TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750610216, 9781483193755

TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book

1st Edition

Editors: K G Jackson G B Townsend
eBook ISBN: 9781483193755
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 30th April 1991
Page Count: 946
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Description

TV & Video Engineer’s Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unattended transmitters. The definition and description of diagnostics in computer controlled equipment are fully covered. In-depth accounts of the microwave radio relay systems are provided. The general characteristics of studio lighting and control are completely presented. A chapter is devoted to video tape recording. Another section focuses on the mixers and special effects generators. The book can provide useful information to technicians, engineers, students, and researchers.

Table of Contents


Preface

List of Contributors

Part 1 - Basic Reference Material

1 Television Standards and Broadcasting Spectrum

Scanning and Aspect Ratio

Still and Moving Pictures

Television Picture Frequency

The Video Signal

Channel Bandwidth

Synchronism between Scanning Systems

Porches

DSB, ssb, asb and vsb

National Standards

Bands and Channels

Adding Color to a Monochrome System

2 Quantities and Units

International Unit System

Universal Constants in SI Units

Metric to Imperial Conversion Factors

Symbols and Abbreviations

3 Analogue and Digital Circuit Theory

Analogue Circuit Theory

Alternating Current Circuits

Digital Circuit Theory

Boolean Algebra

Karnaugh Maps

4 Engineering Mathematics, Formulas and Calculations

Mathematical Signs and Symbols

Trigonometric Formulas

Trigonometric Values

Approximations for Small Angles

Solution of Triangles

Spherical Triangles

Exponential Form

De Moivre's Theorem

Euler's Relation

Hyperbolic Functions

Complex Variable

Cauchy-Riemann Equations

Cauchy's Theorem

Zeros, Poles and Residues

Some Standard Forms

Coordinate Systems

Transformation of Integrals

Laplace's Equation

Solution of Equations

Method of Least Squares

Relation between Decibels, Current and Voltage Ratio, and Power Ratio

Calculus

Part 2 • Materials, Components and Construction

5 Conductors and Insulators, Passive Components, Printed Circuit Boards

Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators

Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors

Printed Circuits

6 Semiconductors and Microelectronics

Semiconductors

Diodes

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Field Effect Transistors

Other Discrete Solid-State Semiconductor Devices

Microelectronics

Linear Integrated Devices

Digital Integrated Devices

Miscellaneous Integrated Devices

Display Devices

Charge-Transfer Devices

Piezoelectric Devices

Electromagnetic and Thermal Devices

General Considerations in Selecting Active and Other Devices

7 Thermionics, Power Grid and Linear Beam Tubes

Thermionic Tubes

Power Grid Tubes

Linear Beam Tubes

Part 3 • Fundamentals of Color Television

8 Electron Optics in Cathode Ray Tubes

Beam Forming in an Electron Gun

Electron Emission of the Cathode

Drive Characteristic

Cathode Load

Electron Optical Image Forming

Forming the Crossover

Thermal Spot Size

Cathode Lens

Prefocus Lens

Main Lens

Effect of Space Charge on Spot Size

Spot Size in Screen Center

Deflection Defocusing

Resolution

9 Color Displays and Colorimetry

Types of Color Display

Colorimetric Principles

Chromaticities of Display Phosphors

10 Pickup Tubes and Solid-State Cameras

Photoconductive Tubes: Principle of Operation

Camera Tube Types

Tubes for Broadcast Television

Performance Characteristics of Broadcast Standard Tubes

Tubes for Nonbroadcast Color Television

Charge Coupled Devices

11 Color Encoding and Decoding Systems

Introduction

Color Signal Relationships

Composite Color Systems

Component Color Systems

Part 4 • Broadcast Transmission

12 Radio Frequency Propagation

Theoretical Principles

Practical Considerations

13 Television Transmitters

Specifications

Basic Transmitter Types

Drive Systems

Multi-Channel/Stereo Sound

Tetrode Transmitters

Klystron Transmitters

Solid-State Transmitters

Vision and Sound Combiners

Control Logic and Safety

Transmitter Specifications

Reserve Systems

Program Combiners

High Power Multi-Parallel Systems

Program Input and Monitoring Equipment

14 Transposers

Transposer Configurations

Design Philosophy

Transposer Performance

System Performance

Future Developments

15 Remote Supervision of Unattended Transmitters

TV Transmitter Network

Main Station Systems Design

Automatic on-Site Monitoring

Station Controller Concept

Control Centers

16 Transmitter Power Plant

