Treatise on Geomorphology

Treatise on Geomorphology

1st Edition - February 27, 2013

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  • Editor-in-Chief: J Shroder
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123747396
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080885223

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The changing focus and approach of geomorphic research suggests that the time is opportune for a summary of the state of discipline. The number of peer-reviewed papers published in geomorphic journals has grown steadily for more than two decades and, more importantly, the diversity of authors with respect to geographic location and disciplinary background (geography, geology, ecology, civil engineering, computer science, geographic information science, and others) has expanded dramatically. As more good minds are drawn to geomorphology, and the breadth of the peer-reviewed literature grows, an effective summary of contemporary geomorphic knowledge becomes increasingly difficult. The fourteen volumes of this Treatise on Geomorphology will provide an important reference for users from undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic. Information on the historical development of diverse topics within geomorphology provides context for ongoing research; discussion of research strategies, equipment, and field methods, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations reflect the multiple approaches to understanding Earth’s surfaces; and summaries of outstanding research questions highlight future challenges and suggest productive new avenues for research. Our future ability to adapt to geomorphic changes in the critical zone very much hinges upon how well landform scientists comprehend the dynamics of Earth’s diverse surfaces. This Treatise on Geomorphology provides a useful synthesis of the state of the discipline, as well as highlighting productive research directions, that Educators and students/researchers will find useful.

Key Features

  • Geomorphology has advanced greatly in the last 10 years to become a very interdisciplinary field. Undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic will find the answers they need in this broad reference work which has been designed and written to accommodate their diverse backgrounds and levels of understanding
  • Editor-in-Chief, Prof. J. F. Shroder of the University of Nebraska at Omaha, is past president of the QG&G section of the Geological Society of America and present Trustee of the GSA Foundation, while being well respected in the geomorphology research community and having won numerous awards in the field. A host of noted international geomorphologists have contributed state-of-the-art chapters to the work. Readers can be guaranteed that every chapter in this extensive work has been critically reviewed for consistency and accuracy by the World expert Volume Editors and by the Editor-in-Chief himself
  • No other reference work exists in the area of Geomorphology that offers the breadth and depth of information contained in this 14-volume masterpiece. From the foundations and history of geomorphology through to geomorphological innovations and computer modelling, and the past and future states of landform science, no "stone" has been left unturned!


The text of the articles will be written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource for information in the field. The work will be targeted towards those working in all aspects of the geomorphological sciences, including governmental agencies, corporations involved in environmental work, geoscience researchers, forensic scientists, and university professors

Table of Contents

  • Editor-In-Chief

    Volume Editors



    Permission Acknowledgments

    Volume 1: The Foundations of Geomorphology


    1.1 Introduction to the Foundations of Geomorphology

    1.1.1 Introduction to Geomorphology

    1.1.2 Establishment of the Discipline

    1.1.3 Cycle and Process: Early and Middle Twentieth-Century Trends

    1.1.4 Climate and Humans: Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First-Century Trends

    1.1.5 Historical and Conceptual Foundations


    The History of Geomorphology

    1.2 The Scientific Roots of Geomorphology before 1830


    1.2.1 Introduction

    1.2.2 The Distant Past

    1.2.3 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, 1600–1830

    1.2.4 Roots in Historical Earth Science, 1600–1830

    1.2.5 Roots in Classical Mechanics, 1600–1830

    1.2.6 Prospects for Geomorphology after 1830

    1.2.7 Conclusion


    1.3 Major Themes in British and European Geomorphology in the Nineteenth Century


    1.3.1 Introduction

    1.3.2 The Glacial Theory: A Preposterous Notion

    1.3.3 Beyond the Ice Sheets: The Seeds of Climatic Geomorphology and Climate Change

    1.3.4 River Valleys and the Power of Fluvial Denudation

    1.3.5 The Decay of Rocks

    1.3.6 Mountain-Building

    1.3.7 Conclusion


    1.4 Geomorphology and Nineteenth-Century Explorations of the American West


    1.4.1 Introduction

    1.4.2 Pre-Nineteenth Century

    1.4.3 Lewis and Clark

    1.4.4 Fur Trappers and Traders

    1.4.5 Army Topographers

    1.4.6 Geographical and Geological Field Surveys

    1.4.7 G.K. Gilbert

    1.4.8 Concluding Comments


    1.5 Geomorphology in the First Half of the Twentieth Century


    1.5.1 Introduction

    1.5.2 William Morris Davis and a Paradigm for Geomorphology

    1.5.3 Davisian Reasoning

    1.5.4 Articulation of the Davisian Paradigm

    1.5.5 Tectonic Considerations in Relation to Davisian Theory

    1.5.6 Local Opposition to Davis

    1.5.7 Davisian Doctrines Applied Overseas: Some Examples

    1.5.8 German Opposition to Davisian Ideas: Walther Penck’s Alternative

    1.5.9 Germany and America: Differences of Opinion

    1.5.10 Lester King in Africa: Davis Rewritten

    1.5.11 Periglacial Geomorphology

    1.5.12 The Beginnings of Quantitative and Experimental Geomorphology

    1.5.13 Stream Patterns and Drainage Development

    1.5.14 Landforms Produced by Etching

    1.5.15 The Movement of Sand and Soil by Wind: Bagnold’s Investigations

    1.5.16 Conclusion


    1.6 The Mid-Twentieth Century Revolution in Geomorphology


    1.6.1 Introduction

    1.6.2 The Quantitative Revolution

    1.6.3 The Process Revolution

    1.6.4 Theoretical Reappraisals

    1.6.5 The Plate-Tectonic Revolution

    1.6.6 The Climate-Change Revolution

    1.6.7 The Revolution in Geochronology

    1.6.8 Conclusion


    1.7 Geomorphology in the Late Twentieth Century


    1.7.1 Introduction

    1.7.2 New Technologies in Geomorphology

    1.7.3 Process Geomorphology

    1.7.4 Landscape Development and Tectonic Geomorphology

    1.7.5 Chaos, Self-Organized Criticality, and Non-linear Dynamic Systems

    1.7.6 Connecting to Ecology: Biogeomorphology

    1.7.7 Conclusions


    Changing Concepts and Paradigms

    1.8 Philosophy and Theory in Geomorphology

    1.8.1 Introduction

    1.8.2 Distinguishing between Philosophy and Theory

    1.8.3 Approaching Geomorphology

    1.8.4 The Two Geomorphologies Problem

    1.8.5 The Geomorphic Frame of Systems Analysis


    1.9 Spatial and Temporal Scales in Geomorphology


    1.9.1 Introduction

    1.9.2 Changing Foci of Time and Space

    1.9.3 Conceptualizing Time and Space in Geomorphology

    1.9.4 Spacetime Scales: Where and How Do We Go From Here?

    1.9.5 Conclusion


    1.10 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology


    1.10.1 Introduction

    1.10.2 Tectonism and Tectonic Change

    1.10.3 Weather, Climate, and Climate Change

    1.10.4 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology: Spatial Considerations

    1.10.5 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology: Temporal Changes since 300 Ma

    1.10.6 Geomorphic Feedbacks to Climate and Tectonism

    1.10.7 Conclusion


    1.11 Process in Geomorphology


    1.11.1 Introduction

    1.11.2 Conceptions of Process at the Inception of Geomorphology

    1.11.3 Evolving Conceptions of Process in Geomorphology

    1.11.4 Strahler and the Foundation of the Process Paradigm

    1.11.5 Systems and Process

    1.11.6 The Mechanics and Mathematics of Process

    1.11.7 Elaboration of the Process Paradigm

    1.11.8 Philosophical Perspectives on Process

    1.11.9 Conclusion


    1.12 Denudation, Planation, and Cyclicity: Myths, Models, and Reality


    1.12.1 Introduction

    1.12.2 Denudation: Foundations of the Concept before 1830

    1.12.3 Planation: A Prolonged Debate, 1830–1960

    1.12.4 Cyclicity in Geomorphology

    1.12.5 The Quest for Reality

    1.12.6 Conclusion


    1.13 Sediments and Sediment Transport


    1.13.1 Introduction

    1.13.2 Key Concepts

    1.13.3 The Properties of Sediment

    1.13.4 Initiation of Sediment Motion

    1.13.5 Sediment Transport

    1.13.6 Conclusions


    1.14 Systems and Complexity in Geomorphology


    1.14.1 The Complexity of Landscapes

    1.14.2 Early Work on Systems and Complexity

    1.14.3 Systems and Complexity in Geomorphology

    1.14.4 Discussion



    1.15 Geomorphology and Late Cenozoic Climate Change


    1.15.1 Introduction

    1.15.2 Climatic Geomorphology

    1.15.3 Late Cenozoic Climates and Climate Change

    1.15.4 Marine Archives

    1.15.5 Ice-Core Archives

    1.15.6 Lake Archives

    1.15.7 Aeolian Archives

    1.15.8 Relevance of Climate Archives to Geomorphology

    1.15.9 Conclusion


    Investigative Traditions and Changing Technologies

    1.16 The Field, the First, and Latest Court of Appeal: An Australian Cratonic Landscape and its Wider Relevance

    1.16.1 Introduction

    1.16.2 Bornhardts and Associated Features

    1.16.3 Domical Bornhardts and the Origin and Age of Sheet Fractures

    1.16.4 Other Aspects of Bornhardts

    1.16.5 Flared Slopes and their Significance

    1.16.6 Age Considerations

    1.16.7 Conclusions


    1.17 Laboratory and Experimental Geomorphology: Examples from Fluvial and Aeolian Systems


    1.17.1 Philosophical Basis

    1.17.2 Origin and Evolution of Hardware Modeling of Fluvial and Aeolian Systems

    1.17.3 Advantages of Hardware Models over Field Experiments

    1.17.4 Challenges in Scaling Laboratory Experiments

    1.17.5 The Nuts and Bolts of Hardware Simulation in Geomorphology

    1.17.6 Transformative Concepts

    1.17.7 The Future of Experimentation in Geomorphology

    1.17.8 Concluding Remarks


    1.18 Present Research Frontiers in Geomorphology


    1.18.1 Introduction

    1.18.2 Research at the Interface of Geomorphology and Ecology

    1.18.3 Integrative Thinking – Earth System Science and Landscape Evolution

    1.18.4 Geospatial Data Applications

    1.18.5 Dealing with Threats to Coastal Environments: Better Understanding of Coastal Processes and Geomorphology

    1.18.6 Aeolian Research: New Impetus, New Technologies, and an Emerging Force

    1.18.7 Dating Agencies: Advances in Methods and Data Handling

    1.18.8 Concluding Remarks



    1.19 Geomorphology for Future Societies


    1.19.1 Introduction

    1.19.2 Geomorphology Past and Present

    1.19.3 The Future I: Environmental Challenges to Society

    1.19.4 The Future II: The Research Role of Geomorphology

    1.19.5 The Future III: Applied Geomorphology

    1.19.6 Conclusion


    Volume 2: Quantitative Modeling of Geomorphology

    2.1 Quantitative Modeling of Geomorphology

    2.1.1 Introduction

    2.1.2 Structure of this Volume



    Fundamental Aspects

    2.2 Nine Considerations for Constructing and Running Geomorphological Models


    2.2.1 Introduction

    2.2.2 Model Construction

    2.2.3 Running the Model

    2.2.4 Concluding Remarks



    2.3 Fundamental Principles and Techniques of Landscape Evolution Modeling


    2.3.1 Fundamental Processes and Equations

    2.3.2 Solution Methods

    2.3.3 Conclusions


    2.4 A Community Approach to Modeling Earth- and Seascapes


    2.4.1 Background

    2.4.2 Concept of a Community Modeling System

    2.4.3 Open-Source and Readily Available Code

    2.4.4 Community Modeling and the CSDMS Approach

    2.4.5 Challenges

    2.4.6 Summary


    Relevant Websites

    2.5 Which Models Are Good (Enough), and When?

    2.5.1 Introduction

    2.5.2 What Does It Mean for a Model to be Wrong?

    2.5.3 What Makes a Model Rigorous?



    Innovative Methods

    2.6 Statistical Methods for Geomorphic Distribution Modeling


    2.6.1 Introduction

    2.6.2 Modeling Steps

    2.6.3 Review of Statistical Methods

    2.6.4 SWOT Analysis of Statistical Modeling in Geomorphology

    2.6.5 Future Challenges


    2.7 Genetic Algorithms, Optimization, and Evolutionary Modeling

    2.7.1 Introduction

    2.7.2 Genetic Algorithms

    2.7.3 GAs in Geomorphology

    2.7.4 Conclusions



    2.8 Nonlocal Transport Theories in Geomorphology: Mathematical Modeling of Broad Scales of Motion


    2.8.1 Introduction

    2.8.2 Mathematical Background

    2.8.3 Superdiffusion in Tracer Dispersal

    2.8.4 Nonlocal Theories of Sediment Transport on Hillslopes

    2.8.5 Nonlocal Landscape Evolution Models

    2.8.6 Future Directions



    2.9 Cellular Automata in Geomorphology


    2.9.1 Introduction

    2.9.2 Basis of the Automata Modeling System

    2.9.3 Relationship to Other Geomorphology Modeling Systems

    2.9.4 Development of Cellular Automata Use in Geomorphology

    2.9.5 Advantages and Disadvantages

    2.9.6 Issues in Implementation

    2.9.7 The Place of Cellular Automata in the Scientific Nature of Geomorphology


    Geomorphic Modeling from Soil to Landscape

    2.10 Hillslope Soil Erosion Modeling


    2.10.1 The Basis of Soil Erosion Modeling

    2.10.2 Why Model Soil Erosion?

    2.10.3 Classification of Soil Erosion Models

    2.10.4 Empirical Models

    2.10.5 Process-Based Models

    2.10.6 Scales of Model Application

    2.10.7 Temporal Scales

    2.10.8 Spatial Scales

    2.10.9 The Scaling Question

    2.10.10 Hillslope-Scale Soil Erosion Models

    2.10.11 An Example of a Hillslope Erosion Model – The WEPP

    2.10.12 Erosion Model Implementation and Assessment

    2.10.13 Sensitivity Analysis

    2.10.14 Model Evaluation

    2.10.15 The Future of Hillslope Soil Erosion Modeling


    Relevant Websites

    2.11 Process-Based Sediment Transport Modeling


    2.11.1 Introduction

    2.11.2 The Basis of a Process Sediment Transport Modeling System

    2.11.3 The Concept of Mass and Momentum Equations in Sediment Transport Modeling

    2.11.4 The Spatial Dimensionality of Different Process Sediment Transport Models

    2.11.5 Using an Eulerian or Lagrangian Framework to Build a Sediment Transport Model

    2.11.6 Discrete Particle Modeling

    2.11.7 The Prescription of Boundary Conditions for Sediment Transport Models

    2.11.8 The Assessment of a Sediment Transport Model: Considering the Concepts of Validation and Verification

    2.11.9 Discussion


    2.12 Morphodynamic Modeling of Rivers and Floodplains

    2.12.1 Introduction

    2.12.2 High Resolution Physics-Based River Models

    2.12.3 Network Models of Meander Migration

    2.12.4 Cellular Models of Braided Rivers

    2.12.5 Models of River Long Profile Evolution

    2.12.6 Floodplain Sedimentation Models

    2.12.7 Coupled Models of Channel-Floodplain Evolution and Alluvial Architecture

    2.12.8 Perspective



    2.13 Quantitative Modeling of Landscape Evolution


    2.13.1 Introduction

    2.13.2 Recent Reviews of Quantitative Landscape Evolution Modeling

    2.13.3 Quantitative Models of Landscape Evolution: Concepts and Definitions

    2.13.4 Landscape Evolution Model Studies

    2.13.5 The Future of Landscape Evolution Modeling


    2.14 Modeling Ecogeomorphic Systems


    2.14.1 Introduction

    2.14.2 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Fluvial Channel Systems

