Underground Pipeline Corrosion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095091, 9780857099266

Underground Pipeline Corrosion

1st Edition

Editors: Mark Orazem
eBook ISBN: 9780857099266
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095091
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 22nd January 2014
Page Count: 340
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Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention.

The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, numerical simulations for cathodic protection of pipelines, and use of corrosion inhibitors in managing corrosion in underground pipelines. The methods described in part two for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines include: magnetic flux leakage, close interval potential surveys (CIS/CIPS), Pearson surveys, in-line inspection, and use of both electrochemical and optical probes. While the emphasis is on pipelines transporting fossil fuels, the concepts apply as well to metallic pipes for delivery of water and other liquids.

Underground Pipeline Corrosion is a comprehensive resource for corrosion, materials, chemical, petroleum, and civil engineers constructing or managing both onshore and offshore pipeline assets; professionals in steel and coating companies; and academic researchers and professors with an interest in corrosion and pipeline engineering.

Key Features

  • Reviews the causes and considers the detection and prevention of corrosion to underground pipes
  • Addresses a lack of current, readily available information on the subject
  • Case studies demonstrate how corrosion is managed in the underground pipeline industry


Oil and gas pipeline operators; Water pipeline operators; Gas distribution companies; Power generation facilities, refineries, storage facilities, and any company transporting products through buried steel piping; Corrosion engineers, onshore and offshore engineers, civil engineers; Scientific and technical personnel who deal with any corrosion topic; coating companies

Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering




Part I: Understanding and managing corrosion processes

1. Understanding corrosion in underground pipelines: basic principles


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Electrochemical corrosion: conventional current theory

1.3 Electrochemical corrosion: advanced theories

1.4 Other factors in corrosion

1.5 Reference cells

1.6 Corrosion processes affecting pipelines

1.7 Environmental cracking

1.8 Microbiologically influenced corrosion

1.9 Corrosion protection methods: coatings

1.10 Corrosion protection methods: cathodic protection (CP)

1.11 Conclusion

1.12 Sources of further information and advice

13 References

2. AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines


2.1 Introduction

2.2 The origin of alternating voltage induced in pipelines

2.3 Electrical parameters affecting the AC-corrosion process

2.4 Harmonic analysis of AC corrosion

2.5 Cathodic protection of pipelines

2.6 Analysis of AC-corrosion products

2.7 Testing AC-corrosion processes

2.8 Conclusion

2.9 References

3. Assessing the significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Corrosion in onshore pipelines

3.3 Detecting corrosion

3.4 Preventing corrosion

3.5 Assessment of corrosion

3.6 Particular corrosion assessment methods

3.7 Particular issues in corrosion assessment

3.8 Conclusion

3.9 References

4. Numerical simulations for cathodic protection of pipelines


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Historical perspective

4.3 Model development

4.4 Model validation

4.5 Applications

4.6 Conclusion

4.7 References

5. Corrosion processes and the use of corrosion inhibitors in managing corrosion in underground pipelines


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sources of corrosion in oil and gas production

5.3 Techniques used in monitoring corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas pipelines

5.4 Measuring pitting corrosion rates

5.5 The use of coupons to measure corrosion rates

5.6 Comparing different monitoring techniques

5.7 Conclusion

5.8 References

6. Types of corrosion inhibitor for managing corrosion in underground pipelines


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Types of inhibitors

6.3 The effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors in particular corrosion environments

6.4 Criteria used in the selection of inhibitors in sour media

6.5 Mechanisms of corrosion inhibition

6.6 Types of inhibitors

6.7 Summary of corrosion inhibitors used in oil pipeline media

6.8 References

Part II: Methods for detecting corrosion

7. Electromagnetic methods for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines: magnetic flux leakage (MFL)


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Background and definitions

7.3 Typical inspection system capabilities

7.4 Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) pigs

7.5 Summary of MFL strengths and weaknesses

7.6 Conclusion and future trends

7.7 Sources of further information and advice

7.8 References

8. The close interval potential survey (CIS/CIPS) method for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Equipment

8.3 Data collection

8.4 Conducting a CIS

8.5 CIS data validation

8.6 Assessing results

8.7 Summary of CIS benefits and disadvantages

8.8 Future trends

8.9 References

9. The Pearson survey method for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Key principles of the Pearson survey technique

9.3 Advantages and disadvantages over other survey techniques

9.4 Basic equipment used for the Pearson survey

9.5 Modern developments of the technique

9.6 Conclusion

9.7 References

10. In-line inspection (ILI) methods for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Pipeline flaws

10.3 Inspection technologies and principles

10.4 Preparing for in-line inspection

10.5 Carrying out an ILI survey

10.6 Analysis and interpretation of ILI data

10.7 Future trends

10.8 References

11. The use of probes for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Electrochemical methods

11.3 Potential measurements

11.4 Linear polarization resistance

11.5 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

11.6 Galvanic sensors

11.7 Non-electrochemical methods: coupons

11.8 Optical-based methods

11.9 Electrical resistance probes

11.10 Challenges and limitations in using probes

11.11 Conclusion

11.12 References



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About the Editor

Mark Orazem

Mark Orazem is a Professor of the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, USA. He has developed, in collaboration with the oil and gas industry, simulation tools for cathodic protection of pipeline networks. Professor Orazem is a Fellow of the Electrochemical Society and a former President of the International Society of Electrochemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Florida, USA