Electricity Supplies

Power Equipment

Transmitter Installations

17 Diagnostics in Computer Controlled Equipment

Computer Systems

Types of Fault

Tasks for Diagnostics

Types of Diagnostics

Response to Detecting a Fault

Watchdog Timer

Implementation of Diagnostics

Emulation

Diagnostic Tests

18 Masts, Towers and Antennas

Civil Engineering Construction

Electrical Design of Antenna Systems

19 Service Area Planning

Basic Theory

Planning for Frequencies between 30 and 3000 Mhz

Planning for Frequencies above 3 Ghz

Modulation Systems

Received Signal

Measurement Technique

Site Testing

Part 5 • Distribution of Broad-Band Signals

20 Microwave Radio Relay Systems

Types of Microwave Link

Microwave Radio Relay Systems

Fixed Link Configurations

System Planning

Additional Losses

Improving Availability

21 Intercity Links and Switching Centers

Historical Development

Eurovision Links

Switching Centers

Summary

22 Television Standards Converters

Background

Movement Portrayal

Judder in Standards Converters

Interpolation

Future of Standards Conversion

23 Satellite Distribution

Background

Satellite Operators

Satellite Applications

Satellite Management

Point-to-Point Connections for Television

Factors Affecting Program Production

Transportable Ground Stations

Carrier/Noise Derivation

Future Developments

24 Coaxial Cable and Optical Fibers

Cable Transmission

Optical Fiber Transmission

Future Developments

25 Tree-and-Branch Wired Networks

Economic Factors

Standards

Receiver Characteristics

Characteristics of Signals at Subscriber's Outlets

Channeling Plans

Networks

The Head-End

Distribution of Sound and Data Signals

Distribution of MAC/Packet Signals

26 Switched-Star Networks

Origins

System Description

Advantages of Switched-Star Systems

Disadvantages of Switched-Star Systems

Practical Switched-Star Systems

27 Interactive Applications of Multi-Channel Cable Systems

Background

Potential Interactive Services

Pay-Per-View

Private Broadcasting

Interactive Education

Video Libraries

Opinion Polling

Interactive Teleshopping

Telebanking

Telebetting

Miscellaneous Services

Part 6 • Direct Broadcasting by Satellite

28 DBS Systems: Planning and Fundamentals

Geostationary Orbit

Satellite Geometry

Satellite Coverage

Propagation

Eclipse of a Geostationary Satellite

Signal/Noise Ratio and Picture Quality

Protection Ratios

Receiver Sensitivity

The WARC-BS 1977 Plan for 12 Ghz dbs in Regions 1 and 3

29 DBS Transmission Systems

MAC/Packet Family

B-MAC System

Digital Sound Radio System

Japanese A-Type NTSC System and MUSE 9 System

30 Uplink Terminals

System Design

Earth Stations

31 DBS Receivers

DBS Transmission Systems

Configuration

Technical

Features

Requirements

Operation and Performance

IC Development

Re-Transmission of Satellite Broadcasting

Future Expansion

Part 7 • TV Studios and Studio Equipment

32 Studio Planning and Requirements

Studio Design

Basic Video and Audio Facilities

Communications

Assignment Systems

Cabling

Use of Patch Panels

Television Studio Center Performance

Time Code

System Synchronization

Analogue and Digital Component Systems

33 Studio Cameras and Mountings

System Structures

System Components

Operational Characteristics

Automation Functions

Positioning Equipment

Pan and Tilt Heads

System Stability

34 Studio Lighting and Control

The Purpose of Lighting

Lighting Sources

Static Portraiture

Moving Portraiture

Creative Lighting

Lighting Control Systems

Individual Lamp Control Module

Control of Lamps in Groups

Operational Processing: The CPU

Main File Control

Lighting Control Brightness Distribution

Lamps

35 Mixers (Switchers) and Special Effects Generators

Definition of Terms

Routing Switchers

Vision Mixer Architecture

Implications of Color System

Mix/Effects Amplifiers

Wipe Pattern Generation

Title Keying

Chroma Key

Output Processing Amplifiers

Digital Effects

Control

36 Computer Graphics and Animation

Background

Computer Aided Design

Television Graphics

Potential Problems in Graphics System Designs

Hardware Elements

User Interface

System Classifications

37 Video Tape Recording

Frequency Range

Modulation

Transport Systems

Servo Systems

Timebase Correction

38 Film and Video Tape Editing

Film Editing

Video Tape Editing

Interrelationship between Film and Video Editing

Future Developments

The Role of the Editor

39 Telecines

Telecine Types

Film Formats

Film Transports

Sound Reproduction

Optical and Scanning Systems

Color Response

Signal Processing

Part 8 • Mobile and Portable TV Equipment and Operations

40 Portable Television Cameras and Videotape Recorders

Background

Recording Systems for Portable Use

Component Video Systems

Sound Recording Features of Compact Video Recorders