    2.14.3 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Catchments

    2.14.4 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Semi-Arid Systems with Patterned Vegetation

    2.14.5 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Tidal Wetlands

    2.14.6 Ecogeomorphological Models of Vegetated Dune Evolution

    2.14.7 Conclusions


    Volume 3: Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology

    3.1 Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology: Introduction and Overview


    3.1.1 Introduction

    3.1.2 Geospatial Technology and Fieldwork

    3.1.3 Remote Sensing and Geomorphology

    3.1.4 GIS and Geomorphology

    3.1.5 Conclusions


    3.2 Ground, Aerial, and Satellite Photography for Geomorphology and Geomorphic Change


    3.2.1 Introduction

    3.2.2 Data Acquisition

    3.2.3 Image Interpretation

    3.2.4 Conclusions


    Relevant Websites

    3.3 Microwave Remote Sensing and Surface Characterization


    3.3.1 Types of Microwave Sensors

    3.3.2 Microwave Remote-Sensing Principles

    3.3.3 Altimeters

    3.3.4 Synthetic-Aperture Radars

    3.3.5 Stereo SAR

    3.3.6 Interferometric SAR

    3.3.7 Summary


    3.4 Remote Sensing of Land Cover Dynamics

    3.4.1 Introduction

    3.4.2 Remote Sensing of Land Cover

    3.4.3 Case Studies

    3.4.4 Land-Cover Change Modeling

    3.4.5 Future Research Directions


    3.5 Near-Surface Geophysics in Geomorphology


    3.5.1 Introduction

    3.5.2 Gravity

    3.5.3 Magnetics

    3.5.4 Resistivity and EM Methods

    3.5.5 Ground-Penetrating Radar

    3.5.6 Seismic Methods

    3.5.7 Combining Geophysical Methods

    3.5.8 Discussion and Conclusions


    3.6 Digital Terrain Modeling


    3.6.1 Introduction

    3.6.2 Background

    3.6.3 DTM Representation

    3.6.4 Data Sources

    3.6.5 Preprocessing

    3.6.6 DTM Error Assessment

    3.6.7 Geomorphological Applications

    3.6.8 Conclusions


    3.7 Geomorphometry


    3.7.1 Introduction

    3.7.2 Digital Terrain Modeling

    3.7.3 Land-Surface Parameters

    3.7.4 Land-Surface Objects and Landforms

    3.7.5 Conclusions


    3.8 Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphological Mapping


    3.8.1 Introduction

    3.8.2 Background

    3.8.3 Glacial Landscapes and Landforms

    3.8.4 Volcanic Terrain and Landforms

    3.8.5 Landslide Mapping

    3.8.6 Fluvial Landscapes and Landforms

    3.8.7 Conclusion


    3.9 GIS-Based Soil Erosion Modeling



    3.9.1 Introduction

    3.9.2 Background

    3.9.3 Foundations in Erosion Modeling

    3.9.4 Simplified Models of Erosion Processes

    3.9.5 GIS Implementation

    3.9.6 Case Studies

    3.9.7 Conclusion and Future Directions



    3.10 Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management


    3.10.1 Introduction

    3.10.2 Background

    3.10.3 Hazard Assessment

    3.10.4 Elements-At-Risk and Vulnerability

    3.10.5 Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment

    3.10.6 Conclusions



    3.11 Geovisualization


    3.11.1 Introduction

    3.11.2 Background

    3.11.3 Visual Processing

    3.11.4 Visual Interaction

    3.11.5 Visual Outputs

    3.11.6 Conclusions


    Volume 4: Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

    4.1 Overview of Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

    4.1.1 Previous Major Works in Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

    4.1.2 What Constitutes Weathering Geomorphology?

    4.1.3 Major Themes, Current Trends, and Overview of the Text

    4.1.4 Conclusion


    4.2 Synergistic Weathering Processes


    4.2.1 Introduction

    4.2.2 Getting to the Heart of Weathering and Its Synergies

    4.2.3 Scale Issues and Understanding Weathering Synergies

    4.2.4 Concepts to Help Understand Weathering Synergies across Scales

    4.2.5 Weathering Process Synergies


    4.3 Pedogenesis with Respect to Geomorphology


    4.3.1 Introduction

    4.3.2 Pedogenic Processes

    4.3.3 Pedogenesis and Landscape Evolution

    4.3.4 Soil Chronosequences

    4.3.5 Soils as Indicators of Landscape Stability

    4.3.6 Soils and Climate Change

    4.3.7 Soil-Slope Relationships

    4.3.8 Hillslope/Soil Process Interaction

    4.3.9 Soils and Sedimentation

    4.3.10 Conclusions


    4.4 Nanoscale: Mineral Weathering Boundary


    4.4.1 Introduction to Nanoscale Weathering

    4.4.2 Nanoscale Techniques for Geomorphologists

    4.4.3 Applying Nanoscale Strategies to Contemporary Issues in Geomorphic Weathering

    4.4.4 Conclusion


    4.5 Rock Coatings


    4.5.1 Introduction to Rock Coatings

    4.5.2 Interpreting Rock Coatings through a Landscape Geochemistry Approach

    4.5.3 Importance of Rock Coatings in Geomorphology

    4.5.4 Conclusion


    4.6 Weathering Rinds: Formation Processes and Weathering Rates


    4.6.1 Introduction

    4.6.2 Previous Research on Weathering Rinds

    4.6.3 Temporal Changes in Rock Properties

    4.6.4 Formation Processes of Weathering Rinds

    4.6.5 A Porosity Concerned Model of Weathering Rind Development

    4.6.6 Conclusions


    4.7 Tafoni and Other Rock Basins


    4.7.1 Introduction

    4.7.2 Morphological Classification and Rate of Development

    4.7.3 Stages of Tafone Development

    4.7.4 Stages of Gnamma Progression

    4.7.5 Processes of Development

    4.7.6 Summary


    4.8 Weathering Mantles and Long-Term Landform Evolution

    4.8.1 Introduction

    4.8.2 Weathering Mantles and How They Form

    4.8.3 Deep Weathering Through Geological Time

    4.8.4 Etching and Stripping

    4.8.5 Geomorphological Signatures of Etchsurfaces

    4.8.6 Conclusions


    4.9 Catenas and Soils


    4.9.1 Introduction

    4.9.2 The Catena Concept

    4.9.3 Elements and Characteristics of Catenas

    4.9.4 Soil Variation on Catenas – Why?

    4.9.5 Soil Drainage Classes along Catenas

    4.9.6 The Edge Effect

    4.9.7 Summary


    4.10 Weathering and Hillslope Development

    4.10.1 Introduction

    4.10.2 Fundamentals

    4.10.3 Weathering and Rock Slope Evolution

    4.10.4 Deep Weathering and Landslides

    4.10.5 Weathering and Slope Landforms

    4.10.6 Conclusions


    4.11 Weathering in the Tropics, and Related Extratropical Processes


    4.11.1 Overview

    4.11.2 Weathering Processes and Their Relation to Tropical Conditions

    4.11.3 Weathering-Related Landforms of the Tropics

    4.11.4 Conclusion


    4.12 Weathering in Arid Regions


    4.12.1 Introduction

    4.12.2 Climate and Weathering – Presumed Connections and Observed Disparities

    4.12.3 Nature and Complexity of Weathering Processes

    4.12.4 The Desert Weathering System

    4.12.5 Inheritance and the Concept of Palimpsest

    4.12.6 Conclusion


    4.13 Coastal Weathering

    4.13.1 Introduction

    4.13.2 Marine Salt in the Coastal Environment

    4.13.3 Weathering Processes Facilitated by the Coastal Environment

    4.13.4 Coastal Landforms Associated with Weathering

    4.13.5 Conclusion


    4.14 Chemical Weathering in Cold Climates


    4.14.1 Introduction

    4.14.2 Chemical Weathering Processes

    4.14.3 Bedrock Weathering

    4.14.4 Rock Coatings

    4.14.5 Soil Development in Cold Climates

    4.14.6 Chemical Weathering in Glacial and Proglacial Environments

    4.14.7 Chemical Denudation in Arctic and Alpine Environments

    4.14.8 Conclusions


    4.15 Mechanical Weathering in Cold Regions


    4.15.1 Introduction

    4.15.2 Weathering Processes in Cold Regions

    4.15.3 Landforms

    4.15.4 Where are We at and Where are We Going?


    4.16 Soil Chronosequences


    4.16.1 Introduction

    4.16.2 Soil Characteristics Supporting Chronosequence Development

    4.16.3 Issues Complicating the Development and Use of Chronosequences

    4.16.4 Chronosequence Applications

    4.16.5 Summary and Conclusion


    4.17 Weathering and Sediment Genesis


    4.17.1 Weathering, Sediments, and the Rock Cycle

    4.17.2 Processes: Disintegration and Chemical Alteration

    4.17.3 Factors of Weathering Relevant to Sediment Production

    4.17.4 Sediment Maturity and Weathering in Transport

    4.17.5 Types of Sediment

    4.17.6 The Role of Weathering in Cementing Sediment

    4.17.7 Summary


    Volume 5: Tectonic Geomorphology

    5.1 Dedication to Dr. Kurt Lang Frankel


    5.2 Tectonic Geomorphology: A Perspective


    5.2.1 Introduction

    5.2.2 Development of Tectonic Geomorphology and Advances Related to the Discipline

    5.2.3 Recent Research Foci (Subdisciplines)

    5.2.4 Future Advances



    5.3 Continental–Continental Collision Zone


    5.3.1 Introduction

    5.3.2 Southern Alps of New Zealand

    5.3.3 Africa–Europe Collision

    5.3.4 Arabia–Eurasia Collision

    5.3.5 India–Asia Collision

    5.3.6 Ancient Orogens

    5.3.7 Conclusion


    5.4 Transform Plate Margins and Strike–slip Fault Systems


    5.4.1 Introduction

    5.4.2 General Tectonic Setting

    5.4.3 Advances in Studying Continental Transform Systems

    5.4.4 Major Continental Transform Plate Boundaries and Strike–slip Fault Systems

    5.4.5 Important Questions and Future Directions

    5.4.6 Conclusions



    5.5 Tectonic Geomorphology of Passive Margins and Continental Hinterlands

    5.5.1 Introduction

    5.5.2 Igneous and Tectonic Processes Associated with Rifting

    5.5.3 Prerifting Continental Topography and Elevation

    5.5.4 Postrifting Evolution of Marginal Escarpments

    5.5.5 Evolution of Continental Hinterlands

    5.5.6 Concluding Remarks



    Relevant Website

    5.6 Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence


    5.6.1 An Introduction to Surface and Deep Features of High Plateaus

    5.6.2 Evidence for Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

    5.6.3 Tectonic Mechanisms and Associated Surface Uplift Rates for Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

    5.6.4 Plateau Uplift and Global Climate Change

    5.6.5 Conclusion



    5.7 Tectonic Geomorphology of Active Folding and Development of Transverse Drainages


    5.7.1 Introduction

    5.7.2 Lateral Propagation of Reverse Faults and Related Folds

    5.7.3 Geomorphic Evidence of Lateral Fold Propagation

    5.7.4 Geomorphic Methods to Analyze Laterally Propagating Folds

    5.7.5 Santa Ynez Mountains

    5.7.6 Complex Lateral Propagation

    5.7.7 Development of Transverse Drainage

    5.7.8 Directivity of Earthquake Energy and Lateral Fold Propagation: A Hypothesis of Tectonic Extrusion

    5.7.9 Conclusions


    5.8 Volcanic Landforms and Hazards


    5.8.1 Introduction

    5.8.2 Tectonic Settings

    5.8.3 Variety of Volcanic Landforms

    5.8.4 Evolving Volcanic Landforms

    5.8.5 Ancient Volcanic Settings

    5.8.6 Volcanic Hazards

    5.8.7 Future Challenges in the Study of Volcanic Landforms and Hazards



    5.9 Hot Spots and Large Igneous Provinces


    5.9.1 Introduction

    5.9.2 Hot Spot Volcanic Chains

    5.9.3 Hot Spot Volcanoes

    5.9.4 Conclusion



    5.10 Tectonic Geomorphology of Normal Fault Scarps

    Symbols and abbreviations


    5.10.1 Introduction

    5.10.2 Basin and Range Province

    5.10.3 Slope Retreat Versus Recline

    5.10.4 Modeling the Decay of Transport-Limited Scarps

    5.10.5 Limitation of the Geometric Model for Normal Fault Scarp Decay

    5.10.6 Summary


    5.11 Landslides Generated by Earthquakes: Immediate and Long-Term Effects


    5.11.1 Introduction

    5.11.2 Overview of Landslide Occurrence in Earthquakes

    5.11.3 Geomorphic and Postearthquake Effects of Earthquake-Induced Landslides

    5.11.4 Conclusions


    5.12 Paleoseismology


    5.12.1 Introduction

    5.12.2 Earthquake Recurrence Models

    5.12.3 Recent Methodological Developments in Paleoseismology

    5.12.4 On-Fault Paleoseismology

    5.12.5 Off-Fault Paleoseismology

    5.12.6 Contribution to Seismic Hazards

    5.12.7 Challenges



    5.13 Glacially Influenced Tectonic Geomorphology: The Impact of the Glacial Buzzsaw on Topography and Orogenic Systems

    5.13.1 Introduction

    5.13.2 Basics of Glacial Erosion

    5.13.3 Glacial Erosion and Topography

    5.13.4 Influence of Glaciers on Tectonics

    5.13.5 Discussions and Conclusions


    5.14 Tectonic Aneurysms and Mountain Building


    5.14.1 Introduction

    5.14.2 Tectonic Aneurysm: Conceptual Model

    5.14.3 Physics and Boundary Conditions of the Tectonic Aneurysm

    5.14.4 Geodynamics of the Tectonic Aneurysm

    5.14.5 Conclusions



    5.15 The Influence of Middle and Lower Crustal Flow on the Landscape Evolution of Orogenic Plateaus: Insights from the Himalaya and Tibet



    5.15.1 Introduction

    5.15.2 Development and Geophysical Characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau

    5.15.3 Gravitational Potential Energy Gradients and the Dynamics of Middle Crustal Flow

    5.15.4 Geomorphology and Tectonics of the Tibetan Plateau

    5.15.5 A Self-Consistent Model of the Cenozoic Topographic Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, Assuming Lower and Middle Crustal Flow

