Tunnelling and Negative Resistance Phenomena in Semiconductors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080210445, 9781483278957

Tunnelling and Negative Resistance Phenomena in Semiconductors

1st Edition

Authors: D. K. Roy
Editors: B. R. Pamplin
eBook ISBN: 9781483278957
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 230
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Tunnelling and Negative Resistance Phenomena in Semiconductors presents a critical review of tunneling theory and shows how this leads to the negative resistance phenomena in pn junctions. The physics, technology, and circuitry of semiconductor negative resistance devices are surveyed. The book challenges the conventional assumptions of tunneling theory and proposes an alternative approach that allows the possibility of a change in energy during tunneling. It also introduces the reader to the manufacture, operation, and applications of semiconductor negative resistance devices.

Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins by presenting a logical physical interpretation of the wavefunction with its so-called ill-behaved nature and considering other consequences of the energy distribution effect. The next chapter is devoted to the tunneling effect through tunnel diodes along with other properties of this device. The circuitry and technology of tunnel diodes as well as backward and Zener diodes are then examined, along with negative conductance devices that are used as microwave sources. The final chapter is concerned with negative conductance switching devices.

This book is intended for students and practitioners in the fields of physics and electronics.

Table of Contents

Editors Preface


Table of Symbols Used

Chapter 1. Quantum Mechanical Tunnelling

1.1. Introduction: The Need for Revision of the Theory

1.1.1. Existing Concepts of Tunnelling

1.1.2. Tunnelling in MIM, MIS, and Schottky Junctions

1.1.3. pn Junction Tunnelling

1.1.4. Tunnelling in Superconductors

1.1.5. Atomic Tunnelling in Solids

1.1.6. A Need for a Revision of the Theory

1.2. Tunnelling Probability

1.3. Time for Electron Tunnelling

1.4. Tunnelling Current Density

1.5. Conclusions


Chapter 2. Tunnelling in Esaki Junctions

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Effects of Heavy Doping

2.2.1. First-Order Calculation of the Density of States Function

2.2.2. Second-Order Calculation of the Density of States Function

2.2.3. Calculation of Percentage of Ionization

2.3. Tunnelling Probability

2.4. Tunnelling Current

2.4.1. Direct Tunnelling Current

2.4.2. Indirect Tunnelling Current

2.5. Excess Current

2.6. Thermal Current in Tunnel Diodes

2.7. Prediction of Tunnel Diode IV Characteristics

2.8. Dependence of Tunnel Characteristics on Different Physical Parameters


Chapter 3. Circuitry and Technology of yn Tunnel Devices

3.1. Circuit Applications of Tunnel Diodes

3.1.1. Equivalent Circuit and Stability Considerations

3.1.2. Tunnel Diode Amplifiers

3.1.3. Tunnel Diode Oscillators

3.1.4. Tunnel Diode Mixers, Converters, and Detectors

3.1.5. Digital Applications

3.1.6. Miscellaneous Other Applications

3.2. Technology of Tunnel Diodes

3.2.1. Materials

3.2.2. Methods of Fabrication

3.2.3. Mounting

3.3. Backward Diodes

3.4. Zener Diodes


Chapter 4. Negative Conductance Microwave Devices

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Bulk Negative Differential Conductivity (BNDC) Effects

4.2.1. The Ridley Hilsum Watkins (RHW) Mechanism

4.2.2. Gunn Oscillation and its Various Modes

4.2.3. Fabrication of Gunn Devices

4.2.4. Miscellaneous Aspects on Gunn Effect

4.2.5. Thermistor

4.2.6. Cryosar

4.2.7. Superlattice Device

4.3. The Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) Devices

4.3.1. Qualitative Device Consideration

4.3.2. Analysis of the Device

4.3.3. Other IMPATT structures

4.3.4. Conclusions


Chapter 5. Switching Devices

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Unijunction Transistor

5.2.1. Description of the Device

5.2.2. Principles of Operation

5.2.3. Analysis of the Device

5.2.4. Applications of Unijunction Transistors

5.2.5. Fabrication of Unijunction Transistors

5.3. Four Layer pn pn Devices

5.3.1. Device Features

5.3.2. Explanation of the Device Characteristics

5.3.3. Turn-On and Turn-Off Procedures

5.3.4. Typical Device Applications

5.3.5. Device Fabrication

5.4. Avalanche Injection Diodes

5.5. pnI (Insulator) M (Metal) Devices

5.6. Summary


Appendix. The Airy Function and its Properties


A. Physics and Technology of Tunnel Diodes

B. Circuit Applications of Tunnel Diodes

C. Metal Insulator Metal Tunnelling

D. Tunnelling in Metal Insulator Semiconductor and Schottky Junctions

E. Superconductive Tunnelling



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© Pergamon 1977
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About the Author

D. K. Roy

About the Editor

B. R. Pamplin

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