Portable Cameras

Implementations of Compact Recording System Designs

41 OB Vehicles and Mobile Control Rooms

Evolution of OB Vehicles and Mobile Control Rooms

Vehicle Design

Outline of Constructional Techniques for TV Mobiles

42 Microwave Links for OB and ENG

System Concepts

Multiplexing

Antennas

Central ENG

System Calculations

43 Electronic News Gathering and Electronic Field Production

Electronic News Gathering

Operating Practices

Electronic Field Production

44 Transportable Power Sources

On Board Power Generation

Trailer Generators

Battery Sources

Battery Charging Systems

Nickel-Cadmium Battery Management

Part 9 • Television Sound

45 Sound Origination Equipment

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

46 Sound Mixing and Control

Basic Functions of a Sound Desk

Digital Sound Desks

47 Sound Editing and Dubbing Equipment

Analogue Recording

Noise Reduction

Digital Recording

48 Multi-Channel Sound Systems

Overview

Analogue Systems

Digital Systems

Multiple Sound Signals in MAC Systems

Multi-Channel Sound for HDTV

49 Sound Distribution including Digital Sound-in-Sync

Methods of Sound Distribution

Sound-in-Sync

Stereo Sound-in-Sync

Stereo Sound Transmission Using NICAM 728

50 Digital Audio Concepts and Equipment

Digital Audio Concepts

Digital Audio in Application

Part 10 • Television Receivers

51 Basic Receiver Design Principles

Receiver Performance Requirements and Structure

Color Decoding

Requirements for Peripheral Equipment

Remote Control and I C Bus

Basic Data

52 Picture Displays

Cathode Ray Tube Principles

Monochrome Tubes

Single Beam Color Systems

Side Gun and Folded Electron Optical Systems

Three Beam Color Systems

Considerations When Using crts

Projection Systems

Alternative Technologies

53 Production Engineering and Reliability

Production Engineering

Reliability and Quality Assurance

Part 11 • Television Receiver Installation and Servicing

54 Receiving Antennas

Properties of Antennas

Types of Antennas

Antenna Erection

Indoor Antenna

Standards and Codes of Practice

55 Maintenance and Servicing

Test Equipment

Setting up and Performance Appraisal

Fault Diagnosis

Replacement of Components

Intermittent Faults and Soak Testing

Safety in Servicing

Part 12 • Video and Audio Recording and Playback (Domestic)

56 Video Cassette Recorders

Philips N1500 and N1700

Beta Format

VHS

Grundig SVR 4004

Technicolor CVC 212E

The Second Generation

Philips V2000

Camcorders

Hi-Fi Sound

VHS Long Play Developments

8 Mm Video

S-VHS

Digital Waveforms

57 Video Discs

Early Systems

Current Systems

CD-ROM

Computer Floppy Disk

58 Electronic Cameras

Domestic Cameras

Camera Tubes

Solid-State Camera Devices

59 Audio Recording and Playback

Background to Consumer Audio

The Compact Cassette

Other Cassette Systems

The Digital Audio Disc

Related Optical Disc Systems

Digital Audio Tape

Other Systems

Part 13 • Teletext and Similar Technologies

60 Broadcast Teletext Systems

The Teletext Data Signal

Teletext Data Format

Error Protection

Access Time and Data Rate

Transmission Systems

Teletext Subtitling

Regional Teletext Services

Teletext Data Network

Measurement of Teletext Signal Quality

61 Teletext Decoders

Basic Functions

Decoder Performance

Signal Path Distortion

Multipage Decoders

Teletext Adaptors

Encrypted Teletext Services and Telesoftware

62 Interactive Videotex

Fundamentals

Terminals

Presentation Techniques

International Videotex Standards

Functionality

Network Topologies

Part 14 • High Definition Television

63a International Background

Introduction

Desirable Features of HDTV

Technical Considerations for Future Standards

The HDTV Elements Design Consideration

HDTV Formats and Transmission

High Definition Electronic Production of Movies

63b European Standards

HDTV Standards

HDTV Formats

HDTV Broadcasting DBS Prospects in Europe

Conclusions

Part 15 • Industrial, Commercial, Medical and Defense Applications of Television

64 Industrial, Commercial, Medical and Defense Applications

Industrial Applications

Commercial Applications

Medical Applications

Defense Applications

Part 16 • Performance Measurements and Electromagnetic Compatibility

65 Television Performance Measurements

Introduction

Insertion Test Signals

Measurement Techniques

Measurement Tolerances

Teletext

Specialized Test Waveforms

New TV Generation and Distribution Methods

66 Electromagnetic Compatibility

European Community Directive

Relevant Standards

Conclusions

Index

Details

No. of pages:
946
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1991
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483193755

About the Editor

K G Jackson

G B Townsend

Ratings and Reviews