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Treatise on Geomorphology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123747396, 9780080885223

Treatise on Geomorphology

1st Edition

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Editor in Chief: John Shroder
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123747396
eBook ISBN: 9780080885223
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th March 2013
Page Count: 6386
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The changing focus and approach of geomorphic research suggests that the time is opportune for a summary of the state of discipline.

The number of peer-reviewed papers published in geomorphic journals has grown steadily for more than two decades and, more importantly, the diversity of authors with respect to geographic location and disciplinary background (geography, geology, ecology, civil engineering, computer science, geographic information science, and others) has expanded dramatically. As more good minds are drawn to geomorphology, and the breadth of the peer-reviewed literature grows, an effective summary of contemporary geomorphic knowledge becomes increasingly difficult.

The fourteen volumes of this Treatise on Geomorphology will provide an important reference for users from undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic. Information on the historical development of diverse topics within geomorphology provides context for ongoing research; discussion of research strategies, equipment, and field methods, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations reflect the multiple approaches to understanding Earth’s surfaces; and summaries of outstanding research questions highlight future challenges and suggest productive new avenues for research. Our future ability to adapt to geomorphic changes in the critical zone very much hinges upon how well landform scientists comprehend the dynamics of Earth’s diverse surfaces. This Treatise on Geomorphology provides a useful synthesis of the state of the discipline, as well as highlighting productive research directions, that Educators and students/researchers will find useful.

Key Features

  • Geomorphology has advanced greatly in the last 10 years to become a very interdisciplinary field. Undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic will find the answers they need in this broad reference work which has been designed and written to accommodate their diverse backgrounds and levels of understanding
  • Editor-in-Chief, Prof. J. F. Shroder of the University of Nebraska at Omaha, is past president of the QG&G section of the Geological Society of America and present Trustee of the GSA Foundation, while being well respected in the geomorphology research community and having won numerous awards in the field. A host of noted international geomorphologists have contributed state-of-the-art chapters to the work. Readers can be guaranteed that every chapter in this extensive work has been critically reviewed for consistency and accuracy by the World expert Volume Editors and by the Editor-in-Chief himself
  • No other reference work exists in the area of Geomorphology that offers the breadth and depth of information contained in this 14-volume masterpiece. From the foundations and history of geomorphology through to geomorphological innovations and computer modelling, and the past and future states of landform science, no "stone" has been left unturned!


The text of the articles will be written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource for information in the field. The work will be targeted towards those working in all aspects of the geomorphological sciences, including governmental agencies, corporations involved in environmental work, geoscience researchers, forensic scientists, and university professors

Table of Contents


Volume Editors



Permission Acknowledgments

Volume 1: The Foundations of Geomorphology


1.1 Introduction to the Foundations of Geomorphology

1.1.1 Introduction to Geomorphology

1.1.2 Establishment of the Discipline

1.1.3 Cycle and Process: Early and Middle Twentieth-Century Trends

1.1.4 Climate and Humans: Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First-Century Trends

1.1.5 Historical and Conceptual Foundations


The History of Geomorphology

1.2 The Scientific Roots of Geomorphology before 1830


1.2.1 Introduction

1.2.2 The Distant Past

1.2.3 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, 1600–1830

1.2.4 Roots in Historical Earth Science, 1600–1830

1.2.5 Roots in Classical Mechanics, 1600–1830

1.2.6 Prospects for Geomorphology after 1830

1.2.7 Conclusion


1.3 Major Themes in British and European Geomorphology in the Nineteenth Century


1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 The Glacial Theory: A Preposterous Notion

