TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book

TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book

1st Edition - January 1, 1991

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  • Editors: K G Jackson, G B Townsend
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483193755

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Description

TV & Video Engineer’s Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unattended transmitters. The definition and description of diagnostics in computer controlled equipment are fully covered. In-depth accounts of the microwave radio relay systems are provided. The general characteristics of studio lighting and control are completely presented. A chapter is devoted to video tape recording. Another section focuses on the mixers and special effects generators. The book can provide useful information to technicians, engineers, students, and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    Part 1 - Basic Reference Material

    1 Television Standards and Broadcasting Spectrum

    Scanning and Aspect Ratio

    Still and Moving Pictures

    Television Picture Frequency

    The Video Signal

    Channel Bandwidth

    Synchronism between Scanning Systems

    Porches

    DSB, ssb, asb and vsb

    National Standards

    Bands and Channels

    Adding Color to a Monochrome System

    2 Quantities and Units

    International Unit System

    Universal Constants in SI Units

    Metric to Imperial Conversion Factors

    Symbols and Abbreviations

    3 Analogue and Digital Circuit Theory

    Analogue Circuit Theory

    Alternating Current Circuits

    Digital Circuit Theory

    Boolean Algebra

    Karnaugh Maps

    4 Engineering Mathematics, Formulas and Calculations

    Mathematical Signs and Symbols

    Trigonometric Formulas

    Trigonometric Values

    Approximations for Small Angles

    Solution of Triangles

    Spherical Triangles

    Exponential Form

    De Moivre's Theorem

    Euler's Relation

    Hyperbolic Functions

    Complex Variable

    Cauchy-Riemann Equations

    Cauchy's Theorem

    Zeros, Poles and Residues

    Some Standard Forms

    Coordinate Systems

    Transformation of Integrals

    Laplace's Equation

    Solution of Equations

    Method of Least Squares

    Relation between Decibels, Current and Voltage Ratio, and Power Ratio

    Calculus

    Part 2 • Materials, Components and Construction

    5 Conductors and Insulators, Passive Components, Printed Circuit Boards

    Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators

    Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors

    Printed Circuits

    6 Semiconductors and Microelectronics

    Semiconductors

    Diodes

    Bipolar Junction Transistors

    Field Effect Transistors

    Other Discrete Solid-State Semiconductor Devices

    Microelectronics

    Linear Integrated Devices

    Digital Integrated Devices

    Miscellaneous Integrated Devices

    Display Devices

    Charge-Transfer Devices

    Piezoelectric Devices

    Electromagnetic and Thermal Devices

    General Considerations in Selecting Active and Other Devices

    7 Thermionics, Power Grid and Linear Beam Tubes

    Thermionic Tubes

    Power Grid Tubes

    Linear Beam Tubes

    Part 3 • Fundamentals of Color Television

    8 Electron Optics in Cathode Ray Tubes

    Beam Forming in an Electron Gun

    Electron Emission of the Cathode

    Drive Characteristic

    Cathode Load

    Electron Optical Image Forming

    Forming the Crossover

    Thermal Spot Size

    Cathode Lens

    Prefocus Lens

    Main Lens

    Effect of Space Charge on Spot Size

    Spot Size in Screen Center

    Deflection Defocusing

    Resolution

    9 Color Displays and Colorimetry

    Types of Color Display

    Colorimetric Principles

    Chromaticities of Display Phosphors

    10 Pickup Tubes and Solid-State Cameras

    Photoconductive Tubes: Principle of Operation

    Camera Tube Types

    Tubes for Broadcast Television

    Performance Characteristics of Broadcast Standard Tubes

    Tubes for Nonbroadcast Color Television

    Charge Coupled Devices

    11 Color Encoding and Decoding Systems

    Introduction

    Color Signal Relationships

    Composite Color Systems

    Component Color Systems

    Part 4 • Broadcast Transmission

    12 Radio Frequency Propagation

    Theoretical Principles

    Practical Considerations

    13 Television Transmitters

    Specifications

    Basic Transmitter Types

    Drive Systems

    Multi-Channel/Stereo Sound

    Tetrode Transmitters

    Klystron Transmitters

    Solid-State Transmitters

    Vision and Sound Combiners

    Control Logic and Safety

    Transmitter Specifications

    Reserve Systems

    Program Combiners

    High Power Multi-Parallel Systems

    Program Input and Monitoring Equipment

    14 Transposers

    Transposer Configurations

    Design Philosophy

    Transposer Performance

    System Performance

    Future Developments

    15 Remote Supervision of Unattended Transmitters

    TV Transmitter Network

    Main Station Systems Design

    Automatic on-Site Monitoring

    Station Controller Concept

    Control Centers

    16 Transmitter Power Plant

    Electricity Supplies

    Power Equipment

    Transmitter Installations

    17 Diagnostics in Computer Controlled Equipment

    Computer Systems

    Types of Fault

