide to the technologies, equipment, processes and applications of vacuum deposition. His book is aimed at a wide audience of engineers, technicians and production management. It also provides a guide to the subject for sectors in which vacuum deposition is a novel technology, such as solar energy and flexible electronics.

Key Features

  • Bishop’s non-mathematical explanation of vacuum deposition technologies will empower a wide range of technicians, production managers and engineers in related disciplines to improve performance and maximize productivity from vacuum coating systems
  • Provides the knowledge and understanding needed to specify systems more effectively and enhance the dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers / engineers
  • Provides those in the rapidly expanding fields of solar energy, display panels and flexible electronics with the know-how to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products


Professionals and practitioners in the vacuum coating / vacuum metalizing industry: Engineers and technicians (systems, quality, process, maintenance), production managers, machinery designers and engineers and vendor sales and tech support staff. Engineers and managers in the main industry sectors utilizing vacuum coating: food packaging, electronics, pigment manufacturing, solar energy. Recommended reading for university courses dealing with vacuum deposition: vacuum deposition, surface engineering, vacuum engineering and applications, display technology, thin film processes and characterization

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. What Is a Vacuum?

    1.1. What Is a Vacuum?

    1.2. What Is a Gas?

    1.3. Pressure

    1.4. Partial Pressure

    1.5. Vapor Pressure

    1.6. Saturated Vapor Pressure

    1.7. Why Do We Need a Vacuum?

    1.8. Mean Free Path

    2. Products Using Vacuum Deposited Coatings

    2.1. Metallized Packaging Film

    2.2. Capacitor Films

    2.3. Optical Data Storage Tapes

    2.4. Holographic Coatings

    2.5. Flake Pigments

    2.6. Barrier Coatings

    2.7. Transparent Conducting Oxides

    2.8. Energy Conservation Windows

    2.9. Solar Cells

    2.10. Solar Absorbers

    2.11. Flexible Circuits

    2.12. Optical Variable Devices

    2.13. Magnetic Electronic Article Surveillance Tags

    2.14. Pyrotechnics

    2.15. Thin Film Batteries

    3. Pressure Measurement

    3.1. Bourdon Gauge

    3.2. Pirani and Thermocouple Gauges

    3.3. Capacitance Manometer

    3.4. Penning or Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge

    3.5. Ion or Hot Cathode Ionization Gauge

    4. Pumping

    4.1. Rotary or Roughing Pumps

    4.2. Roots Pumps or Blowers

    4.3. Diffusion Pumps

    4.4. Turbomolecular Pumps

    4.5. Getter or Sputter Ion Pump

    4.6. Cryopumps

    4.7. Cryopanels

    4.8. Pumping Strategy

    4.9. System Pumping

    4.10. Filtering

    4.11. Conclusions

    5. Process Diagnostics and Coating Characteristics

    5.1. Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T), and Absorptance (A) Measurements

    5.2. Optical Density

    5.3. Conductivity/Resistivity

    5.4. Online Resistance Monitoring

    5.5. Transparent Conducting Coatings

    5.6. Residual Gas Analyzers

    5.7. Plasma Emission Monitors

    5.8. Thickness

    5.9. Barrier

    5.10. Pinholes

    5.11. Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network Control Systems

    5.12. Chemometrics

    5.13. Surface Energy Measurements

    5.14. Emissivity

    5.15. Lambda Probe/Sensor/Gauge

    5.16. X-ray Fluorescence Sensor

    5.17. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    6. Leaks, Water Vapor, and Leak Testing