    5.15.6 Feedbacks among Middle-Lower Crustal Flow, Landscape Evolution, and Climate

    5.15.7 Conclusions



    5.16 Polygenetic Landscapes



    5.16.1 Introduction

    5.16.2 Early Conceptual Models for Landscape Evolution

    5.16.3 System and Equilibrium Models

    5.16.4 Models for Feedback between Climate and Tectonics

    5.16.5 Relief Production

    5.16.6 Landscape Evolution and Scale

    5.16.7 Mathematical and Computational Modeling

    5.16.8 Conclusion


    Volume 6: Karst Geomorphology


    6.1 New Developments of Karst Geomorphology Concepts


    6.1.1 Introduction

    6.1.2 Processes of Carbonate Karst

    6.1.3 Rates, Dates, and Evolution of Carbonate Karst

    6.1.4 Surface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Karst

    6.1.5 Subsurface Processes and Landforms

    6.1.6 Karst Variation over a Range of Environmental Settings

    6.1.7 Noncarbonate Karst

    6.1.8 Conclusion


    Relevant Websites

    6.2 Karst Landforms: Scope and Processes in the Early Twenty-First Century


    6.2.1 Introduction

    6.2.2 Historical Background

    6.2.3 The Geologic Substrate and Chemical Weathering Mechanisms

    6.2.4 Types of Karst

    6.2.5 Telogenetic Karst and Ancillary Processes

    6.2.6 Coastal Karst/Eogenetic Karst

    6.2.7 Hypogenetic Karst

    6.2.8 Conclusions


    Processes and Features of Carbonate Karst

    6.3 Sources of Water Aggressiveness – The Driving Force of Karstification


    6.3.1 Introduction

    6.3.2 Water Aggressiveness and Bedrock Contact

    6.3.3 Sources of Aggressiveness


    6.4 Karst Geomorphology: Sulfur Karst Processes


    6.4.1 Introduction

    6.4.2 Redox Cycling of Sulfur

    6.4.3 Epigenic Processes

    6.4.4 Hypogenic/Artesian Processes

    6.4.5 Summary


    6.5 Biospeleogenesis


    6.5.1 Introduction

    6.5.2 The Nature and Importance of Microorganisms

    6.5.3 Redox Chemistry and Central Metabolism

    6.5.4 Biospeleogenesis: Metabolism and the CO2 Factor

    6.5.5 Established Biospeleogenesis: Sulfidic Systems

    6.5.6 Postulated Respiratory Biospeleogenesis: Iron Systems

    6.5.7 Morphological Implications of Postulated Iron Biospeleogenesis

    6.5.8 Potential Metabolic Biospeleogenesis: Silicate Systems

    6.5.9 Morphological Implications of Postulated Quartzite Biospeleogenesis

    6.5.10 Conclusions


    6.6 Karstification by Geothermal Waters


    6.6.1 Introduction

    6.6.2 Zonation and Settings of Hydrothermal Karst in the Earth’s Crust

    6.6.3 Diagnostics of Thermal Water Caves

    6.6.4 Macromorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

    6.6.5 Mesomorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

    6.6.6 Micromorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

    6.6.7 Conclusions


    Rates, Dates, and Ancient Carbonate Karst

    6.7 Denudation and Erosion Rates in Karst

    6.7.1 Introduction

    6.7.2 Solutional Erosion Rates in Carbonate Karst – Theoretical Considerations

    6.7.3 Solutional Erosion Rates in Carbonate Karst – Field Measurements

    6.7.4 Temporal Variations in Carbonate Solutional Erosion Rates

    6.7.5 Spatial Variations in Carbonate Solutional Erosion Rates

    6.7.6 Surface Lowering in Karst – Denudation Sensu Stricto

    6.7.7 Conclusions


    6.8 Reconstructing Landscape Evolution by Dating Speleogenetic Processes


    6.8.1 Introduction

    6.8.2 Geochronologic Applications

    6.8.3 Stable and Radiogenic Isotope Applications

    6.8.4 Example Studies of Landscape Evolution from Chronology of Cave Sediments/Speleothems


    6.9 Preservation and Burial of Ancient Karst


    6.9.1 Introduction

    6.9.2 The End of Karstification

    6.9.3 Examples of Extreme Preservation

    6.9.4 Conditions and Mechanisms for Survival

    6.9.5 Filling and Burial

    6.9.6 Exhumation

    6.9.7 Difficulties with Recognizing Exhumation

    6.9.8 Implications of Preservation, Burial, and Exhumation


    Surface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Rocks

    6.10 Classification of Closed Depressions in Carbonate Karst


    6.10.1 Introduction

    6.10.2 Doline

    6.10.3 Uvala

    6.10.4 Polje


    6.11 Poljes, Ponors and Their Catchments

    6.11.1 Definition and Classification of Polje

    6.11.2 Description of Some Poljes

    6.11.3 Hydrology and Hydrogeology of Polje

    6.11.4 Definition of a Ponor and Its Swallow Capacity

    6.11.5 Catchment Area

    6.11.6 Anthropogenic Influences on Polje


    6.12 Microsculpturing of Solutional Rocky Landforms


    6.12.1 Introduction

    6.12.2 Major Karren Forms

    6.12.3 Karren Assemblages

    6.12.4 Classification

    6.12.5 The Future


    Relevant Websites

    6.13 Stone Forests and Their Rock Relief


    6.13.1 Introduction

    6.13.2 Lunan Stone Forests – Shilin

    6.13.3 Stone Forest with Flat Tops

    6.13.4 Stone Forests That Developed on Vertical Beds

    6.13.5 Subsoil Stone Forests

    6.13.6 Conclusion


    6.14 Surface Roughness of Karst Landscapes


    6.14.1 Introduction

    6.14.2 Surface Roughness in Geomorphology

    6.14.3 Surface Roughness in Karst

    6.14.4 Roughness of Tropical Karst

    6.14.5 Conclusion


    Subsurface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Rocks

    6.15 Epikarst Processes


    6.15.1 Epikarst: Definition and Main Characteristics

    6.15.2 Behavior of Epikarst

    6.15.3 Role of the Epikarst in the Development and Functioning of Karst Aquifers

    6.15.4 Conclusion


    6.16 Rock Features and Morphogenesis in Epigenic Caves

    6.16.1 Rock Features and Rock Relief

    6.16.2 Rock Features in Scientific Literature

    6.16.3 Morphogenesis of Cave-Rock Features

    6.16.4 Most Characteristic Cave-Rock Features

    6.16.5 Conclusion


    6.17 The Vertical Dimension of Karst: Controls of Vertical Cave Pattern


    6.17.1 Introduction

    6.17.2 Influence of Karst Hydrology on the Distribution of Caves

    6.17.3 Concepts and Modeling of Cave Origin

    6.17.4 Cave Levels: Records of Base-Level Position and Geomorphic Evolution

    6.17.5 Controls on Vertical Cave Patterns

    6.17.6 Conclusions


    6.18 Large Epigenic Caves in High-Relief Areas


    6.18.1 Introduction

    6.18.2 General Characteristics of Caves in High-Relief Areas

    6.18.3 Why Is It Important to Study Caves in High-Relief Areas?

    6.18.4 The Relative Chronology

    6.18.5 Examples of Caves

    6.18.6 Conclusions


    6.19 Hypogene Speleogenesis


    6.19.1 Introduction

    6.19.2 Basic Concept and Definitions

    6.19.3 Hypogene Speleogenesis in the Framework of Hierarchical Flow Systems

    6.19.4 Evolution of Hydrogeologic Settings

    6.19.5 Dissolution Processes in Hypogene Speleogenesis

    6.19.6 Distribution of Hypogene Speleogenesis

    6.19.7 Hydrogeologic Control of Hypogene Speleogenesis

    6.19.8 Solution Porosity Patterns Produced by Hypogene Speleogenesis

    6.19.9 Mesomorphology Features of Hypogene Caves

    6.19.10 Hypogene Speleogenesis and Paleokarst

    6.19.11 Summary


    6.20 Sulfuric Acid Caves: Morphology and Evolution


    6.20.1 Introduction

    6.20.2 Chemical and Hydrologic Processes in Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis

    6.20.3 Examples of Sulfuric Acid Caves

    6.20.4 Morphology of Sulfuric Acid Caves

    6.20.5 Evolution of Sulfuric Acid Caves

    6.20.6 Evidence for Sulfuric Acid Processes in Paleokarst

    6.20.7 Conclusions


    6.21 Glacial Processes in Caves


    6.21.1 Introduction

    6.21.2 Perennial Cave Ice Accumulation in Temperate Karst Areas

    6.21.3 Seasonal Frost

    6.21.4 Cryogenic Cave Calcite

    6.21.5 Records of Paleoglacial Processes in Caves

    6.21.6 Discussion


    6.22 Morphology of Speleothems in Primary (Lava-) and Secondary Caves


    Prelude Lava Speleothems

    Prelude Carbonate Speleothems

    6.22.1 Introduction: Speleothems

    6.22.2 History of Speleothem Research

    6.22.3 Formation of Caves

    6.22.4 Speleothems

    6.22.5 Conclusions



    Relevant Websites

    6.23 Micromorphology of Cave Sediments


    6.23.1 Introduction

    6.23.2 The Micromorphological Method

    6.23.3 Processes Identified by Micromorphological Analysis

    6.23.4 Micromorphology of Cave Sediments and Environmental Change


    6.24 Cave Sediments as Geologic Tiltmeters


    6.24.1 Introduction

    6.24.2 Cave Sediments as Geologic Tiltmeters

    6.24.3 Review of Existing Literature

    6.24.4 Potential Future Applications


    6.25 Atmospheric Processes in Caves


    6.25.1 Introduction

    6.25.2 Relative Humidity, Evaporation, and Condensation

    6.25.3 Gas Composition of Cave Air

    6.25.4 Condensation Corrosion

    6.25.5 Particulates

    6.25.6 Anthropogenic Impacts

    6.25.7 Conclusions


    Karst Variation Over a Range of Environmental Settings

    6.26 Variations of Karst Geomorphology over Geoclimatic Gradients


    6.26.1 Introduction: The Methodologies

    6.26.2 Climatic Gradients on KFC in Mainland China

    6.26.3 The Geological Modification

    6.26.4 Plate Margins and Rifts

    6.26.5 Global Perspectives


    6.27 Tower Karst and Cone Karst


    6.27.1 Introduction

    6.27.2 Basic Types of Tower Karst and Cone Karst

    6.27.3 Tower Karst and Cone Karst around the World

    6.27.4 Controls on the Development of Fengcong-Fenglin Karst

    6.27.5 Processes in Fengcong-Fenglin Karst Development

    6.27.6 Stability and Age of Fengcong-Fenglin Karst

    6.27.7 Genetic Relationship of Fenglin Karst and Fengcong Karst


    6.28 Seawater and Biokarst Effects on Coastal Limestones


    6.28.1 Introduction

    6.28.2 Historical Perspective

    6.28.3 Coastal Karst

    6.28.4 Seawater Effects

    6.28.5 Biokarst Effects

    6.28.6 Resulting Morphologies

    6.28.7 Conclusions


    6.29 Flank Margin Caves in Carbonate Islands and the Effects of Sea Level


    6.29.1 Introduction

    6.29.2 The Bahamas and Flank Margin Caves

    6.29.3 Syngenetic and Syndepositional Caves

    6.29.4 Tectonics and Increasing Carbonate Island Complexity

    6.29.5 Eogenetic Lithological Controls of Flank Margin Caves

    6.29.6 Diagenetically Mature Carbonate Coasts

    6.29.7 Coastal Conundrum: Differentiating Coastal Pseudokarst Caves from Karst Caves

    6.29.8 Flank Margin Caves Relative to Other Cave Types

    6.29.9 The Consequences of Coastal Cave Location

    6.29.10 Summary


    6.30 Glacier Ice-Contact Speleogenesis in Marble Stripe Karst


    6.30.1 Introduction

    6.30.2 Glaciology and Glacier Hydrology

    6.30.3 Ice-contact Carbonate Dissolution Kinetics

    6.30.4 Field Evidence

    6.30.5 Conclusions


    6.31 Karst in Deserts


    6.31.1 Introduction

    6.31.2 Karst in Hot Deserts