1.3.3 Beyond the Ice Sheets: The Seeds of Climatic Geomorphology and Climate Change

1.3.4 River Valleys and the Power of Fluvial Denudation

1.3.5 The Decay of Rocks

1.3.6 Mountain-Building

1.3.7 Conclusion


1.4 Geomorphology and Nineteenth-Century Explorations of the American West


1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Pre-Nineteenth Century

1.4.3 Lewis and Clark

1.4.4 Fur Trappers and Traders

1.4.5 Army Topographers

1.4.6 Geographical and Geological Field Surveys

1.4.7 G.K. Gilbert

1.4.8 Concluding Comments


1.5 Geomorphology in the First Half of the Twentieth Century


1.5.1 Introduction

1.5.2 William Morris Davis and a Paradigm for Geomorphology

1.5.3 Davisian Reasoning

1.5.4 Articulation of the Davisian Paradigm

1.5.5 Tectonic Considerations in Relation to Davisian Theory

1.5.6 Local Opposition to Davis

1.5.7 Davisian Doctrines Applied Overseas: Some Examples

1.5.8 German Opposition to Davisian Ideas: Walther Penck’s Alternative

1.5.9 Germany and America: Differences of Opinion

1.5.10 Lester King in Africa: Davis Rewritten

1.5.11 Periglacial Geomorphology

1.5.12 The Beginnings of Quantitative and Experimental Geomorphology

1.5.13 Stream Patterns and Drainage Development

1.5.14 Landforms Produced by Etching

1.5.15 The Movement of Sand and Soil by Wind: Bagnold’s Investigations

1.5.16 Conclusion


1.6 The Mid-Twentieth Century Revolution in Geomorphology


1.6.1 Introduction

1.6.2 The Quantitative Revolution

1.6.3 The Process Revolution

1.6.4 Theoretical Reappraisals

1.6.5 The Plate-Tectonic Revolution

1.6.6 The Climate-Change Revolution

1.6.7 The Revolution in Geochronology

1.6.8 Conclusion


1.7 Geomorphology in the Late Twentieth Century


1.7.1 Introduction

1.7.2 New Technologies in Geomorphology

1.7.3 Process Geomorphology

1.7.4 Landscape Development and Tectonic Geomorphology

1.7.5 Chaos, Self-Organized Criticality, and Non-linear Dynamic Systems

1.7.6 Connecting to Ecology: Biogeomorphology

1.7.7 Conclusions


Changing Concepts and Paradigms

1.8 Philosophy and Theory in Geomorphology

1.8.1 Introduction

1.8.2 Distinguishing between Philosophy and Theory

1.8.3 Approaching Geomorphology

1.8.4 The Two Geomorphologies Problem

1.8.5 The Geomorphic Frame of Systems Analysis


1.9 Spatial and Temporal Scales in Geomorphology


1.9.1 Introduction

1.9.2 Changing Foci of Time and Space

1.9.3 Conceptualizing Time and Space in Geomorphology

1.9.4 Spacetime Scales: Where and How Do We Go From Here?

1.9.5 Conclusion


1.10 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology


1.10.1 Introduction

1.10.2 Tectonism and Tectonic Change

1.10.3 Weather, Climate, and Climate Change

1.10.4 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology: Spatial Considerations