    6.1. Real Leaks

    6.2. Imaginary Leaks

    6.3. Outgassing and Water Vapor

    6.4. Leak Detection

    7. Mass Spectrometers, Helium Leak Detectors, and Residual Gas Analyzers

    8. Substrates and Surface Quality

    8.1. Substrates

    8.2. Polymer Surface Quality

    8.3. Polymer Substrate Cleaning

    8.4. Polymer Surface Etching

    8.5. Higher Specification Polymer Substrates

    8.6. Metal Web and Surface Quality

    8.7. Metal Surface Contamination and Cleaning

    8.8. Paper

    8.9. Foams, Nonwovens, and Textiles

    8.10. Cores

    8.11. Packaging

    8.12. Cost Benefit

    9. Adhesion and Adhesion Tests

    9.1. The “Sellotape” Test

    9.2. Adhesion Tests

    9.3. Adhesion and Surface Analysis

    10. Surface Treatment of Webs and Foils

    10.1. Atmospheric Treatments

    10.2. Cleaning and Sealing

    10.3. Cleaning

    10.4. System Design Considerations

    11. Polymer Coating Basic Information

    11.1. Polymer Coating Processes

    11.2. Coating Options

    11.3. Radiation Cured Polymers—Acrylates


    12. Nucleation, Coalescence, and Film Growth

    12.1. Thin Film–Thick Film

    12.2. Nucleation

    12.3. Coalescence

    12.4. Network and Percolation Threshold

    12.5. Holes

    12.6. Film Growth

    12.7. Energy

    12.8. Electrical and Optical Performance

    12.9. Nodule Formation

    12.10. Crystal Structure

    12.11. Deposition Rules of Thumb

    13. Pattern Metallization

    13.1. Atmospheric Patterning

    13.2. In-Vacuum Patterning

    14. The DC Glow Discharge or Plasma

    14.1. The Townsend Discharge

    14.2. The Breakdown Voltage

    14.3. The Transition Region

    14.4. The Normal Glow Discharge

    14.5. The Abnormal Glow Discharge

    14.6. The Arc

    14.7. Triodes and Magnetically Enhanced Plasmas

    15. Electron Beam (E-beam) Evaporation

    15.1. Filaments and Electron Emission

    15.2. E-beam Control

    15.3. Power Supply

    15.4. Crucibles and Feed Systems

    15.5. System Design

    16. Thermal Evaporation

    16.1. Boats

    16.2. Wire Feeding

    16.3. Wire

    16.4. Spitting and Pinholes

    16.5. Thin Film Measurement

    16.6. Power Supplies and Control

    16.7. Coating Uniformity

    16.8. Coating Strategy

    16.9. Reactive Thermal Evaporation of Aluminum Oxide

    17. Radiant-Heated, Induction-Heated, and Other Sources

    17.1. Radiant-Heated Sources

    17.2. Radiation Shields

    17.3. Induction-Heated Sources

    17.4. Magnetic Levitation Aluminum Deposition Source

    17.5. Jet Vapor Sources

    17.6. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Sources

    18. Chemical Vapor Deposition/Polymerization onto Webs

    18.1. Substrate Temperature

    18.2. Power

    18.3. Pressure

    18.4. Substrate Bias

    18.5. Fluorinated Plasma Polymerization

    18.6. Carbon–Fluorine Plasmas

    18.7. CVD of Barrier Coatings

    18.8. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition

    19. Atomic Layer Deposition

    20. Magnetron Sputtering Source Design and Operation

    20.1. DC Planar Magnetron Sputtering Source

    20.2. Balanced and Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    20.3. Anodes

    20.4. Radio Frequency Sputtering

    20.5. Arcing and Control of Arcs

    20.6. Water Cooling

    20.7. End Effects

    20.8. Troubleshooting Magnetron Sputtering Sources

    21. Magnetron Sputtering Source Design Options

    21.1. Single or Dual Magnetron Sputtering Source

    21.2. Anode Included or Not

    21.3. Balanced or Unbalanced Magnetic Fields

    21.4. Fixed or Variable Magnetic Performance

    21.5. Internal or External Fitting

    21.6. Direct or Indirect Cooling

    21.7. Single or Multiple Materials

    21.8. Linked or Isolated Cathodes

    21.9. Cost Implications

    21.10. Coating Uniformity

