Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films, and Foils - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780815515357, 9780815519478

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films, and Foils

1st Edition

Authors: Charles Bishop
eBook ISBN: 9780815519478
Hardcover ISBN: 9780815515357
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 20th December 2006
Page Count: 495
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This new book from William Andrew Publishing is the only practical reference available for anyone employing the roll-to-roll deposition process. Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils is an expansive journey of the process; benefiting manufacturing efficiency, unit cost reduction, and financial results. It is a sweeping approach to the total design of the vacuum deposition process written by a successful and world renowned consultant with three decades of experience.

Roll-to-roll deposition processing is a high growth industry and this reference covers a wide variety of important industrial products that use vacuum deposited coatings, including: optical storage devices, metallized packaging films, energy conservation windows, electronic information displays, and magnetic electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags among many others. This book is a must-have for roll-to-roll machine operators, process engineers, and research and development engineers throughout industry.

The book provides a broad appreciation of roll-to-roll vacuum deposition systems and processes. It will encourage a more comprehensive look from material supply through to the downstream processes that the product will encounter. It is a truly unique reference written to guide operators and engineers as an onsite consultant would.


This reference covers a wide variety of important industrial products that use vacuum deposited coatings, including: optical storage devices, metallized packaging films, energy conservation windows, electronic information displays, and magnetic electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags among many others. This book is a must-have for roll-to-roll machine operators, process engineers, and research and development engineers throughout industry.

Table of Contents

Section I: Vacuum Basics What is a vacuum? What is a gas? Pressure Partial Pressure Vapour pressure Saturated Vapour Pressure Why do we need a vacuum? Mean Free Path

  1. Products using vacuum deposited coatings Metallized packaging films Capacitor films Optical data storage (ODS) tapes Holographic coatings Flake Pigments Transparent barrier coatings Transparent conducting coatings (TCOs) Energy conservation windows Solar cells Solar absorbers Flexible circuits Optical variable devices (OVDs) Magnetic electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags Pyrotechnics Thin film batteries
  2. Pressure Measurement Bourdon gauge Pirani & Thermocouple gauges Capacitance Manometer Penning or cold cathode ionisation gauge Ion or hot cathode ionisation gauge
  3. Pumping Rotary or Roughing pumps Rootes pumps or blowers Diffusion pumps Turbomolecular pumps Getter or sputter ion pump Cryopumps Pumping strategy System pumping
  4. Process Diagnostics & Coating Characteristics Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T) & Absorbtance (A) measurements Optical Density R,T, & A measurements Conductivity / resistivity On-line resistance monitoring Transparent conducting coatings Residual Gas Analysers (RGA) Plasma Emission Monitors (PEM) Thickness Barrier Neural Network control systems Chemometrics Surface energy measurements Emissivity
  5. Leaks, water vapour and leak testing Real leaks Imaginary leaks Outgassing & Water Vapour Leak Detection
  6. Mass spectrometers, Helium leak detectors & residual gas analysers

Section II: Substrates, surface modification and nucleation

  1. Substrates - surface quality, cleaning - adhesion & adhesion testing Substrates Polymer Surface quality Substrate Cleaning Surface Etching Metal web & surface quality Metal surface contamination Paper Foams, non-wovens, textiles The 'Sellotape' test Adhesion tests Cores Packaging
  2. Surface treatment of webs & foils Cleaning & Sealing Cleaning System design considerations Polymer coating basic information
  3. Nucleation, coalescence & film growth. Thin film û Thick film Nucleation Coalescence Network & percolation threshold Holes Film growth Energy Electrical & Optical performance Crystal Structure Deposition rules of thumb

Section III. Process

  1. The D.C. Glow Discharge or Plasma The Townsend Discharge The Breakdown Voltage The Transition region The Normal Glow Discharge The Abnormal Glow Discharge The Arc Triodes and Magnetically enhanced plasmas
  2. Electron beam (e-beam) evaporation Filaments and electron emission E-beam control Power supply Crucibles and feed systems System design
  3. Thermal evaporation Boats Wire feeding Wire Spitting & Pinholes Thin film measurement Power supplies & control Coating uniformity
  4. Radiant heated and Induction heated sources Radiant heated sources Radiation shields Induction heated sources
  5. Chemical Vapour Deposition / Polymerisation onto webs. Substrate temperature Power Pressure Substrate bias Fluorinated plasma polymerisation Carbon - Fluorine plasmas CVD of Barrier coatings
  6. Planar Magnetron Sputtering source design and operation. D.C. planar magnetron sputtering source Balanced and Un-balanced magnetron sputtering Anodes Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering Arcing and control of arcs Water-cooling End effects Troubleshooting magnetron sputtering sources
  7. Planar magnetron design options. Single or Dual magnetron sputtering source Anode included or not? Balanced or unbalanced magnetic fields Fixed or variable magnetic performance Internal or external fitting Direct or indirect cooling Single or multiple materials Linked or isolated cathodes Cost implications Coating uniformity Magnets
  8. Reactive deposition û set-up & control Target preconditioning Control options Hysteresis loop Monitors Time constants Pumping Control of arcs RF sputtering

Section IV: System issues

  1. Machine specification & build issues Risk Analysis - process Mistake-proofing or Fool-proofing Project Management Safety Costs Machine specification Maintenance & spares
  2. Heat load on the webs/foils Introduction Potential winding problems Characteristic winding problems associated with too much heat Heating webs
  3. Process variables Drum surface roughness Polymer surface roughness Material properties Deposition rate and winding speed Water content of polymer Drum temperature Single or double side coating Source type Heat load calculations Heat transfer coefficient
  4. Mechanical design Pumping Non-Uniform pumping Shields
  5. Winding webs in vacuum System design Tension measurement û load cells Alignment & roll spacing Materials Related items & materials Substrates û variable width & tension Key points on winding Safety
  6. Metallizer machine building trends Metallizers Speciality machines
  7. System design System choices Batch vs air-to-air processing
  8. Hazards Risk Assessment Mechanical Electrical Thermal Chemical Material Interactions Hazardous gases Cold traps & Cryopumps Cleaning hazards Ergonomic & Miscellaneous.
  9. Troubleshooting Troubleshooting vacuum Troubleshooting process Troubleshooting winding problems Troubleshooting adhesion Troubleshooting - common problems & diagnostic tools Thermal evaporation by resistance heated boats


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© William Andrew 2007
William Andrew
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About the Author

Charles Bishop

Charles started his working life as an apprentice in mechanical engineering finishing as a toolmaker. He has a degree in Materials Engineering and Masters and Doctorate Degrees by research in vacuum deposition onto polymer webs. He now has accumulated over 35 years experience in vacuum deposition onto webs with the last 15 spent running his own consultancy business. He has published over 85 technical articles and papers, has 5 patents & has run training courses in Asia, Europe and USA. He has written two books ‘A guide to roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings’ and ‘Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films & Foils’, now into the 2nd edition and contributed chapters on transparent conducting coatings and packaging coatings in two other books. Charles is a Blog editor on behalf of AIMCAL and has a regular column in Converting Quarterly.

Affiliations and Expertise

CAB Consulting, Ltd.


"...a comprehensive reference work for anybody working in vacuum coating of polymer films." - Dr. A.G. Spencer, Alacritas Consultancy, Ltd.

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