    6.31.3 Discussion


    Noncarbonate Karst

    6.32 Salt Karst


    6.32.1 Introduction

    6.32.2 Salt Occurrence

    6.32.3 Subaerial Denudation Rates

    6.32.4 Features of Salt Karst in Various Settings

    6.32.5 Caprock Subaerial Morphology and Associated Hydrology

    6.32.6 Vadose Caves

    6.32.7 Boundary Conditions

    6.32.8 Intrastratal and Phreatic Salt Dissolution

    6.32.9 Environmental Implications of Salt Karst

    6.32.10 Secondary Chemical Deposits

    6.32.11 Conclusions


    6.33 Surface Morphology of Gypsum Karst


    6.33.1 Introduction

    6.33.2 Effects of Interstratal Gypsum Karst on Surface Morphology

    6.33.3 Synsedimentary Subsidence in Alluvial Systems

    6.33.4 Sinkholes

    6.33.5 Poljes

    6.33.6 Gypsum Karren

    6.33.7 Gypsum Tumuli and Polygons

    6.33.8 Gypsum Escarpments and Landslides



    6.34 Evolution of Intrastratal Karst and Caves in Gypsum


    6.34.1 Introduction

    6.34.2 Geological Occurrence of Evaporites

    6.34.3 Evolutionary Types of Gypsum Karst

    6.34.4 Speleogenesis in Gypsum in Different Types of Karst

    6.34.5 Evolution of Intrastratal Gypsum Karst

    6.34.6 Other Evolutionary Types of Gypsum Karst: Open and Mantled

    6.34.7 Regional Examples of Gypsum Karst Evolution: Inheritance and Zonality

    6.34.8 Subsidence Hazards in Different Types of Gypsum Karst


    6.35 Dealing with Gypsum Karst Problems: Hazards, Environmental Issues, and Planning


    6.35.1 Introduction

    6.35.2 Dealing with Dissolution and Subsidence Hazards

    6.35.3 Water and Drainage

    6.35.4 Surveying, Sinkhole Susceptibility, GIS, and Planning

    6.35.5 Construction and Ground Investigation

    6.35.6 Conclusions


    Relevant Websites

    6.36 Solutional Weathering and Karstic Landscapes on Quartz Sandstones and Quartzite


    6.36.1 Introduction

    6.36.2 The Suite of Sandstone Karst Landforms

    6.36.3 Chemical Weathering of Quartz Arenites

    6.36.4 Large-Scale Landscapes – Ruiniform, Stone Cities, Towers, Corridors, and Grikes

    6.36.5 Caves, Shafts, and Dolines

    6.36.6 Smaller Surface Forms – Rock Basins and Runnels

    6.36.7 Speleothems

    6.36.8 Conclusions


    Volume 7: Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology

    7.1 Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology: An Introduction

    7.2 Regolith and Soils of Mountains and Slopes


    7.2.1 Introduction

    7.2.2 Mountain Types

    7.2.3 Summary


    Relevant websites

    7.3 Stress, Deformation, Conservation, and Rheology: A Survey of Key Concepts in Continuum Mechanics


    7.3.1 Introduction

    7.3.2 Continuum

    7.3.3 Force

    7.3.4 Stress

    7.3.5 Deformation

    7.3.6 Rate of Deformation

    7.3.7 Conservation

    7.3.8 Constitutive Relations

    7.3.9 Example Application

    7.3.10 Concluding Remarks


    7.4 Influence of Physical Weathering on Hillslope Forms

    7.4.1 Introduction: Modes of Physical Weathering

    7.4.2 Physical Weathering and Its Effect on Geomorphic Processes

    7.4.3 Sheeting Joints from Unloading (Pressure Release)

    7.4.4 Effect of Slaking on Structural Landforms and Mass Movement

    7.4.5 Effect of Crystal Growth Weathering (Salt Fretting and Frost Shattering) on Landforms and Mass Movement

    7.4.6 Conclusion


    7.5 Influence of Chemical Weathering on Hillslope Forms


    7.5.1 Introduction

    7.5.2 A General Mass Balance Model of Hillslope Evolution Including Chemical Weathering

    7.5.3 Feedbacks between Chemical Weathering and Geomorphic Processes

    7.5.4 Conclusions


    7.6 Rates of Denudation


    7.6.1 Introduction

    7.6.2 A Word about Nomenclature and Units

    7.6.3 Techniques Used to Determine Spatially Averaged Denudation Rates

    7.6.4 Controls of Denudation Rates

    7.6.5 Temporal and Spatial Scales of Denudation Rate Measurements


    7.7 Surface-Runoff Generation and Forms of Overland Flow


    7.7.1 Introduction

    7.7.2 Hillslope Hydrology, Overland Flow, and Surface Runoff

    7.7.3 Processes That Generate Surface Runoff

    7.7.4 Factors Affecting Surface-Runoff Generation

    7.7.5 Importance of Scale and Hydrologic Connectivity

    7.7.6 Conclusions


    7.8 Flood Generation and Flood Waves

    7.8.1 Introduction

    7.8.2 The Concept of Hydrological Connectivity

    7.8.3 Flood Generation in Drylands

    7.8.4 Flood Generation in Temperate Regions

    7.8.5 Flood Waves

    7.8.6 Summary and Conclusion


    7.9 Analysis of Flash-Flood Runoff Response, with Examples from Major European Events


    7.9.1 Introduction

    7.9.2 Runoff Generation under Intense Rainfall

    7.9.3 Examination of Runoff Characteristics from Major Flash Floods Monitored in Europe

    7.9.4 Location and Data Characterization

    7.9.5 Characterizing Runoff Coefficient

    7.9.6 Conclusions


    7.10 Conceptualization in Catchment Modeling


    7.10.1 Introduction

    7.10.2 Models and Simulation

    7.10.3 Scale and Scaling

    7.10.4 Model Error and Model Testing

    7.10.5 Concept-Development Simulation, What If

    7.10.6 Coos Bay Case Study

    7.10.7 Summary



    7.11 Rill and Gully Development Processes


    7.11.1 Concepts and Classifications

    7.11.2 Rill Development and Erosion Processes

    7.11.3 General Approaches on Rill Erosion

    7.11.4 Gully Development and Erosion Processes

    7.11.5 Gully Erosion Approaches

    7.11.6 Conclusions


    7.12 Land Use and Sediment Yield


    7.12.1 Introduction

    7.12.2 Human Impact and Land-Use Change

    7.12.3 Field Evidence of Human-Induced Soil Erosion

    7.12.4 Land Use and Sediment Yield at Different Spatial Scales

    7.12.5 Quantification of Human-Induced Sediment Yield: Ways Forward

    7.12.6 Conclusion


    7.13 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Quantifying Creep


    7.13.1 Introduction

    7.13.2 Conceptual Models for Creep

    7.13.3 Quantifying Creep

    7.13.4 Conclusion



    7.14 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Slides


    7.14.1 Introduction

    7.14.2 Types of Sliding

    7.14.3 Initiation of Slides

    7.14.4 Reactivation of Ancient Landslides

    7.14.5 Concluding Remarks


    7.15 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Flow


    7.15.1 Introduction: Flow Processes on Hillslopes

    7.15.2 Size Matters: Scale Issues

    7.15.3 Flow Types

    7.15.4 Flows on Hillslopes

    7.15.5 Initiation of Flows

    7.15.6 Flow Characteristics

    7.15.7 Deposition and Entrainment in Slope Flows

    7.15.8 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Debris Flows

    7.15.9 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Earth Flows

    7.15.10 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Peat Flows

    7.15.11 Concluding Remarks


    7.16 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Topple


    7.16.1 Toppling


    7.17 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Rockfall


    7.17.1 Introduction

    7.17.2 Distribution of Rockfalls

    7.17.3 Rockfall Inventories

    7.17.4 Rockfall Triggers

    7.17.5 Rockfall Movement

    7.17.6 Talus Slopes

    7.17.7 Modeling of Rockfall Activity


    7.18 Long-Runout Landslides


    7.18.1 Introduction

    7.18.2 Catastrophic Long-Runout Landslides

    7.18.3 Causes and Triggers

    7.18.4 Conclusions and Outlook


    7.19 Mass-Movement Causes: Overloading


    7.19.1 Introduction

    7.19.2 Qualitative Case Study on Overloading with Water, Road Fill, and Landslide Debris

    7.19.3 Incorporation of Surcharge in Quantitative Slope Stability Analysis

    7.19.4 Importance of Overloading as a Parameter Influencing Slope Stability


    7.20 Mass-Movement Causes: Water


    7.20.1 Introduction

    7.20.2 The Underground Material

    7.20.3 Water and Plasticity of Soils

    7.20.4 Pore-Water Pressure in the Void System

    7.20.5 Water in Different Landslide Types


    7.21 Mass-Movement Causes: Changes in Slope Angle


    7.21.1 Introduction

    7.21.2 Slow Changes in Slope Angle

    7.21.3 Sudden Changes in Slope Angle

    7.21.4 Changing Slope Angles in Landscape Evolution Models


    7.22 Mass-Movement Causes: Glacier Thinning


    7.22.1 Introduction

    7.22.2 Landslides in Soil

    7.22.3 Landslides in Rock

    7.22.4 Conclusions


    7.23 Mass-Movement Causes: Earthquakes


    7.23.1 Introduction

    7.23.2 Landslide Types and Triggering Characteristics

    7.23.3 Geographic Distributions of Landslides

    7.23.4 Characteristics of Landslide Distributions

    7.23.5 Geomorphic Effects of Earthquake-Triggered Landslides

    7.23.6 Summary and Conclusion


    7.24 Mass-Movement Style, Activity State, and Distribution

    7.24.1 Mass-Movement Style

    7.24.2 Activity State

    7.24.3 Mass-Movement Distribution


    7.25 Lateral Spreading


    7.25.1 Introduction

    7.25.2 Morphological Description, Causes and Evolution

    7.25.3 Hazard and Planning Implications


    7.26 Mass-Movement Hazards and Risks


    7.26.1 Introduction

    7.26.2 The Physical Context

    7.26.3 The Human Context

    7.26.4 Social and Physical Environmental Change

    7.26.5 Concepts: Hazard, Risk, and Susceptibility

    7.26.6 Assessing Hazard and Risk

    7.26.7 Conclusion


    7.27 Avoidance and Protection Measures


    7.27.1 Introduction

    7.27.2 Risk Acceptance

    7.27.3 Hazard Avoidance

    7.27.4 Hazard Reduction Strategies

    7.27.5 Strategies for Consequences Reduction

    7.27.6 Concluding Remarks


    7.28 Numerical Modeling of Flows and Falls


    7.28.1 Introduction

    7.28.2 Basic Model Principles

    7.28.3 Modeling of Flows

    7.28.4 Modeling of Rockfall

    7.28.5 Future Challenges in Mass Movement Modeling



    7.29 Changing Hillslopes: Evolution and Inheritance; Inheritance and Evolution of Slopes


    7.29.1 Introduction

    7.29.2 Hillslope Evolution

    7.29.3 The Inheritance of Landforms Predating Plio–Pleistocene Climate Change

    7.29.4 The Inheritance of Landforms during Glacial–Interglacial Fluctuations

    7.29.5 Bedrock Landscapes

    7.29.6 Soil-Mantled Landscapes

    7.29.7 Discussion and Conclusions



    7.30 Hillslope Processes and Climate Change


    7.30.1 Introduction

    7.30.2 Climate Change

    7.30.3 Landslides and Climate Coupling

    7.30.4 Landslides and Climate Change

    7.30.5 Landslides as Inheritance of Global and Regional Climate Change, at Different Temporal Scales

    7.30.6 Landslides and Long-Term Climate Changes

    7.30.7 Landslides and Short-Term Climate Variability

    7.30.8 Hazard Issues in a Changing Environment


    7.31 Hillslope Processes in Cold Environments: An Illustration of High-Latitude Mountain and Hillslope Processes and Forms