    21.11. Magnets

    21.12. Planar or Rotatable?

    21.13. Power Supply Choices

    22. Reactive Sputter Deposition

    22.1. Target Preconditioning

    22.2. Control Options

    22.3. Hysteresis Loop

    22.4. Monitors

    22.5. Time Constants

    22.6. Pumping

    22.7. Control of Arcs

    22.8. RF Sputtering

    22.9. Other Processes

    23. Machine Specification and Build Issues—Risk Analysis—Process

    23.1. Risk Analysis: Process

    23.2. Mistake-Proofing or Fool-Proofing

    23.3. Project Management

    23.4. Safety

    23.5. Costs

    23.6. Machine Specification

    23.7. Maintenance and Spares

    24. Heat Load on the Webs/Foils

    24.1. Introduction

    24.2. Cooling Webs

    24.3. Free Span Deposition

    24.4. Heated Substrates

    24.5. Potential Winding Problems

    24.6. Characteristic Winding Problems Associated with Too Much Heat

    24.7. Heating Webs

    25. Process Variables

    25.1. Drum Surface Roughness

    25.2. Polymer Surface Roughness

    25.3. Material Properties

    25.4. Deposition Rate and Winding Speed

    25.5. Water Content of Polymer

    25.6. Drum Temperature

    25.7. Single or Double Side Coating

    25.8. Source Type

    25.9. Heat Load Calculations

    25.10. Heat Transfer Coefficient

    26. Mechanical Design

    26.1. Pumping

    26.2. Nonuniform Pumping

    26.3. Shields

    27. Winding Webs in Vacuum

    27.1. System Design

    27.2. Tension Measurement: Load Cells

    27.3. Alignment and Spacing

    27.4. Materials

    27.5. Other Related Items and Materials

    27.6. Substrates: Thermally and Dimensionally Variable

    27.7. Safety

    27.8. Key Points on Winding

    28. Machine Building Trends

    28.1. Metallizers

    28.2. Speciality Vacuum Coaters

    29. System Design

    29.1. System Choices

    29.2. Batch Versus Air-to-Air Processing

    29.3. Source Choices

    29.4. Summary

    30. Hazards

    30.1. Risk Assessment

    30.2. Mechanical

    30.3. Electrical

    30.4. Thermal

    30.5. Chemical

    30.6. Material Interactions

    30.7. Deposition Material and By-products

    30.8. Hazardous Gases

    30.9. Cold Traps and Cryopumps

    30.10. Cleaning Hazards

    30.11. Ergonomic and Miscellaneous

    31. Troubleshooting

    31.1. Troubleshooting Vacuum

    31.2. Troubleshooting Process

    31.3. Troubleshooting Winding Problems

    31.4. Troubleshooting Adhesion

    31.5. Troubleshooting—Loss of Barrier

    31.6. Troubleshooting—Common Problems and Diagnostic Tools

    31.7. Thermal Evaporation by Resistance-Heated Boats

    31.8. Electron Beam Deposition

    31.9. Magnetron Sputtering

    32. Final Thoughts


Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2011
  • Published: June 21, 2011
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437778687

About the Author

Charles Bishop

Charles started his working life as an apprentice in mechanical engineering finishing as a toolmaker. He has a degree in Materials Engineering and Masters and Doctorate Degrees by research in vacuum deposition onto polymer webs. He now has accumulated over 35 years experience in vacuum deposition onto webs with the last 15 spent running his own consultancy business. He has published over 85 technical articles and papers, has 5 patents & has run training courses in Asia, Europe and USA. He has written two books ‘A guide to roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings’ and ‘Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films & Foils’, now into the 2nd edition and contributed chapters on transparent conducting coatings and packaging coatings in two other books. Charles is a Blog editor on behalf of AIMCAL and has a regular column in Converting Quarterly.

Affiliations and Expertise

CAB Consulting, Ltd.

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