    Tasks for Diagnostics

    Types of Diagnostics

    Response to Detecting a Fault

    Watchdog Timer

    Implementation of Diagnostics

    Emulation

    Diagnostic Tests

    18 Masts, Towers and Antennas

    Civil Engineering Construction

    Electrical Design of Antenna Systems

    19 Service Area Planning

    Basic Theory

    Planning for Frequencies between 30 and 3000 Mhz

    Planning for Frequencies above 3 Ghz

    Modulation Systems

    Received Signal

    Measurement Technique

    Site Testing

    Part 5 • Distribution of Broad-Band Signals

    20 Microwave Radio Relay Systems

    Types of Microwave Link

    Microwave Radio Relay Systems

    Fixed Link Configurations

    System Planning

    Additional Losses

    Improving Availability

    21 Intercity Links and Switching Centers

    Historical Development

    Eurovision Links

    Switching Centers

    Summary

    22 Television Standards Converters

    Background

    Movement Portrayal

    Judder in Standards Converters

    Interpolation

    Future of Standards Conversion

    23 Satellite Distribution

    Background

    Satellite Operators

    Satellite Applications

    Satellite Management

    Point-to-Point Connections for Television

    Factors Affecting Program Production

    Transportable Ground Stations

    Carrier/Noise Derivation

    Future Developments

    24 Coaxial Cable and Optical Fibers

    Cable Transmission

    Optical Fiber Transmission

    Future Developments

    25 Tree-and-Branch Wired Networks

    Economic Factors

    Standards

    Receiver Characteristics

    Characteristics of Signals at Subscriber's Outlets

    Channeling Plans

    Networks

    The Head-End

    Distribution of Sound and Data Signals

    Distribution of MAC/Packet Signals

    26 Switched-Star Networks

    Origins

    System Description

    Advantages of Switched-Star Systems

    Disadvantages of Switched-Star Systems

    Practical Switched-Star Systems

    27 Interactive Applications of Multi-Channel Cable Systems

    Background

    Potential Interactive Services

    Pay-Per-View

    Private Broadcasting

    Interactive Education

    Video Libraries

    Opinion Polling

    Interactive Teleshopping

    Telebanking

    Telebetting

    Miscellaneous Services

    Part 6 • Direct Broadcasting by Satellite

    28 DBS Systems: Planning and Fundamentals

    Geostationary Orbit

    Satellite Geometry

    Satellite Coverage

    Propagation

    Eclipse of a Geostationary Satellite

    Signal/Noise Ratio and Picture Quality

    Protection Ratios

    Receiver Sensitivity

    The WARC-BS 1977 Plan for 12 Ghz dbs in Regions 1 and 3

    29 DBS Transmission Systems

    MAC/Packet Family

    B-MAC System

    Digital Sound Radio System

    Japanese A-Type NTSC System and MUSE 9 System

    30 Uplink Terminals

    System Design

    Earth Stations

    31 DBS Receivers

    DBS Transmission Systems

    Configuration

    Technical

    Features

    Requirements

    Operation and Performance

    IC Development

    Re-Transmission of Satellite Broadcasting

    Future Expansion

    Part 7 • TV Studios and Studio Equipment

    32 Studio Planning and Requirements

    Studio Design

    Basic Video and Audio Facilities

    Communications

    Assignment Systems

    Cabling

    Use of Patch Panels

    Television Studio Center Performance

    Time Code

    System Synchronization

    Analogue and Digital Component Systems

    33 Studio Cameras and Mountings

    System Structures

    System Components

    Operational Characteristics

    Automation Functions

    Positioning Equipment

    Pan and Tilt Heads

    System Stability

    34 Studio Lighting and Control

    The Purpose of Lighting

    Lighting Sources

    Static Portraiture

    Moving Portraiture

    Creative Lighting

    Lighting Control Systems

    Individual Lamp Control Module

    Control of Lamps in Groups

    Operational Processing: The CPU

    Main File Control

    Lighting Control Brightness Distribution

    Lamps

    35 Mixers (Switchers) and Special Effects Generators

    Definition of Terms

    Routing Switchers

    Vision Mixer Architecture

    Implications of Color System

    Mix/Effects Amplifiers

    Wipe Pattern Generation

    Title Keying

    Chroma Key

    Output Processing Amplifiers

    Digital Effects

    Control

    36 Computer Graphics and Animation

    Background

    Computer Aided Design

    Television Graphics

    Potential Problems in Graphics System Designs

    Hardware Elements

    User Interface

    System Classifications

    37 Video Tape Recording

    Frequency Range

    Modulation

    Transport Systems

    Servo Systems

    Timebase Correction

    38 Film and Video Tape Editing

    Film Editing

    Video Tape Editing

    Interrelationship between Film and Video Editing

    Future Developments

    The Role of the Editor

    39 Telecines

    Telecine Types

    Film Formats

    Film Transports

    Sound Reproduction

    Optical and Scanning Systems

    Color Response

    Signal Processing

    Part 8 • Mobile and Portable TV Equipment and Operations

    40 Portable Television Cameras and Videotape Recorders

    Background

    Recording Systems for Portable Use

    Component Video Systems

    Sound Recording Features of Compact Video Recorders

    Portable Cameras