    7.31.1 Introduction

    7.31.2 Weathering Processes and Regolith Formation

    7.31.3 Slow Mass Wasting

    7.31.4 Rapid Mass Movement: Active Layer Detachment Failures

    7.31.5 Impacts of Climate Change on Hillslope Processes and Forms

    7.31.6 Conclusion



    7.32 Hillslope Processes in Temperate Environments


    7.32.1 Introduction

    7.32.2 Overview of Hillslope Processes in Temperate Environments

    7.32.3 Lithologic Controls

    7.32.4 Competition between Processes on Hillslopes and in Channels

    7.32.5 Upslope- and Downslope-Directed Coupling

    7.32.6 To Thresholds and Beyond

    7.32.7 From Hillslopes to Channels: Decreasing Sediment Discharge during the Holocene

    7.32.8 Beneath Permafrost Elevations: Hillslope Processes in a Changing Climate



    7.33 Semiarid Hillslope Processes


    7.33.1 Introduction to the Semiarid Environment

    7.33.2 Semiarid Hillslope Characteristics

    7.33.3 Soil-Surface Characteristics and Geomorphological Processes on Semiarid Hillslopes

    7.33.4 Effects of Plants and Geomorphological Processes

    7.33.5 Scale Aspects of Semiarid Hillslope Processes


    7.34 Hillslope Processes in Arid Environments


    7.34.1 Introduction

    7.34.2 Arid Hillslope Processes

    7.34.3 Discussion

    7.34.4 Conclusion


    7.35 Hillslope Processes in Tropical Environments


    7.35.1 Introduction

    7.35.2 The Weathering Mantle and Its Origin

    7.35.3 The Role of Mass Movements in the Landscape

    7.35.4 Surface-Wash Processes on Hillslopes

    7.35.5 Conclusion


    7.36 Extraterrestrial Hillslope Processes


    7.36.1 Introduction

    7.36.2 The Effects of Gravity

    7.36.3 The Effect of Climate

    7.36.4 Summary



    Volume 8: Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

    8.1 The Development and History of Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology


    8.1.1 Periglacial Geomorphology

    8.1.2 Glacial Geomorphology


    Glacials and Interglacials

    8.2 Identifying Glacial and Interglacial Periods to Assess the Long-Term Climate History of Earth


    8.2.1 Introduction

    8.2.2 Direct and Indirect Glacial Evidence

    8.2.3 Climate Models and Application to Geologic Time

    8.2.4 Glacials and Interglacials in Gondwana

    8.2.5 Hysteresis of Glaciations in the Permo-Carboniferous

    8.2.6 Possibility of Glaciations in the Cretaceous

    8.2.7 Summary


    8.3 Quaternary-Pleistocene Glacial and Periglacial Environments


    8.3.1 Introduction

    8.3.2 North America

    8.3.3 Europe

    8.3.4 Asia

    8.3.5 Australasia

    8.3.6 Africa

    8.3.7 Central and South America

    8.3.8 Antarctica

    8.3.9 Summary and Conclusions


    Glacier Regimes and Dynamics

    8.4 Classification of Ice Masses


    8.4.1 Introduction

    8.4.2 Morphological Classification

    8.4.3 Thermal Classification

    8.4.4 Conclusions


    Relevant Websites

    8.5 Ice Properties and Glacier Dynamics


    8.5.1 Deformation of Glacier Ice

    8.5.2 Force Balance

    8.5.3 Modeling Glacier Flow

    8.5.4 Glacier Instability

    8.5.5 Concluding Remarks


    8.6 Water in Glaciers and Ice Sheets

    8.6.1 Introduction

    8.6.2 Sources of Glacial Meltwater

    8.6.3 Storage of Water in Glaciers

    8.6.4 Methods of Studying Glacier Hydrology

    8.6.5 Glacier Hydrological Systems

    8.6.6 Subglacial Water Pressure

    8.6.7 Discharge Fluctuations

    8.6.8 Glacial Meltwater Erosion

    8.6.9 Hydrological Effects on Glacier Motion

    8.6.10 Conclusions


    Glacial Erosion – Process and Form

    8.7 Glacial Erosion Processes and Rates


    8.7.1 Introduction

    8.7.2 Processes of Glacial Erosion

    8.7.3 Plucking and Entrainment of Rock Fragments by Ice

    8.7.4 Abrasion

    8.7.5 Rates of Glacial Erosion

    8.7.6 Conclusion


    8.8 Erosional Features


    8.8.1 Introduction

    8.8.2 Small-Scale Erosional Forms

    8.8.3 Intermediate-Scale Forms

    8.8.4 Large-Scale Erosional Forms


    8.9 Erosional Landscapes


    8.9.1 Introduction

    8.9.2 Landscapes of Local Glaciation

    8.9.3 Landscapes of Regional and Continental Glaciation

    8.9.4 Landscape Development and Interpretation


    Glacial Transport and Deposition – Process and Form

    8.10 Depositional Processes


    8.10.1 Introduction

    8.10.2 Glacial Transport

    8.10.3 Glacial Deposition

    8.10.4 Concluding Remarks


    8.11 Depositional Features



    8.11.1 Transport

    8.11.2 Deposition

    8.11.3 Future Perspectives


    Fluvial Systems in Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

    8.12 Fluvial Processes in Proglacial Environments


    8.12.1 Introduction

    8.12.2 Fundamentals

    8.12.3 Glacial Effects on Water and Sediment Supply to Rivers

    8.12.4 Proglacial River Morphology

    8.12.5 Extreme Events

    8.12.6 Examples of Proglacial Environments

    8.12.7 Summary and Concluding Remarks


    8.13 Watershed Hydrology in Periglacial Environments


    8.13.1 Why is Periglacial Hydrology Unique?

    8.13.2 Unique Vulnerabilities


    Permafrost and Cryostratigraphy

    8.14 Ground Ice and Cryostratigraphy


    8.14.1 Introduction

    8.14.2 Description of Ice within Frozen Ground

    8.14.3 Genetic Types of Ground Ice

    8.14.4 Cryostratigraphy

    8.14.5 Transition Zone

    8.14.6 Massive Ice and Icy Sediments

    8.14.7 Ice Wedges and Soil Wedges

    8.14.8 Yedoma and Related Deposits

    8.14.9 Summary and Future Research


    8.15 Permafrost: Formation and Distribution, Thermal and Mechanical Properties


    8.15.1 Introduction

    8.15.2 Thermal Properties of Permafrost

    8.15.3 Mechanical Properties of Permafrost

    8.15.4 The Global Distribution of Permafrost

    8.15.5 Permafrost and Climate Variability

    8.15.6 Conclusion Remark


    Landforms of the Periglacial Environment

    8.16 Palsas and Lithalsas


    8.16.1 Introduction

    8.16.2 Segregation Ice

    8.16.3 Palsas

    8.16.4 Lithalsas

    8.16.5 Conclusion


    8.17 Rock Glaciers

    8.17.1 Introduction

    8.17.2 Definition

    8.17.3 Objectives

    8.17.4 Rock Glaciers as Part of the Mountain System

    8.17.5 The Rock Glacier System

    8.17.6 Form

    8.17.7 Surface Morphology

    8.17.8 Processes: Movement

    8.17.9 Origin and Internal Structure

    8.17.10 Fabric Analysis

    8.17.11 Distribution and Climate

    8.17.12 Rock Glacier Age

    8.17.13 Geophysical Methods Applied to Rock Glaciers

    8.17.14 Rates of Flow/Creep

    8.17.15 Hydrology

    8.17.16 Geospatial Techniques

    8.17.17 Climate Change and Hazards

    8.17.18 Martian Rock Glaciers

    8.17.19 Future Research


    8.18 Pingos


    8.18.1 Terminology

    8.18.2 Regional Distribution and Characteristics of Pingos

    8.18.3 Geographic Characteristics of a Forming Pingo

    8.18.4 Hydrology of the Pingo

    8.18.5 Future Research


    8.19 Patterned Ground and Polygons


    8.19.1 Introduction and Scope

    8.19.2 Background

    8.19.3 Observation and Classification

    8.19.4 Monitoring and Experimentation

    8.19.5 Theory and Numerical Modeling

    8.19.6 Conclusion



    8.20 Thermokarst Terrains


    8.20.1 Introduction

    8.20.2 Thermokarst Landforms

    8.20.3 Degradation Processes and Stages

    8.20.4 Factors Affecting Permafrost Degradation

    8.20.5 Conclusions


    8.21 Thermokarst Lakes, Drainage, and Drained Basins


    8.21.1 Permafrost and Thermokarst Lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic

    8.21.2 Regional and Global Importance of Thermokarst Lakes

    8.21.3 Distribution of Thermokarst Lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic

    8.21.4 Thermokarst Lake Formation and Morphology

    8.21.5 Hydrological Dynamics of Thermokarst Lakes

    8.21.6 Oriented Thermokarst Lakes

    8.21.7 Drainage of Thermokarst Lakes

    8.21.8 Drained Thermokarst Lake Basins and Thermokarst Lake Cycle

    8.21.9 Outlook



    8.22 Thermokarst and Civil Infrastructure


    8.22.1 Introduction

    8.22.2 Active Layer

    8.22.3 Transition Zone

    8.22.4 Thermokarst

    8.22.5 Engineering in Permafrost Regions

    8.22.6 Conclusions


    Slope and Aeolian Processes in the Periglacial Environment

    8.23 Mass Movement Processes in the Periglacial Environment


    8.23.1 Introduction

    8.23.2 Slope Stability and Thaw Consolidation and their Role in Periglacial Mass Wasting

    8.23.3 Classification and Processes of Mass Wasting

    8.23.4 Mass Wasting Deposits in a Paleoenvironmental Context

    8.23.5 The Role of Periglacial Mass Wasting as an Indicator of Global Environmental Change

    8.23.6 Conclusion


    8.24 Evolution of Slopes in a Cold Climate


    8.24.1 Introduction

    8.24.2 Cryoplanation Mechanism and Landforms

    8.24.3 Talus Slopes, Including Stratified Slope Deposits

    8.24.4 Blockfields

    8.24.5 Block Streams

    8.24.6 Research Perspectives


    8.25 Aeolian Processes in Periglacial Environments


    8.25.1 Introduction

    8.25.2 Background

    8.25.3 Why Is There Aeolian Activity In Periglacial Environments?

    8.25.4 Cold-Climate Aeolian Features

    8.25.5 Summary


    Research Frontiers

    8.26 Climate Change Impacts on Cold Climates


    8.26.1 Introduction – Cold Climate Regions

    8.26.2 Impact of Climate Change on the Glacial System

    8.26.3 Climate Change and Sea Level in Cold Regions

    8.26.4 Climate Change and Permafrost Dynamics

    8.26.5 Biologic Bellwether of Climatic Changes in Cold Regions


    8.27 Geomorphology and Retreating Glaciers


    8.27.1 Introduction

    8.27.2 Moraines and the Thermal Regime Process–Form Continuum

    8.27.3 Glacifluvial Landform–Sediment Assemblages

    8.27.4 Landsystems in Deglaciated Terrain

    8.27.5 Landsystem Superimposition and Spatio-temporal Change


    8.28 The Glacial and Periglacial Research Frontier: Where from Here?


    8.28.1 Introduction

    8.28.2 The Glacial Research Frontier – Status

    8.28.3 The Periglacial Research Frontier – Status

    8.28.4 Permafrost–Glacier Interactions

    8.28.5 Comparing the Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology Research Frontiers – Focus and Scale

    8.28.6 Where from Here?



    Volume 9: Fluvial Geomorphology

    9.1 Treatise on Fluvial Geomorphology

    9.1.1 Introduction and Overview


    Scales and Conceptual Models

    9.2 A River Runs Through It: Conceptual Models in Fluvial Geomorphology

    9.2.1 The Geomorphic Field Problem

    9.2.2 Hierarchy of Analysis Frameworks

    9.2.3 A Braided River of Conceptual Models in Fluvial Geomorphology

    9.2.4 The Field Problem Revisited


    Drainage Basin Processes and Analysis

    9.3 Subsurface and Surface Flow Leading to Channel Initiation


    9.3.1 Micro-Scale Flow Processes

    9.3.2 Hillslope-Scale Flow Processes

    9.3.3 Channel Initiation

    9.3.4 Summary and Perspectives


    9.4 Network-Scale Energy Distribution


    9.4.1 Introduction

    9.4.2 Energy Expenditure and OCNs

    9.4.3 Global Energy Expenditure

    9.4.4 Local Energy Expenditure


    Channel Processes

    9.5 Reach-Scale Flow Resistance


    9.5.1 Introduction

    9.5.2 Traditional Approaches to Reach-Scale Flow Resistance

    9.5.3 Physics-Based Approaches to Resistance

    9.5.4 How Well Do Standard Equations Predict Total Resistance?

    9.5.5 Recent Developments

    9.5.6 Summary and Research Directions


    9.6 Turbulence in River Flows


    9.6.1 Introduction

    9.6.2 Defining and Measuring Turbulence

    9.6.3 The Nature of Turbulence in River Flows

    9.6.4 Concluding Comments


    9.7 The Initiation of Sediment Motion and Formation of Armor Layers

    9.7.1 Critical Shear Stress

    9.7.2 Armor Formation

    9.7.3 Conclusions and Future Directions


    9.8 Bedload Kinematics and Fluxes


    9.8.1 Introduction

    9.8.2 The General Character of Bedload

    9.8.3 Grain Kinematics

    9.8.4 Fluxes

    9.8.5 Future Directions


    9.9 Suspended Load


    9.9.1 Introduction

    9.9.2 Suspension of Noncohesive Sediment

    9.9.3 Suspension of Cohesive Sediment

    9.9.4 Sampling of Suspended Sediment

    9.9.5 Future Directions of Research


    9.10 Bedforms in Sand-Bedded Rivers


    9.10.1 Introduction

    9.10.2 The Classical Concept of a Continuum of Bedforms

    9.10.3 Bedform Typology and Classification

    9.10.4 Bedforms and Flow Resistance

    9.10.5 Flow over Bedforms

    9.10.6 The Origin of Bedforms

    9.10.7 Growth and Diminution

    9.10.8 Bedform Kinematics and Sediment Transport

    9.10.9 Preservation

    9.10.10 Summary and Future Research Directions


    9.11 Wood in Fluvial Systems


    9.11.1 Introduction

    9.11.2 Defining Wood

    9.11.3 Wood Retention in Fluvial Systems

    9.11.4 Wood Dynamics

    9.11.5 Wood and Landforms

    9.11.6 Conclusions



    9.12 Influence of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Organisms on Channel Forms and Processes

    9.12.1 Introduction

    9.12.2 Boundary Conditions

    9.12.3 Sediment Transport

    9.12.4 Influence of Macroinvertebrates and Anadromous Fishes on Dissolved Load Transport

    9.12.5 Aquatic Vegetation and Channel Hydraulics

    9.12.6 Opportunities for Future Research



    9.13 Geomorphic Controls on Hyporheic Exchange Across Scales: Watersheds to Particles


    9.13.1 Introduction

    9.13.2 The Effect of Geomorphology on HEFs

    9.13.3 Discussion

    9.13.4 Conclusion


    9.14 Reciprocal Relations between Riparian Vegetation, Fluvial Landforms, and Channel Processes


    9.14.1 Introduction

    9.14.2 Approaches to Characterizing Riparian Vegetation

    9.14.3 How Riparian Vegetation Affects Fluvial Geomorphic Processes

    9.14.4 Conclusions


    9.15 Landslides in the Fluvial System

    9.15.1 Introduction

    9.15.2 Landslides in the Fluvial System

    9.15.3 Conclusions and Outlook



    Channel Patterns

    9.16 River Meandering

    9.16.1 Introduction

    9.16.2 Research Phases and Topics

    9.16.3 Approaches and Methods

    9.16.4 Empirical Evidence and Analysis

    9.16.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Explanations

    9.16.6 Perspective and Synthesis

    9.16.7 Conclusions


    9.17 Morphology and Dynamics of Braided Rivers


    9.17.1 Introduction

    9.17.2 Occurrence and Development of Braiding

    9.17.3 Braided River Morphology and Morpho-Dynamics

    9.17.4 Bedload Transport and Morpho-Dynamics

    9.17.5 Conclusion


    9.18 Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches


    9.18.1 Introduction

    9.18.2 Conceptual Basis for Hydraulic Geometry

    9.18.3 Recent Research

    9.18.4 Summary and Future Research


    9.19 Anabranching and Anastomosing Rivers

    9.19.1 Introduction

    9.19.2 Why Do Rivers Anabranch?

    9.19.3 Modeling and Theoretical Developments

    9.19.4 Vegetation

    9.19.5 Anabranching Longevity

    9.19.6 Types of Anabranching River

    9.19.7 Management of Anabranching Rivers

    9.19.8 Conclusion


    9.20 Step–Pool Channel Features



    9.20.1 Introduction

    9.20.2 Step–Pool Channel Morphology

    9.20.3 The Formation of Step–Pool Units

    9.20.4 The Frequency of Step–Pool Units and Their Morphology

    9.20.5 Step–Pool Hydraulics and Flow Resistance

    9.20.6 Sediment Transport and Channel Stability

    9.20.7 Summary and Research Directions


    9.21 Pool–Riffle


    9.21.1 Pool–Riffle Morphology

    9.21.2 Pool and Riffle Definitions

    9.21.3 Pool Formation and Maintenance

    9.21.4 Pool and Riffle Geometry

    9.21.5 Pool–Riffle Spacing and Percent Area

    9.21.6 Sediment Sorting

    9.21.7 Future Directions in Pool and Riffle Research

    9.21.8 Conclusions


    Fluvial Landforms

    9.22 Fluvial Terraces


    9.22.1 Introduction

    9.22.2 Fluvial Terrace Definition and General Description

    9.22.3 Terrace Geochronology

    9.22.4 Features and Processes of Rivers and Watersheds that Contain Terraces

    9.22.5 Graded and Steady-State Stream Profiles and Their Relation to Rerraces

    9.22.6 Strath Genesis

    9.22.7 Terrace Genesis

    9.22.8 Summary and Future Research Directions


    9.23 Waters Divided: A History of Alluvial Fan Research and a View of Its Future


    9.23.1 Introduction

    9.23.2 Formative Boundary Conditions for Alluvial Fan

    9.23.3 Processes that Supply Sediment to Alluvial Fans

    9.23.4 Processes Observed on Fans

    9.23.5 Hypotheses Guiding Field and Experimental Work

    9.23.6 Morphometry

    9.23.7 Hydraulic Geometry

    9.23.8 Sedimentology

    9.23.9 Geologic Record of Fans

    9.23.10 Experimental Approaches

    9.23.11 Models of Fan Evolution

    9.23.12 The Record of Hazards on Alluvial Fans

    9.23.13 Discussion




    9.24 Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology

    9.24.1 Introduction

    9.24.2 Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology

    9.24.3 A Paleoflood Case Study: The Llobregat River

    9.24.4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives


    9.25 Outburst Floods

    9.25.1 Introduction

    9.25.2 Flood Sources

    9.25.3 Outburst Flood Magnitude and Behavior

    9.25.4 Summary



    Relevant Websites

    9.26 Global Late Quaternary Fluvial Paleohydrology: With Special Emphasis on Paleofloods and Megafloods


    9.26.1 Introduction

    9.26.2 Types of Global Fluvial Paleohydrological Studies

    9.26.3 Alluvial Chronologies

    9.26.4 Paleofloods

    9.26.5 Megafloods

    9.26.6 Discussion



    Specific Fluvial Environments

    9.27 Steep Headwater Channels


    9.27.1 Introduction: What Is a Steep Headwater Channel?

    9.27.2 Morphological Types of Steep Headwater Channels

    9.27.3 How Do Steep, Headwater Channels Function?

    9.27.4 The Scale of Headwater Channels

    9.27.5 Sediment Flux

    9.27.6 Wood in Steep Headwater Channels

    9.27.7 Summary: Current Research Directions



    9.28 Bedrock Rivers

    9.28.1 Introduction

    9.28.2 Flow Hydraulics and Channel Morphology

    9.28.3 Erosion Processes and Bedforms

    9.28.4 River Profiles and Landscape Relief

    9.28.5 Tectonic Interpretation of River Profiles

    9.28.6 Concluding Remarks


    9.29 Incised Channels: Disturbance, Evolution and the Roles of Excess Transport Capacity and Boundary Materials in Controlling Channel Response

