Turbulence Phenomena

Turbulence Phenomena

An Introduction to the Eddy Transfer of Momentum, Mass, and Heat, Particularly at Interfaces

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Author: J.T. Davies
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150934

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Turbulence Phenomena provides an introduction to the eddy transfer of momentum, mass, and heat, specifically at interfaces. The approach of the discussion of the subject matter is based on the eddy mixing length concept of Prandtl. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion on basic concepts regarding liquid flow such as viscosity, turbulent flows, and velocities. As concepts and theories are established, the book then discusses the eddy transfer in fluids, specifically eddy transfer of mass and heat within fluids and eddy transfer near solid surfaces. The concept of eddies in different surfaces is discussed in length all throughout numerous chapters. These different surfaces include clean gas-liquid surfaces, clean liquid-liquid interfaces, and film-covered surfaces. The last few chapters focus on the more detailed discussion on turbulence, such as the concept of spontaneous interfacial turbulence and emulsification and turbulent dispersion and coalescence. The book will be of great use to undergraduate students of chemical engineering, physics, and chemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1. Velocities and Stresses in Turbulent Flows


    Types of Turbulent Flow

    Pipe-Flow Turbulence

    Prandtl's Theory

    Shear Stress Velocity

    Velocity Profiles

    Dimensionless Units

    The Interpretation of υ0

    The Friction Factor φ and Pressure Drops

    Dimensionless One-Seventh-Power Velocity Profile

    Flow over Flat Plates

    Entry Effects in Pipes

    Flow in Open Channels

    Isotropic Turbulence

    Turbulence in Stirred Tanks

    Free Turbulent Jets

    Restrained Turbulent Jets


    Chapter 2. Eddy Transfer of Mass and Heat within Fluids

    Introduction to Mass Transfer in Fluids

    Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flows

    Mixing in Turbulent Flows

    Introduction to Heat Transfer in Fluids

    Heat Transfer in Turbulent Flows

    Thermal Mixing in Turbulent Flows


    Chapter 3. Eddy Transfer near Solid Surfaces

    Eddies near a Solid Surface

    Velocity Profiles near Wall for Turbulent Flow

    Relation between Momentum and Mass Transfer

    Comparison with Experiment for Smooth Surfaces

    Mass Transfer from Rough Surfaces

    Mass Transfer in Stirred Tanks

    Mass Transfer into Impinging Submerged Turbulent Jets

    Reaction between Dissolving Solid and Bulk Reactant

    Deposition from Colloidal Dispersions

    Relation between Momentum and Heat Transfer

    Comparison with Experiment

    Heat Transfer across Rough Walls

    Heat Transfer from Suspended Solids

    Heat Transfer in Stirred Tanks from Jacket or Coiled Pipes

    Heat Transfer to Liquid Metals in Pipes

    Heat Transfer into Impinging Submerged Jets


    Chapter 4. Eddies at Clean Gas-Liquid Surfaces

    Eddies near a Liquid Surface

    Mass Transfer Calculations

    Experiments on Surface Renewal

    Experimental Physical Absorption Rates

    Gas Absorption with Chemical Reaction


    Chapter 5. Eddies at Clean Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

    Eddies near a Clean Liquid-Liquid Interface

    Visualization of Interfacial Renewal

    Experimental Physical Absorption Rates

    Extraction Accompanied by Chemical Reaction

    Heat Transfer


    Chapter 6. Eddies at Film-Covered Surfaces

    Eddies near Film-Covered Surfaces

    Experiments on Surface Renewal

    Experimental Physical Absorption Rates


    Chapter 7. Turbulence in Non-Newtonian Fluids and Drag Reduction

    Nonelastic Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Elastic Fluids in Shear

    Reduction of Turbulent Drag

    Drag Reduction by Flexible Walls


    Chapter 8. Eddies in and around Moving Drops


    Velocity and Mass Transfer at Low Drop Reynolds Number

    Velocity and Mass Transfer at Intermediate Reynolds Numbers (Re = 50-200)

    Heat Transfer at Reynolds Numbers up to about 200

    Drop Behavior at High Drop Reynolds Numbers (a Few Hundred to a Few Thousand)

    Heat Transfer at High Reynolds Numbers

    Larger Drops and Bubbles

    Non-Newtonian Systems

    Drops in Agitated Systems


    Chapter 9. Spontaneous Interfacial Turbulence and Emulsification

    Spontaneous Interfacial Turbulence

    Quantitative Theories

    Mass Transfer and Interfacial Turbulence

    Mass and Heat Transfer at Solid Surfaces

    Spontaneous Emulsification


    Chapter 10. Turbulent Dispersion and Coalescence


    Dispersion into Isotropic Turbulence

    Dispersion into Pipe-Flow Turbulence

    Dispersions of Liquids and Solids in Gases

    Dispersion of Liquids from Turbulent Jets

    Dispersion of Gas Bubbles in Turbulent Liquids

    Mass Transfer in Disperse Systems


    Practical Extraction in Agitated Systems


    Appendix I. The Equation of Continuity

    Appendix II. The Levich Treatment of Mass Transfer

    Appendix III. The Effect of Chemical Reaction on Solution Rates

    Appendix IV. Deposition of Aerosol Particles from Turbulent Fluids

    Appendix V. Heat Transfer to Liquid Metals

    Appendix VI. Rate of Absorption of a Gas into a Turbulent Liquid

    Appendix VII. Absorption of Gas with Chemical Reaction

    Symbols and Units

    Useful Conversion Factors



    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 424
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150934

About the Author

J.T. Davies

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