Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function

Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function

A Symposium in Honor of Jean Büttner-Ennever

1st Edition - September 1, 2008

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  • Editors: R. Leigh, Christopher Kennard
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444531636
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080932323

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This volume of Progress in Brain Research is based on the proceedings of a conference, "Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function," held at the Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College London, UK on 5th -6th December, 2007 to honor Professor Jean Büttner-Ennever. With 87 contributions from international experts – both basic scientists and clinicians – the volume provides many examples of how eye movements can be used to address a broad range of research questions. Section 1 focuses on extraocular muscle, highlighting new concepts of proprioceptive control that involve even the cerebral cortex. Section 2 comprises structural, physiological, pharmacological, and computational aspects of brainstem mechanisms, and illustrates implications for disorders as diverse as opsoclonus, and congenital scoliosis with gaze palsy. Section 3 addresses how the cerebellum transforms neural signals into motor commands, and how disease of such mechanisms may lead to ataxia and disorders such as oculopalatal tremor. Section 4 deals with sensory-motor processing of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and auditory inputs, such as are required for navigation, and gait. Section 5 illustrates how eye movements, used in conjunction with single-unit electrophysiology, functional imaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and lesion studies have illuminated cognitive processes, including memory, prediction, and even free will. Section 6 includes 18 papers dealing with disorders ranging from congenital to acquired forms of nystagmus, genetic and degenerative neurological disorders, and treatments for nystagmus and motion sickness.

Key Features

* Clinicians will find important new information on the substrate for spinocerebellar ataxia, late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington disease, and pulvinar lesions
* Organizes multiple articles on such topics as proprioception, short and longer-term memory, and hereditary cerebellar ataxias for a more coherent presentation
* Articles on anatomic tracers, functional imaging, and computational neuroscience are illustrated in color


Neuroscientists, neurologists, opthalmologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and visual sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Section 1: Using Novel Techniques to Define the Neural Substrate for Eye Movements

    Jean Büttner-Ennever, Munich: Re-mapping the oculomotor system
    Joseph Demer, Los Angeles: Using high-definition MRI to re-define the mechanics of eye rotations
    Michael Goldberg, New York: The cortical representation of oculomotor proprioception
    David Zee, Baltimore: How new knowledge of the anatomy of the eye muscles and their innervation translates into improved treatment of patients with ocular motor palsies
    Paul Knox, Liverpool: Testing the influences of extraocular proprioception in humans
    James Sharpe, Toronto: Reinterpreting palsies of the ocular motor nerves
    Dominik Straumann: New insights into trochlear nerve palsy
    Paul May: Anatomical insights into peripheral gaze control
    Louis Dell'Osso: How disrupting ocular proprioception can be therapy for congenital nsyatgmus

    Section 2: New Insights into Brainstem Generation of Ocular Motor Commands
    Anja Horn, Munich: New insights into the circuitry and pharmacology of the brainstem reticular formation
    Edward Keller, San Francisco: Using multiple electrode arrays to map moving fields of neural activity in the superior colliculus
    Paul Gamlin, Birmingham: Synthesis of vergence control by brainstem circuits
    Holger Rambold, Lübeck: Disturbances of vergence and saccadic eye movements by human brainstem lesions
    Christoph Helmchen, Luebeck: Understanding how the cerebellar disease could cause saccadic oscillations
    Stefano Ramat, Pavia: A brainstem network that accounts for abnormal saccades
    Mark Gibson, Belfast: Human saccadic disorders and their brainstem mechanisms
    Richard Clement: A black-box approach to saccadic disorders

    Section 3: Using Eye Movements as an Index of Transformation of Signals by the Cerebellum
    Stephen Highstein, St. Louis: How the cerebellar transforms sensory inputs into motor commands
    Albert Fuchs, Seattle: How visual and motor signals interact in the cerebellum
    John Stahl, Cleveland: How mutant mice with calcium channel defects provide insight into the cerebellar role in balance
    Michael Strupp, Munich: How knowledge about calcium channel disorders translates into treatment of human cerebellar disease
    Bernard Cohen, New York: Cerebellar governance of vestibular mechanisms
    Mark Walker, Baltimore: Influence of cerebellar nodulus on translational vestibulo-ocular reflex
    Ulrich Büttner, Munich: Control of smooth-pursuit eye movements by cerebellum
    Robert McCrea, Chicago: Influence of cerebellum on combined eye-head tracking
    Adolfo Bronstein, London: Degenerative disorders that affect the cerebellar control of eye movements

    Section 3: Using Eye Movements as a Probe of Sensory-Motor Processing
    Frederick Miles, Bethesda: How the brain uses visual motion as we move through the environment
    Peter Hoffmann: How motion signals are encoded in visual areas
    Michael Mustari, Atlanta: How disturbed maturation of visual motion processing leads to nystagmus in infancy
    Thomas Brandt: How vestibular and visual inputs may be abnormally processed in cerebral cortex
    Richard Abadi, Manchester: Visual perceptions during ocular oscillations
    Michael Gresty, London: Self-motion, gaze control and visual perception
    Bernhard Hess, Zurich: Understanding interactions between responses to head rotations and translations
    Michael Halmagyi, Sydney: Probing otolith-ocular reflexes using novel stimuli in humans
    Sergei Yakushin, New York: How visual inputs from subcortical pathways influence perception of self-motion

    Section 4: Using Eye Movements as a Probe of Cognition
    James Lynch, Jackson: Concepts of the contribution of cerebral cortex based on new anatomical findings
    Kikuro Fukushima, Sapporo: Prediction, eye movements, and the frontal lobes
    Rene Müri, Bern: Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe decision-making and memory
    Parashkev Nachev, London: Using functional imaging to during conflict resolution and free choice
    Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Paris: Using saccades to probe different forms of memory
    Christopher Kennard, London: Role of the supplementary eye fields in countermanding saccades
    Masud Husain, London: Using eye movements to probe shifts of instruction set
    Graham Barnes, Manchester: Using smooth tracking movements to probe prediction
    R. John Leigh, Cleveland, Ohio: Eye movements: The meaning of it all (Epilogue)

Product details

  • No. of pages: 652
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2008
  • Published: September 1, 2008
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444531636
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080932323

About the Editors

R. Leigh

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA

Christopher Kennard

Affiliations and Expertise

Academic Unit of Neuroscience, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK Professor of Clinical Neurology

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