    9.29.1 Introduction

    9.29.2 Temporal and Spatial Trends of Incision

    9.29.3 Channelization

    9.29.4 Channelization Programs in the Mid-Continent, USA

    9.29.5 Case Studies: Incision by Channelization and Reduced Sediment Supply

    9.29.6 Stream Power, Flow Energy, and Channel Adjustment

    9.29.7 Simulation of the Effect of Bank Materials on Channel Incision

    9.29.8 Discussion and Conclusions


    9.30 Streams of the Montane Humid Tropics

    9.30.1 Introduction

    9.30.2 Hydrology and Aquatic Ecology of TMSs

    9.30.3 Water Quality and Denudation

    9.30.4 Channel Morphology of TMSs

    9.30.5 Response to Anthropogenic Disturbances

    9.30.6 Conclusions


    9.31 Dryland Fluvial Environments: Assessing Distinctiveness and Diversity from a Global Perspective

    9.31.1 Introduction

    9.31.2 Growth of the Idea of a Distinct Fluvial Geomorphology of Drylands

    9.31.3 Recognition of Greater Diversity in the Fluvial Geomorphology of Drylands

    9.31.4 Dryland River Characteristics

    9.31.5 Toward a Global Perspective on Dryland Rivers

    9.31.6 Recent Trends in Dryland Fluvial Research and Future Research Directions

    9.31.7 Conclusion



    9.32 Large River Floodplains


    9.32.1 Definition and Scale

    9.32.2 Conditions for Creation of a Large River Floodplain

    9.32.3 Distinctive Characteristics of Large Rivers and Floodplains

    9.32.4 Sedimentation Processes and Forms of Large Floodplains

    9.32.5 Floodplain Construction by Single-Thread Sinuous Rivers

    9.32.6 Floodplain Construction by Single-Thread Braided Rivers

    9.32.7 Floodplain Construction by Anabranching Rivers

    9.32.8 Summary



    Techniques of Study

    9.33 Field and Laboratory Experiments in Fluvial Geomorphology


    9.33.1 Background

    9.33.2 Introduction to Field Experiments

    9.33.3 Introduction to Flume Experiments


    9.34 Numerical Modeling in Fluvial Geomorphology

    9.34.1 Introduction

    9.34.2 Examples of Models

    9.34.3 Issues and Future Prospects

    9.34.4 Conclusions


    9.35 Remote Data in Fluvial Geomorphology: Characteristics and Applications

    9.35.1 Introduction

    9.35.2 Types and Brief History of Remote Data

    9.35.3 Recent Applications of Remote Data in Fluvial Geomorphology

    9.35.4 Problems and Future Perspectives



    Management and Human Effects

    9.36 Geomorphic Classification of Rivers

    9.36.1 Introduction

    9.36.2 Purpose of Classification

    9.36.3 Types of Channel Classification

    9.36.4 Use and Compatibility of Channel Classifications

    9.36.5 The Rise and Fall of Classifications: Why Are Some Channel Classifications More Used Than Others?

    9.36.6 Future Needs and Directions

    9.36.7 Conclusion




    9.37 Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on River Systems

    9.37.1 Introduction

    9.37.2 Landscape Sensitivity and Scale

    9.37.3 Hydrogeomorphic Changes Caused by Land Use

    9.37.4 Impacts on Fluvial Systems

    9.37.5 Historical Perspective: Episodic Land-Use Change and Sediment Production

    9.37.6 Conclusion


    9.38 Flow Regulation by Dams

    9.38.1 Introduction

    9.38.2 Hydrologic Impacts of Flow Regulation

    9.38.3 Geomorphic Impacts of Flow Regulation

    9.38.4 Contribution of Dam Studies to Geomorphic and Ecological Theory

    9.38.5 Conclusions



    9.39 Urbanization and River Channels

    9.39.1 Introduction

    9.39.2 Approaches to Investigating Urbanization in River Systems

    9.39.3 Nature of Urbanization

    9.39.4 Effects on the Fluvial System

    9.39.5 Implications, Opportunities, and Challenges for Management

    9.39.6 Conclusion and Prospect



    9.40 Impacts of Humans on River Fluxes and Morphology


    9.40.1 Introduction

    9.40.2 Human-Induced Drivers of Changing Rivers

    9.40.3 Human Impacts and Integrated Management Responses


    9.41 Geomorphologist’s Guide to Participating in River Rehabilitation


    9.41.1 Introduction

    9.41.2 Background

    9.41.3 Context of River Rehabilitation

    9.41.4 Dilemmas in Rehabilitation

    9.41.5 Standard Rehabilitation Practice?

    9.41.6 Final Thoughts



    Volume 10: Coastal Geomorphology

    10.1 Perspectives on Coastal Geomorphology: Introduction

    10.1.1 Introduction

    10.1.2 Nearshore Processes

    10.1.3 Morphodynamic Systems

    10.1.4 Coastal Environments


    10.2 The Four Traditions of Coastal Geomorphology


    10.2.1 Introduction

    10.2.2 Concepts from the Distant Past

    10.2.3 Questions of Time and Space

    10.2.4 The Earth-Science Perspective – The Landlubbers

    10.2.5 The Mathematical Theorists

    10.2.6 The Ocean Science Perspective – The Seafarers

    10.2.7 The Coastal Engineering Tradition

    10.2.8 Conclusion: Welding Noble Traditions into Modern Practice


    Nearshore Processes

    10.3 Waves


    10.3.1 Introduction

    10.3.2 Linear Waves

    10.3.3 Nonlinear Waves

    10.3.4 Long-Period Waves

    10.3.5 Summary and Conclusions


    10.4 Sediment Transport


    10.4.1 Introduction

    10.4.2 Measuring Nearshore Sediment Transport

    10.4.3 Sediment Mobilization and Suspension

    10.4.4 Cross-Shore Sediment Transport

    10.4.5 Longshore Sediment Transport

    10.4.6 Swash Zone Sediment Transport

    10.4.7 Concluding Remarks


    Morphodynamic Systems

    10.5 Beach Morphodynamics


    10.5.1 Introduction

    10.5.2 Beach Morphodynamics

    10.5.3 Beach Morphodynamics – Status

    10.5.4 Beach Morphodynamics – the Way Forward

    10.5.5 Discussion and Conclusion


    Relevant Websites

    10.6 Nearshore Bars


    10.6.1 Introduction

    10.6.2 Nearshore Bar Morphology

    10.6.3 What Mechanism(s) Related to Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport in the Nearshore Lead to the Formation of Nearshore Bars?

    10.6.4 How Do Controls Such as Sediment Size, Nearshore Slope, and Wave Climate Determine Whether Nearshore Bars Form on a Sandy Coast?

    10.6.5 What Are the Mechanisms Related to Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport That Control Morphological Change in Nearshore Bar Systems on a Time-Scale of Hours to Weeks and Months?

    10.6.6 How Do Factors Such as Sediment Size, Nearshore Slope, and Wave Climate Interact with the Short-Term Morphodynamics to Control the Number, Size, and Spacing of Bars in the Nearshore and Intertidal Zones?

    10.6.7 Summary and Conclusions


    10.7 Tidal Inlets and Lagoons along Siliciclastic Barrier Coasts


    10.7.1 Introduction

    10.7.2 What is a Tidal Inlet?

    10.7.3 Inlet Morphology

    10.7.4 Tidal Inlet Formation

    10.7.5 Tidal Inlet Relationships

    10.7.6 Sand Transport Patterns

    10.7.7 Tidal Inlet Effects on Adjacent Shorelines

    10.7.8 Coastal Lagoons

    10.7.9 Lagoon Inlet Response to Sea-Level Rise

    10.7.10 Conclusions


    10.8 Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: A Synthesis


    10.8.1 Introduction

    10.8.2 Trailing-Edge Coasts

    10.8.3 Marginal Sea Coasts

    10.8.4 Collision Coasts

    10.8.5 Migration and Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: Primary Factors

    10.8.6 Future Research Directions and Suggestions



    10.9 Coastal Gravel Systems


    10.9.1 Introduction

    10.9.2 Difficulties in Undertaking Gravel-Beach Morphodynamic Analysis

    10.9.3 Scale Differentiation of Coastal Gravel Systems

    10.9.4 Short-Term Controls: Beachface Processes and Responses

    10.9.5 Morpho-Sedimentary Approaches to Gravel-Beach Morphodynamic Domains

    10.9.6 Tidal Modulation

    10.9.7 Gravel-Beach Profile Variation

    10.9.8 Extreme Events, Barrier Overtopping, and Overwashing: Bridging Short- to Long-Term Morphodynamic Processes

    10.9.9 Barrier Resilience and the Morphodynamic Perspective

    10.9.10 Morphodynamics and Long-Term Gravel Barrier Development

    10.9.11 Morphodynamic Implications of Human Intervention on Gravel Systems

    10.9.12 Conclusions


    10.10 Beach and Dune Interaction

    10.10.1 Introduction

    10.10.2 Process-Scale Aeolian Transport from Beach to Dune

    10.10.3 Beach–Dune Interaction at Tidal and Storm-Scales

    10.10.4 Beach–Dune Interaction over the Holocene

    10.10.5 Beach–Dune Interaction Models

    10.10.6 Conclusions


    Coastal Environments

    10.11 Rock Coasts

    10.11.1 Introduction

    10.11.2 Processes

    10.11.3 Rocky Coast Landforms

    10.11.4 Rock Coast Modeling

    10.11.5 Conclusions


    10.12 Estuaries

    10.12.1 Introduction

    10.12.2 Definition and Distribution

    10.12.3 Classification of Estuaries

    10.12.4 Estuarine Morphodynamics: Physical Factors

    10.12.5 Morphodynamics and Evolution

    10.12.6 Estuarine Subenvironments

    10.12.7 Future Issues


    10.13 Coral Systems


    10.13.1 Introduction

    10.13.2 Reef Systems and Geomorphic Complexity

    10.13.3 The Distribution and Evolution of Coral Reefs

    10.13.4 Geomorphic Development of Holocene Coral Reefs

    10.13.5 Rates of Reef Growth

    10.13.6 Developments in Geomorphology of Sedimentary Landforms

    10.13.7 Lagoon Sedimentation and Geomorphic Development of Reefs

    10.13.8 Reef Island Morphology and Evolution

    10.13.9 Summary and Conclusions


    10.14 Mangrove Systems


    10.14.1 Introduction

    10.14.2 Large-Scale Controls on Mangroves

    10.14.3 Regional Scale Dynamics of Mangrove Forests

    10.14.4 Local-Scale Dynamics

    10.14.5 Regional, Event-Based Dynamics

    10.14.6 Mangroves and Global Environmental Change

    10.14.7 Concluding Remarks: Geomorphology and Mangroves in the Twentieth Century


    10.15 Developed Coasts

    10.15.1 Introduction

    10.15.2 The Impact of Humans through Time

    10.15.3 Altering Landforms to Suit Human Needs

    10.15.4 Nourishing Beaches

    10.15.5 Building Dunes

    10.15.6 Effects of Structures

    10.15.7 Characteristics of Human-Altered Landforms

    10.15.8 Distinguishing Natural from Human-Created Landforms

    10.15.9 Cyclic Change versus Progressive Change

    10.15.10 Maintaining or Restoring Natural Processes, Structure, and Functions

    10.15.11 Dune-Management Options in Spatially Restricted Environments

    10.15.12 Prognosis


    10.16 Evolution of Coastal Landforms


    10.16.1 Introduction

    10.16.2 Role of Tectonics in Coastal Evolution

    10.16.3 Sea Level Influence on Coastal Evolution

    10.16.4 Evolution of Coastal Environments

    10.16.5 Rocky Coasts

    10.16.6 Glaciated Coasts

    10.16.7 Rocky Carbonate Coasts

    10.16.8 Case Histories of Coastal Evolution

    10.16.9 Summary


    Volume 11: Aeolian Geomorphology

    11.1 Aeolian Geomorphology: Introduction

    11.1.1 Introduction

    11.1.2 Historical Development and Contemporary State

    11.1.3 Future Trends



    Aeolian Processes

    11.2 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Boundary-Layer Processes


    11.2.1 Introduction

    11.2.2 Classic Boundary Layer Concepts

    11.2.3 Velocity Profiles in Clean Air

    11.2.4 Steady-State Boundary Layers with Saltation

    11.2.5 Wind Unsteadiness and Turbulent Events

    11.2.6 Summary and Conclusions


    11.3 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Aeolian Sediments

    11.3.1 Introduction

    11.3.2 Measuring Aeolian Sediments

    11.3.3 Characteristics of Aeolian Sediments

    11.3.4 Concluding Comments


    11.4. Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Dust Emissions and Transport – Near Surface

    11.4.1 Introduction

    11.4.2 Threshold of Entrainment for Dust

    11.4.3 Dust Emissions by Saltation: Thresholds and Particle Flux

    11.4.4 Controls on the Emission Process I: Particle Size, Moisture, Binding Energy (Crusting)

    11.4.5 Controls on the Emission Process II: Roughness

    11.4.6 Disturbance Effects on Dust Emissions

    11.4.7 Electrostatic Effects and Dust Emissions

    11.4.8 Conclusions


    11.5 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Long-Range Transport of Dust