    Implementations of Compact Recording System Designs

    41 OB Vehicles and Mobile Control Rooms

    Evolution of OB Vehicles and Mobile Control Rooms

    Vehicle Design

    Outline of Constructional Techniques for TV Mobiles

    42 Microwave Links for OB and ENG

    System Concepts

    Multiplexing

    Antennas

    Central ENG

    System Calculations

    43 Electronic News Gathering and Electronic Field Production

    Electronic News Gathering

    Operating Practices

    Electronic Field Production

    44 Transportable Power Sources

    On Board Power Generation

    Trailer Generators

    Battery Sources

    Battery Charging Systems

    Nickel-Cadmium Battery Management

    Part 9 • Television Sound

    45 Sound Origination Equipment

    Primary Sources

    Secondary Sources

    46 Sound Mixing and Control

    Basic Functions of a Sound Desk

    Digital Sound Desks

    47 Sound Editing and Dubbing Equipment

    Analogue Recording

    Noise Reduction

    Digital Recording

    48 Multi-Channel Sound Systems

    Overview

    Analogue Systems

    Digital Systems

    Multiple Sound Signals in MAC Systems

    Multi-Channel Sound for HDTV

    49 Sound Distribution including Digital Sound-in-Sync

    Methods of Sound Distribution

    Sound-in-Sync

    Stereo Sound-in-Sync

    Stereo Sound Transmission Using NICAM 728

    50 Digital Audio Concepts and Equipment

    Digital Audio Concepts

    Digital Audio in Application

    Part 10 • Television Receivers

    51 Basic Receiver Design Principles

    Receiver Performance Requirements and Structure

    Color Decoding

    Requirements for Peripheral Equipment

    Remote Control and I C Bus

    Basic Data

    52 Picture Displays

    Cathode Ray Tube Principles

    Monochrome Tubes

    Single Beam Color Systems

    Side Gun and Folded Electron Optical Systems

    Three Beam Color Systems

    Considerations When Using crts

    Projection Systems

    Alternative Technologies

    53 Production Engineering and Reliability

    Production Engineering

    Reliability and Quality Assurance

    Part 11 • Television Receiver Installation and Servicing

    54 Receiving Antennas

    Properties of Antennas

    Types of Antennas

    Antenna Erection

    Indoor Antenna

    Standards and Codes of Practice

    55 Maintenance and Servicing

    Test Equipment

    Setting up and Performance Appraisal

    Fault Diagnosis

    Replacement of Components

    Intermittent Faults and Soak Testing

    Safety in Servicing

    Part 12 • Video and Audio Recording and Playback (Domestic)

    56 Video Cassette Recorders

    Philips N1500 and N1700

    Beta Format

    VHS

    Grundig SVR 4004

    Technicolor CVC 212E

    The Second Generation

    Philips V2000

    Camcorders

    Hi-Fi Sound

    VHS Long Play Developments

    8 Mm Video

    S-VHS

    Digital Waveforms

    57 Video Discs

    Early Systems

    Current Systems

    CD-ROM

    Computer Floppy Disk

    58 Electronic Cameras

    Domestic Cameras

    Camera Tubes

    Solid-State Camera Devices

    59 Audio Recording and Playback

    Background to Consumer Audio

    The Compact Cassette

    Other Cassette Systems

    The Digital Audio Disc

    Related Optical Disc Systems

    Digital Audio Tape

    Other Systems

    Part 13 • Teletext and Similar Technologies

    60 Broadcast Teletext Systems

    The Teletext Data Signal

    Teletext Data Format

    Error Protection

    Access Time and Data Rate

    Transmission Systems

    Teletext Subtitling

    Regional Teletext Services

    Teletext Data Network

    Measurement of Teletext Signal Quality

    61 Teletext Decoders

    Basic Functions

    Decoder Performance

    Signal Path Distortion

    Multipage Decoders

    Teletext Adaptors

    Encrypted Teletext Services and Telesoftware

    62 Interactive Videotex

    Fundamentals

    Terminals

    Presentation Techniques

    International Videotex Standards

    Functionality

    Network Topologies

    Part 14 • High Definition Television

    63a International Background

    Introduction

    Desirable Features of HDTV

    Technical Considerations for Future Standards

    The HDTV Elements Design Consideration

    HDTV Formats and Transmission

    High Definition Electronic Production of Movies

    63b European Standards

    HDTV Standards

    HDTV Formats

    HDTV Broadcasting DBS Prospects in Europe

    Conclusions

    Part 15 • Industrial, Commercial, Medical and Defense Applications of Television

    64 Industrial, Commercial, Medical and Defense Applications

    Industrial Applications

    Commercial Applications

    Medical Applications

    Defense Applications

    Part 16 • Performance Measurements and Electromagnetic Compatibility

    65 Television Performance Measurements

    Introduction

    Insertion Test Signals

    Measurement Techniques

    Measurement Tolerances

    Teletext

    Specialized Test Waveforms

    New TV Generation and Distribution Methods

    66 Electromagnetic Compatibility

    European Community Directive

    Relevant Standards

    Conclusions

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 946
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1991
  • Published: January 1, 1991
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483193755

About the Editors

K G Jackson

G B Townsend

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