    11.5.1 Introduction

    11.5.2 Dust Transport Patterns and Pathways

    11.5.3 Meteorological Processes Associated with Dust Long-Range Rransport Pattern and the Seasonal Cycle

    11.5.4 Properties of Transported Dust

    11.5.5 Impacts of Long-Range Transported Dust

    11.5.6 Conclusion



    11.6 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Wind-Blown Sand

    11.6.1 Introduction

    11.6.2 Historical Perspectives

    11.6.3 Turbulent Boundary Layers

    11.6.4 Modes of Aeolian Transport

    11.6.5 Initiation of Grain Motion

    11.6.6 Transport Models

    11.6.7 Wind-Blown Sand in Natural Environments

    11.6.8 Measuring Transport

    11.6.9 Research Prospects


    11.7 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Airflow Over Dunes


    11.7.1 Introduction

    11.7.2 Flow–Form–Sediment Transport Interactions in Dune Systems

    11.7.3 Boundary Layer Flow over Complex Terrain

    11.7.4 Airflow Dynamics Over and Around Dunes

    11.7.5 Conclusions


    11.8 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Aeolian Abrasion


    11.8.1 Introduction

    11.8.2 Target Characteristics

    11.8.3 Abrader Characteristics

    11.8.4 Environmental Factors

    11.8.5 Planetary Comparisons

    11.8.6 Conclusions


    Aeolian Landscapes

    11.9 Loess and its Geomorphic, Stratigraphic, and Paleoclimatic Significance in the Quaternary


    11.9.1 Introduction

    11.9.2 Definition of Loess

    11.9.3 Spatial Distribution of Loess

    11.9.4 Sedimentology of Loess

    11.9.5 Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loess

    11.9.6 Genesis of Loess Deposits

    11.9.7 Loess Stratigraphy

    11.9.8 Loess Geochronology

    11.9.9 Paleoclimatic and Paleoenvironmental Interpretation of Loess Deposits

    11.9.10 Summary



    11.10 Clay Deposits

    11.10.1 Introduction

    11.10.2 Clay Mineralogy and Geomorphic Processes

    11.10.3 Clay Landforms and Landscapes

    11.10.4 The Importance of Aeolian Clay Landscapes

    11.10.5 Summary


    11.11 Dune Morphology and Dynamics

    11.11.1 Introduction

    11.11.2 Classification and Key Controls

    11.11.3 Dune Dynamics

    11.11.4 Dune Morphology and Processes

    11.11.5 Dune Interactions and Equilibrium

    11.11.6 Conclusion and Research Requirements


    11.12 Sand Seas and Dune Fields


    11.12.1 Introduction

    11.12.2 Fundamental Controls on the Formation of Sand Seas

    11.12.3 Distribution of Sand Seas in Relation to Climate, Topography, and Sand Transport Systems

    11.12.4 Sediments of Sand Seas

    11.12.5 Dune Patterns in Sand Seas

    11.12.6 The Importance of the Quaternary Legacy

    11.12.7 Key Issues and Research Needs


    11.13 Aeolian Stratigraphy

    11.13.1 Introduction

    11.13.2 Bounding Surfaces

    11.13.3 Sedimentary Models for Dunes, Interdune, and Sandsheet Strata

    11.13.4 Aeolian Stratigraphic Models

    11.13.5 Conclusion


    11.14 Abraded Systems


    11.14.1 Introduction: Landscapes of Aeolian Abrasion

    11.14.2 Ventifacts

    11.14.3 Yardangs

    11.14.4 Desert Depressions

    11.14.5 Inverted Topography

    11.14.6 Conclusions


    11.15 Extraterrestrial Aeolian Landscapes


    11.15.1 Overview

    11.15.2 Creation of Aeolian Depositional Landscapes

    11.15.3 Emergent Structures in Depositional Aeolian Landscapes

    11.15.4 Erosional Landscapes

    11.15.5 Unanswered Questions

    11.15.6 Conclusions


    11.16 Modeling Aeolian Landscapes


    11.16.1 Introduction

    11.16.2 Conceptual Models

    11.16.3 Point Models: Dune Mobility

    11.16.4 Transect Models

    11.16.5 3D and Quasi-3D Models

    11.16.6 Reflections and Prospective


    Aeolian Environments

    11.17 Coastal Dunes


    11.17.1 Introduction

    11.17.2 Foredunes

    11.17.3 Foredune Plains

    11.17.4 Blowouts

    11.17.5 Parabolic Dunes

    11.17.6 Transgressive Dune Sheets and Dunefields

    11.17.7 Conclusion



    11.18 Aeolian Paleoenvironments of Desert Landscapes


    11.18.1 Introduction

    11.18.2 Sandy Paleoenvironments

    11.18.3 Chronologies of Paleo-Aeolian Systems

    11.18.4 Future Prospects


    11.19 Cold-Climate Aeolian Environments


    11.19.1 Introduction

    11.19.2 Winds in Cold-Climate Environments

    11.19.3 Sediment Supply and Availability in Cold Environments

    11.19.4 Cold-Climate Aeolian Processes and Features

    11.19.5 Contemporary Cold-Climate Aeolian Environments

    11.19.6 Relict Cold-Climate Aeolian Systems

    11.19.7 Conclusions


    11.20 Anthropogenic Environments


    11.20.1 Introduction

    11.20.2 Human-Induced Wind Erosion – A Global Perspective

    11.20.3 Anthropogenic Factors that Influence Wind Erosion

    11.20.4 Environmental Effects of Wind Erosion

    11.20.5 Techniques for Studying Wind Erosion

    11.20.6 Control of Anthropogenic Wind Erosion

    11.20.7 Future Outlook and Perspectives


    11.21 Critical Environments: Sand Dunes and Climate Change


    11.21.1 Introduction

    11.21.2 The Effect of Drought on Vegetation Cover – Conceptual Modeling

    11.21.3 The Singularity of Dune Sand Texture and Its Effect on the Sand Moisture and Vegetation Cover

    11.21.4 Drought and Mega-Drought and Its Effect on Sand Dunes Activation

    11.21.5 Biocrust and Its Effect on the Stability of Sand Dunes

    11.21.6 Past Climate Events and Their Effect on the Present Status of Fixed and Mobile Sand Dunes Fields

    11.21.7 Vegetated Linear Dunes and Their Implications for the Sand Seas

    11.21.8 Closing Remarks


    11.22 Linked Aeolian-Vegetation Systems


    11.22.1 Introduction

    11.22.2 How Vegetation Impacts Sand Transport

    11.22.3 How Aeolian Transport Impacts Soil and Vegetation

    11.22.4 Feedbacks between Aeolian Transport and Vegetation

    11.22.5 Managed Ecosystems

    11.22.6 Summary


    Volume 12: Ecogeomorphology

    12.1 The Role of Biota in Geomorphology: Ecogeomorphology

    12.1.1 Introduction to Ecogeomorphology

    12.1.2 Chapter Sequence and Topics in this Volume


    12.2 Riverine Habitat Dynamics

    12.2.1 Introduction

    12.2.2 Habitat Dynamics of Selected Biota in Riverine Ecosystems

    12.2.3 Implications and Applications of Habitat Dynamics

    12.2.4 Conclusions


    12.3 Wood Entrance, Deposition, Transfer and Effects on Fluvial Forms and Processes: Problem Statements and Challenging Issues


    12.3.1 Introduction

    12.3.2 Space–Time Framework of Wood Dynamics

    12.3.3 LW Effects on Fluvial Processes, Channel Morphology, and Riparian Features

    12.3.4 In-Channel Wood and River Management


    12.4 River Processes and Implications for Fluvial Ecogeomorphology: A European Perspective

    12.4.1 Introduction

    12.4.2 The Long-term Perspective: Past, Present, and Future Trends in Channel Adjustments

    12.4.3 Progress in Understanding and Modeling Channel Processes Related to Fluvial Ecogeomorphology

    12.4.4 River Processes and Ecogeomorphology


    12.5 Riparian Vegetation and the Fluvial Environment: A Biogeographic Perspective


    12.5.1 Introduction

    12.5.2 Early History: Pattern and Process in Riparian Zones

    12.5.3 Influence of Hydrogeomorphology on Vegetation: Evolution from Descriptive to Quantitative Studies

    12.5.4 Specific Mechanisms of Hydrogeomorphic Impact

    12.5.5 Influence of Vegetation on Geomorphology

    12.5.6 Feedbacks between Vegetation and Hydrogeomorphology

    12.5.7 Patterns in Published Literature

    12.5.8 Patterns and Perceptions Revealed in the Literature


    12.6 The Impacts of Vegetation on Roughness in Fluvial Systems


    12.6.1 Introduction

    12.6.2 In-Stream Emergent Vegetation

    12.6.3 In-Stream Submerged Vegetation

    12.6.4 Streambank Vegetation

    12.6.5 Floodplain Vegetation

    12.6.6 Future Directions


    12.7 Vegetation Ecogeomorphology, Dynamic Equilibrium, and Disturbance


    12.7.1 Introduction

    12.7.2 Vegetation Patterns

    12.7.3 Hillslopes

    12.7.4 Riparian Vegetation, Fluvial Processes, and Landforms

    12.7.5 Dynamic Equilibrium and the Erosional–Depositional Environment

    12.7.6 Summary



    12.8 The Reinforcement of Soil by Roots: Recent Advances and Directions for Future Research


    12.8.1 Introduction

    12.8.2 Calculating Root Reinforcement

    12.8.3 Root-Reinforcement and Geomorphologic Processes at Different Spatial Scales

    12.8.4 Conclusions and Direction of Future Research


    12.9 Dendrogeomorphology: Dating Earth-Surface Processes with Tree Rings


    12.9.1 Introduction

    12.9.2 Tree Rings and Earth-Surface Processes

    12.9.3 What Earth-Surface Processes Have Been Analyzed with Tree Rings?

    12.9.4 Research Perspectives: Looking to Future Developments


    12.10 Tree-Ring Records of Variation in Flow and Channel Geometry


    12.10.1 Introduction

    12.10.2 Tree-Ring Methods in the Riparian Setting

    12.10.3 Using Establishment Dates of Riparian Pioneer Trees to Determine Flood History and Flood-Plain Dynamics

    12.10.4 Forest Area–Age Distributions in Cottonwood-Dominated Systems: An Illustration of the Use of Tree Rings to Investigate Fluvial Dynamics


    Relevant Websites

    12.11 Peatland Geomorphology


    12.11.1 Introduction

    12.11.2 Definition of Peatlands

    12.11.3 Geomorphology of Intact Peatlands

    12.11.4 Geomorphology of Eroding Peatlands

    12.11.5 Techniques in Peatland Geomorphology

    12.11.6 Putting It All Together: Peatland Function and Ecosystem Services


    12.12 Ecogeomorphology of Salt Marshes


    12.12.1 Effects of Invertebrates and Vegetation on Marsh-Sediment Transport

    12.12.2 Feedbacks between Salt-Marsh Vegetation and Platform Elevation

    12.12.3 Long-Term Marsh Stability and Biogeochemical Cycling

    12.12.4 Modeling Intertidal Ecogeomorphology



    12.13 Ecogeomorphology of Tidal Flats


    12.13.1 Physiography, Sedimentology, and Stratigraphy of Tidal Flats

    12.13.2 Biofilms in Tidal Flat Sediments

    12.13.3 Tidal Flats Vegetation and Sediment Transport Interactions



    12.14 Valley Plugs, Land Use, and Phytogeomorphic Response


    12.14.1 Introduction

    12.14.2 Valley-Plug Formation

    12.14.3 Fluvial-Geomorphic Responses

    12.14.4 Vegetative Responses

    12.14.5 Restoration

    12.14.6 Summary


    12.15 Fire as a Geomorphic Agent


    12.15.1 Introduction

    12.15.2 Soil

    12.15.3 Weathering

    12.15.4 Erosion

    12.15.5 Hydrology

    12.15.6 Prehistoric Fire

    12.15.7 Geomorphic and Topographic Influences on Fire

    12.15.8 Conclusion


    12.16 The Faunal Influence: Geomorphic Form and Process


    12.16.1 Introduction

    12.16.2 Categories of Geomorphic Impacts by Animals

    12.16.3 Geomorphic Impacts of Domesticated and Feral Animals

    12.16.4 Zoogeomorphology at Ecotones

    12.16.5 Conclusion


    12.17 Microbioerosion and Bioconstruction


    12.17.1 Introduction

    12.17.2 What Are Microbes and Why Are They Important to Geomorphology?

    12.17.3 What Do We Know about Microbial Contributions to Geomorphology? – a Brief Historical Review

    12.17.4 State-of-the-Art of Microbial Contributions to Geomorphology – Case Study Environments

    12.17.5 Current Key Questions in Microbial Geomorphology


    12.18 The Geomorphic Impacts of Animal Burrowing and Denning


    12.18.1 Introduction

    12.18.2 Haplotaxida – Earthworms

    12.18.3 Isoptera and Hymenoptera

    12.18.4 Salmoniformes – Salmon and Trout

    12.18.5 Testudines – Gopher Tortoises and Related Species

    12.18.6 Procellariiformes – Wedge-tailed and Sooty Shearwaters

    12.18.7 Lagomorphs (Lagomorpha) – Rabbits and Pikas

    12.18.8 Rodents (Rodentia)

    12.18.9 Carnivores (Carnivora)

    12.18.10 Soricomorpha – Moles

    12.18.11 Conclusions


    12.19 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil and Geomorphological Processes


    12.19.1 Introduction

    12.19.2 Geographic Distribution and Diversity

    12.19.3 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil Physical Properties

    12.19.4 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil Chemical Processes

    12.19.5 Impacts of Alien Species: The Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) as an Example

    12.19.6 Conclusions



    12.20 Beaver Hydrology and Geomorphology


    12.20.1 Introduction

    12.20.2 History and Geographic Distribution of Beaver

    12.20.3 Main Hydrologic Signatures of Beaver

    12.20.4 Influence of Beaver Activities on the Water Cycle

    12.20.5 Beaver Geomorphology – Landforms and Sedimentation

    12.20.6 Conclusions and Future Challenges


    12.21 Interactions among Hydrogeomorphology, Vegetation, and Nutrient Biogeochemistry in Floodplain Ecosystems


    12.21.1 Floodplains and Their Essential Interactive Processes

    12.21.2 The Template of Hydrogeomorphology in Floodplains

    12.21.3 Controls of Vegetation in Floodplains

    12.21.4 Controls of Nutrient Biogeochemistry in Floodplains

    12.21.5 Case Studies

    12.21.6 Conclusions


    Volume 13: Geomorphology of Human Disturbances, Climate Change, and Natural Hazards

    13.1 Geomorphology of Human Disturbances, Climate Change, and Hazards


    13.1.1 Introduction

    13.1.2 Background

    13.1.3 Human Impacts on Geomorphic Systems

    13.1.4 Impacts of Climate and Climate Change on Geomorphic Systems

    13.1.5 Geomorphic Hazards

    13.1.6 Nuclear Detonations as a Geomorphic Agent

    13.1.7 Restoration, Stabilization, Rehabilitation, and Management

    13.1.8 Conclusion


    13.2 Impacts of Vegetation Clearance on Channel Change: Historical Perspective


    13.2.1 Introduction

    13.2.2 Historical Perspective on Observation and Research

    13.2.3 Linking Vegetation Clearance to Channel Change: Recently Colonized Landscapes

    13.2.4 The Mediterranean Region and Europe

    13.2.5 Further Examples Linking Vegetation Clearance to Channel Change

    13.2.6 Summary of Trends


    13.3 Land-Use Impacts on the Hydrogeomorphology of Small Watersheds


    13.3.1 Introduction

    13.3.2 Hydrogeomorphic Systems in Small Watersheds

    13.3.3 Land-Use Impacts on Hydrogeomorphic Systems: An Overview

    13.3.4 Land-Use Impacts on Upland Areas of Small Watersheds

    13.3.5 Land-Use Impacts on Stream Channels in Small Watersheds

    13.3.6 Conclusions


    13.4 Impacts of Early Agriculture and Deforestation on Geomorphic Systems


    13.4.1 Introduction

    13.4.2 Emergence and Geomorphic Impacts of Early Agriculture

    13.4.3 Intensification of Agriculture in Eurasia

    13.4.4 Introduction of European Agriculture to the New World

    13.4.5 Modern Agricultural and Deforestation Impacts

    13.4.6 Conclusion


    13.5 Grazing Influences on Geomorphic Systems


    13.5.1 Introduction

    13.5.2 General Geomorphic Impacts of Grazing

    13.5.3 Grazing Impacts of Restricted Native Populations of Animals

    13.5.4 Grazing Impacts of Feral Animals

    13.5.5 Grazing Impacts of Domesticated Animals

    13.5.6 Conclusions


    13.6 Impacts of Mining on Geomorphic Systems


    13.6.1 Introduction

    13.6.2 Types of Mines and Mining History

    13.6.3 The Current Scenario

    13.6.4 Mining and Geomorphic Hazards

    13.6.5 Geomorphology and Mine Reclamation

    13.6.6 Conclusion


    Relevant Websites

    13.7 Hydrogeomorphic Effects of Reservoirs, Dams, and Diversions

    13.7.1 Introduction

    13.7.2 Water Benefit – Environmental Impact Dilemma

    13.7.3 Channel Changes Associated with Dams and Flow Regulation

    13.7.4 The Future of River Regulation


    13.8 Climatic Geomorphology

    13.8.1 Introduction

    13.8.2 The Dawning of Climatic Geomorphology

    13.8.3 The Establishment of Climatic Geomorphology

    13.8.4 The Development of Climatic Geomorphology

    13.8.5 Climatic Geomorphology: Processes and Morphoclimatic Zonation

    13.8.6 The Zonal Concept in Climatic Geomorphology

    13.8.7 The Main Morphoclimatic Zones


    13.9 Climate Change and Aeolian Processes


    13.9.1 Introduction

    13.9.2 Conceptual Framework

    13.9.3 Dust Events and Climate Variability

    13.9.4 Dune Systems

    13.9.5 Modeling the Response of Aeolian Systems to Climate Change

    13.9.6 Aeolian System Response to Future Climates

    13.9.7 Conclusions


    13.10 Glacial Responses to Climate Change


    13.10.1 Introduction

    13.10.2 Glaciers and the Cryosphere Components in the Climate System

    13.10.3 The Development of Internationally Coordinated Glacier Observation

    13.10.4 Documented Changes and Challenges for the Future

    13.10.5 Scenarios, Impacts, and Adaptation


    13.11 Response of Periglacial Geomorphic Processes to Global Change


    13.11.1 Introduction

    13.11.2 Permafrost

    13.11.3 Periglacial Processes

    13.11.4 Climate Change and Permafrost

    13.11.5 Geomorphic Responses to Global Change

    13.11.6 Conclusions


    13.12 Natural Hazards, Landscapes, and Civilizations


    13.12.1 Introduction

    13.12.2 Slow Change or a Series of Disasters

    13.12.3 Past Great Disasters

    13.12.4 Recent Disasters

    13.12.5 Discussion

    13.12.6 Conclusions


    13.13 Tsunami


    13.13.1 Introduction

    13.13.2 Tsunamis as a Natural Process

    13.13.3 Historic Records

    13.13.4 Hybrid Records

    13.13.5 Geological Records

    13.13.6 Geomorphological Records

    13.13.7 Conclusions


    13.14 Factors Influencing Volcanic Hazards and the Morphology of Volcanic Landforms


    13.14.1 Prologue/Introduction

    13.14.2 Volcanic Phenomena

    13.14.3 Global Volcanic Features

    13.14.4 Regional Features (>100 km)

    13.14.5 Local Features (<100 km)

    13.14.6 Conclusion


    13.15 Hazardous Processes: Flooding

    13.15.1 Introduction

    13.15.2 Flood Causes and Their Magnitude

    13.15.3 Flood Hazards in Fluvial Environments

    13.15.4 Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers of Flood Hazard Variability

    13.15.5 Concluding Remarks


    13.16 Wildfire and Landscape Change


    13.16.1 Introduction

    13.16.2 Physical Changes Brought About by Wildfire

    13.16.3 Process Changes Brought About by Wildfire

    13.16.4 Landform Changes Brought About by Wildfire

    13.16.5 Applications of Geomorphology in Burned Areas

    13.16.6 Summary


    13.17 Landslide Hazards and Climate Change in High Mountains

    13.17.1 Introduction

    13.17.2 Background

    13.17.3 Detecting Climate Change Impacts in Landslide Frequency–Magnitude Distributions

    13.17.4 Temperature and Stability in Bedrock Permafrost

    13.17.5 Catastrophic Rock and Ice Avalanches – Growing Evidence of Climate Change Effects?

    13.17.6 Debris Flows and Other Landslides in Proglacial Environments

    13.17.7 Dynamic Interactions Among Landslide, Glacial, and River Processes

    13.17.8 Assessment and Modeling of Slope Stability in the Context of Climate Change

    13.17.9 Conclusions


    Volume 14: Methods in Geomorphology

    14.1 Methods and Techniques for the Modern Geomorphologist: An Introduction to the Volume


    14.2 Fundamental Classic and Modern Field Techniques in Geomorphology: An Overview


    14.2.1 Introduction

    14.2.2 Classic Field Techniques in Geomorphology Revisited

    14.2.3 Modern Field Techniques in Geomorphology

    14.2.4 Conclusions

    14.2.5 Disclaimer


    14.3 Geomorphometry: Quantitative Land-Surface Analysis


    14.3.1 Introduction

    14.3.2 Basics: Altitude and Slope Gradient

    14.3.3 Geomorphometric Field Variables: Local and Regional

    14.3.4 Linear Objects

    14.3.5 Areal Objects

    14.3.6 Scaling and Scale Specificity

    14.3.7 Conclusions: The Future


    Relevant Websites

    14.4 The Modern Geomorphological Map


    14.4.1 Introduction

    14.4.2 Methods and Geomorphological Maps

    14.4.3 Modern Geomorphological Mapping and Geoconservation

    14.4.4 Conclusions and Closing Remarks



    Relevant Websites

    14.5 Google Earth™ in Geomorphology: Re-Enchanting, Revolutionizing, or Just another Resource?


    14.5.1 Introduction

    14.5.2 Recent Feature Developments to Google Earth™

    14.5.3 Use of Google Earth™ in Geomorphology

    14.5.4 Discussion

    14.5.5 Possible Future Developments in the Use of Google Earth™ in Geomorphology

    14.5.6 Conclusions


    Relevant Websites

    14.6 Methods in Geomorphology: Numerical Modeling of Drainage Basin Development


    14.6.1 Background

    14.6.2 Defining the Numerical Modeling Exercise

    14.6.3 Geomorphic Process Equations

    14.6.4 Constructing and Running the Model

    14.6.5 Model Confirmation

    14.6.6 Final Comments


    14.7 Methods in Geomorphology: Investigating River Channel Form


    14.7.1 Introduction

    14.7.2 History/Background

    14.7.3 Methods

    14.7.4 Case Studies

    14.7.5 Future Work and Direction

    14.7.6 Conclusions


    Relevant Websites

    14.8 Methods in Geomorphology: Mapping Glacial Features

    14.8.1 Introduction

    14.8.2 Types of Maps

    14.8.3 Identification of Features

    14.8.4 Production of a Base Map or Image

    14.8.5 Field Mapping

    14.8.6 Mapping in Different Glacial Settings – Case Studies

    14.8.7 Map Production/Cartography



    Techniques and Methods for the Field

    14.9 Techniques and Methods for the Field: An Introduction and Commentary

    14.9.1 Introduction

    14.9.2 What’s on Top? – Studying the Surface

    14.9.3 What Lies Beneath? – Subsurface Investigations in the Field

    14.9.4 Back in the Laboratory

    14.9.5 Never Ignore Safety

    14.9.6 Value of Fieldwork in Educational Aspects of Geomorphology

    14.9.7 Conclusions


    14.10 Topographic Field Surveying in Geomorphology

    14.10.1 Introduction

    14.10.2 Basic Survey Principles

    14.10.3 Common Types of Instruments

    14.10.4 Summary and Conclusions


    14.11 Coring and Augering


    14.11.1 Introduction

    14.11.2 The Principles of Coring

    14.11.3 Corer Types: Designs and Operation

    14.11.4 Corers for Taking Long Cores

    14.11.5 Core Handling and Contamination Control

    14.11.6 Conclusion


    14.12 Trenching and Exposed Faces


    14.12.1 The Purpose of Trenching and Mapping Exposed Faces

    14.12.2 Creating an Exposed Face (Trenching)

    14.12.3 Preparing the Exposed Face for Mapping (Logging)

    14.12.4 Logging the Exposed Face

    14.12.5 Applications of Trenching in Geomorphology

    14.12.6 Summary


    14.13 Working with Gravel and Boulders


    14.13.1 Introduction

    14.13.2 Background

    14.13.3 Methodology

    14.13.4 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

    14.13.5 Case Studies

    14.13.6 Future Work and Direction

    14.13.7 Conclusions


    14.14 The Micro and Traversing Erosion Meter

    14.14.1 Introduction

    14.14.2 The Microerosion Meter

    14.14.3 The Traversing Microerosion Meter

    14.14.4 Rates of Erosion and Swelling

    14.14.5 Comparisons with other Methods

    14.14.6 Conclusions


    14.15 Soil Description Procedures for Use in Geomorphological Studies


    14.15.1 Introduction

    14.15.2 A Brief History of Soil Survey and Descriptions

    14.15.3 Methodology

    14.15.4 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

    14.15.5 Case Study

    14.15.6 Future Work and Directions

    14.15.7 Conclusions


    Relevant Websites

    14.16 Ground Penetrating Radar

    14.16.1 History of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    14.16.2 GPR Principles

    14.16.3 Equipment

    14.16.4 Processing

    14.16.5 Survey Design

    14.16.6 Radar Profiles as Cross-Sections and Ground Truth

    14.16.7 Radar Facies

    14.16.8 Radar Stratigraphy

    14.16.9 3-D Date and 2.5D Grids

    14.16.10 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

    14.16.11 Side Swipes and Airwaves

    14.16.12 Examples: Fluvial Geomorphology

    14.16.13 Sand Dunes


    14.17 Electronic Measurement Techniques for Field Experiments in Process Geomorphology


    14.17.1 Introduction

    14.17.2 Monitoring Geomorphic Systems Controlled by Hydrodynamic Processes

    14.17.3 Monitoring Geomorphic Systems Controlled by Aeolian Processes

    14.17.4 Interpreting the Signal

    14.17.5 Conclusions


    Techniques in the Laboratory

    14.18 Laboratory Techniques for Geomorphologists: An Introduction

    14.18.1 Investigating the Size and Shape of Particles

    14.18.2 Chemical Techniques for Geomorphological Investigations

    14.18.3 Micropaleontology: Sometimes it’s the Little Things that Count

    14.18.4 Dates and Rates: Dating Geomorphic Processes


    14.19 Measuring and Analyzing Particle Size in a Geomorphic Context


    14.19.1 Introduction

    14.19.2 Sample Preparations: A General Note on Labeling and the Selection of Materials for Particle-Size Analysis

    14.19.3 Grain (Particle) Size Scales: The Udden–Wentworth Scale

    14.19.4 Analytical Techniques

    14.19.5 Interpretation of Particle-Size Data

    14.19.6 The Same but Different: A Concluding Note on Comparing Different Techniques


    14.20 Examining Particle Shape

    14.20.1 Introduction

    14.20.2 Background

    14.20.3 Methodology

    14.20.4 Limitations

    14.20.5 Conclusions


    14.21 The Scanning Electron Microscope in Geomorphology


    14.21.1 Introduction

    14.21.2 Methodology

    14.21.3 Case Studies

    14.21.4 Conclusions


    14.22 Determining Organic and Carbonate Content in Sediments

    14.22.1 Introduction

    14.22.2 Basic Analytical Principle

    14.22.3 Measurement Methodologies

    14.22.4 Summary and Conclusions


    14.23 Wet Chemical Methods (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Ion-Selective Electrodes, Colorimetric Analysis, Ion Chromatography, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, and Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry)


    14.23.1 Introduction

    14.23.2 Pretreatment of Samples

    14.23.3 Water for Analytical Methods

    14.23.4 pH

    14.23.5 Electrical Conductivity

    14.23.6 Ion-Selective Electrodes

    14.23.7 Colorimetric Analysis

    14.23.8 Ion Chromatography

    14.23.9 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    14.23.10 Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometries

    14.23.11 Summary


    14.24 Use of Sedimentary-Metal Indicators in Assessment of Estuarine System Health

    14.24.1 Introduction

    14.24.2 Methodology

    14.24.3 Magnitude of Human-Induced Change

    14.24.4 Benthic Risk

    14.24.5 Use of Sedimentary-Metal Indicators in Estuarine Health Assessment

    14.24.6 Lake Macquarie – A Case Study

    14.24.7 Conclusions


    14.25 Microfossils in Tidal Settings as Indicators of Sea-Level Change, Paleoearthquakes, Tsunamis, and Tropical Cyclones


    14.25.1 Introduction

    14.25.2 Microfossils and Intertidal Environments

    14.25.3 Microfossil-Based Reconstructions of Sea-Level Change

    14.25.4 Microfossils and Land-Level Change

    14.25.5 Microfossils as Indicators of Paleotsunamis and Storms

    14.25.6 Summary



    14.26 Palynology and Its Application to Geomorphology


    14.26.1 Introduction

    14.26.2 Palynological Analysis

    14.26.3 Palynology and Its Applications to Geomorphology

    14.26.4 Conclusion

    14.26.5 Use of Exotic Markers


    Investigating the Strength of Materials Introduction

    14.27 Investigating the Strength of Materials: Introduction


    14.28 Direct Shear Testing in Geomorphology

    14.28.1 Introduction

    14.28.2 The Importance of Shear Strength in Geomorphology

    14.28.3 Direct Shear Testing in Geomorphology

    14.28.4 Data Analysis

    14.28.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of Direct Shear Tests in Geomorphology

    14.28.6 The Principles of the Back-Pressured Shearbox

    14.28.7 Direct Shear Testing of Fine Sand

    14.28.8 Discussion

    14.28.9 Conclusions


    14.29 The Schmidt Hammer and Related Devices in Geomorphological Research

    14.29.1 Introduction

    14.29.2 Operation of the SH

    14.29.3 The Equotip and Piccolo

    14.29.4 The Uses of the SH and Equotip

    14.29.5 Conclusions


    An Introduction to Dating Techniques: A Guide for Geomorphologists

    14.30 An Introduction to Dating Techniques: A Guide for Geomorphologists


    14.30.1 Introduction

    14.30.2 Dating Issues

    14.30.3 Dating Methods

    14.30.4 Sidereal or Incremental Dating

    14.30.5 Isotopic: Change in Isotopic Composition

    14.30.6 Radiocarbon Dating

    14.30.7 Radiogenic: Luminescence Dating

    14.30.8 Time Dependent Chemical Reactions

    14.30.9 Amino Acid Racemization

    14.30.10 Conclusion


    14.31 Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils from Tidal-Marsh Sediment

    14.31.1 Introduction

    14.31.2 Growth, Deposition, and Decay of Tidal-Marsh Plants

    14.31.3 Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils

    14.31.4 Building Chronologies by Interpreting Ages

    14.31.5 Examples of Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils in Coastal Sequences

    14.31.6 Recommendations for Selection of Plant Macrofossil Samples

    14.31.7 Recommendations for Sample Preparation



    Relevant Websites


    Author Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 6386
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: February 27, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123747396
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080885223

About the Editor in Chief

J Shroder

J Shroder
John (Jack) F. Shroder graduated from Union College’s Geology Program in 1961, received a Masters degree at the University of Massachusetts – Amherst in 1963, and a doctorate at the University of Utah in 1967. His first academic job was two years at the University of Malawi in Africa, before he joined the faculty at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) in 1969, where he remained for most of the next four decades. In the late 1970s he also spent several years on an NSF grant and a Fulbright at Kabul University in Afghanistan and then in 1983-84 he had another Fulbright to Peshawar University in Pakistan. These experiences led to many years of research in the Hindu Kush and western Himalaya which continued through a host of grants and the thick and thin of the interminable war years and terrorist threats over there. Finally in the post 9/11 world, the difficulties of dealing with the increasing terrorism and avoidance of problems in the field forced a cessation of further work in those difficult countries. Also the declining US economy led to so many other problems at UNO that in summer of 2011, Dr. Shroder stopped teaching his required geology major courses and attempted to retire to his and his wife Susie’s new house in Crested Butte, Colorado. This lasted barely a month before UNO pressured him to return at a vastly reduced part-time salary to once again cover his geomorphology class for the fall semester, 2011. But in the interim, Jack had begun a new editing career for the Elsevier publishing company so that he was spending more of his time producing new volumes of work in geomorphology and hazards analysis. With 30 volumes written or edited by 2012, and 9 more deep into the planning stages, the future of such work for him in his retirement years seems certain. These books go together with the more than 150 other scientific papers he is continuing to publish. Dr. Shroder is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The Board of Trustees of the Foundation of the Geological Society of America also asked Jack to join them for the next six years as well, so his deep interests in geology will be maintained. The Association of American Geographers has given Dr. Shroder distinguished career awards twice, once for their Mountain Specialty Group in 2001, and again for their Geomorphology Specialty Group in 2010.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Geography and Geology, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE, USA

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