1.10.5 Tectonism, Climate, and Geomorphology: Temporal Changes since 300 Ma

1.10.6 Geomorphic Feedbacks to Climate and Tectonism

1.10.7 Conclusion


1.11 Process in Geomorphology


1.11.1 Introduction

1.11.2 Conceptions of Process at the Inception of Geomorphology

1.11.3 Evolving Conceptions of Process in Geomorphology

1.11.4 Strahler and the Foundation of the Process Paradigm

1.11.5 Systems and Process

1.11.6 The Mechanics and Mathematics of Process

1.11.7 Elaboration of the Process Paradigm

1.11.8 Philosophical Perspectives on Process

1.11.9 Conclusion


1.12 Denudation, Planation, and Cyclicity: Myths, Models, and Reality


1.12.1 Introduction

1.12.2 Denudation: Foundations of the Concept before 1830

1.12.3 Planation: A Prolonged Debate, 1830–1960

1.12.4 Cyclicity in Geomorphology

1.12.5 The Quest for Reality

1.12.6 Conclusion


1.13 Sediments and Sediment Transport


1.13.1 Introduction

1.13.2 Key Concepts

1.13.3 The Properties of Sediment

1.13.4 Initiation of Sediment Motion

1.13.5 Sediment Transport

1.13.6 Conclusions


1.14 Systems and Complexity in Geomorphology


1.14.1 The Complexity of Landscapes

1.14.2 Early Work on Systems and Complexity

1.14.3 Systems and Complexity in Geomorphology

1.14.4 Discussion



1.15 Geomorphology and Late Cenozoic Climate Change


1.15.1 Introduction

1.15.2 Climatic Geomorphology

1.15.3 Late Cenozoic Climates and Climate Change

1.15.4 Marine Archives

1.15.5 Ice-Core Archives

1.15.6 Lake Archives

1.15.7 Aeolian Archives

1.15.8 Relevance of Climate Archives to Geomorphology

1.15.9 Conclusion


Investigative Traditions and Changing Technologies

1.16 The Field, the First, and Latest Court of Appeal: An Australian Cratonic Landscape and its Wider Relevance

1.16.1 Introduction

1.16.2 Bornhardts and Associated Features

1.16.3 Domical Bornhardts and the Origin and Age of Sheet Fractures

1.16.4 Other Aspects of Bornhardts

1.16.5 Flared Slopes and their Significance

1.16.6 Age Considerations

1.16.7 Conclusions


1.17 Laboratory and Experimental Geomorphology: Examples from Fluvial and Aeolian Systems


1.17.1 Philosophical Basis

1.17.2 Origin and Evolution of Hardware Modeling of Fluvial and Aeolian Systems

1.17.3 Advantages of Hardware Models over Field Experiments

1.17.4 Challenges in Scaling Laboratory Experiments

1.17.5 The Nuts and Bolts of Hardware Simulation in Geomorphology

1.17.6 Transformative Concepts

1.17.7 The Future of Experimentation in Geomorphology

1.17.8 Concluding Remarks


1.18 Present Research Frontiers in Geomorphology


1.18.1 Introduction

1.18.2 Research at the Interface of Geomorphology and Ecology

1.18.3 Integrative Thinking – Earth System Science and Landscape Evolution

1.18.4 Geospatial Data Applications

1.18.5 Dealing with Threats to Coastal Environments: Better Understanding of Coastal Processes and Geomorphology

1.18.6 Aeolian Research: New Impetus, New Technologies, and an Emerging Force

1.18.7 Dating Agencies: Advances in Methods and Data Handling

1.18.8 Concluding Remarks



1.19 Geomorphology for Future Societies


1.19.1 Introduction

1.19.2 Geomorphology Past and Present

1.19.3 The Future I: Environmental Challenges to Society

1.19.4 The Future II: The Research Role of Geomorphology

1.19.5 The Future III: Applied Geomorphology

1.19.6 Conclusion


Volume 2: Quantitative Modeling of Geomorphology

2.1 Quantitative Modeling of Geomorphology

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Structure of this Volume



Fundamental Aspects

2.2 Nine Considerations for Constructing and Running Geomorphological Models


2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Model Construction

2.2.3 Running the Model

2.2.4 Concluding Remarks



2.3 Fundamental Principles and Techniques of Landscape Evolution Modeling


2.3.1 Fundamental Processes and Equations

2.3.2 Solution Methods

2.3.3 Conclusions


2.4 A Community Approach to Modeling Earth- and Seascapes


2.4.1 Background

2.4.2 Concept of a Community Modeling System

2.4.3 Open-Source and Readily Available Code

2.4.4 Community Modeling and the CSDMS Approach

2.4.5 Challenges

2.4.6 Summary


Relevant Websites

2.5 Which Models Are Good (Enough), and When?

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.2 What Does It Mean for a Model to be Wrong?

2.5.3 What Makes a Model Rigorous?



Innovative Methods

2.6 Statistical Methods for Geomorphic Distribution Modeling


2.6.1 Introduction

2.6.2 Modeling Steps

2.6.3 Review of Statistical Methods

2.6.4 SWOT Analysis of Statistical Modeling in Geomorphology

2.6.5 Future Challenges


2.7 Genetic Algorithms, Optimization, and Evolutionary Modeling

2.7.1 Introduction

2.7.2 Genetic Algorithms

2.7.3 GAs in Geomorphology

2.7.4 Conclusions



2.8 Nonlocal Transport Theories in Geomorphology: Mathematical Modeling of Broad Scales of Motion


2.8.1 Introduction

2.8.2 Mathematical Background

2.8.3 Superdiffusion in Tracer Dispersal

2.8.4 Nonlocal Theories of Sediment Transport on Hillslopes

2.8.5 Nonlocal Landscape Evolution Models

2.8.6 Future Directions



2.9 Cellular Automata in Geomorphology


2.9.1 Introduction

2.9.2 Basis of the Automata Modeling System

2.9.3 Relationship to Other Geomorphology Modeling Systems

2.9.4 Development of Cellular Automata Use in Geomorphology

2.9.5 Advantages and Disadvantages

2.9.6 Issues in Implementation

2.9.7 The Place of Cellular Automata in the Scientific Nature of Geomorphology


Geomorphic Modeling from Soil to Landscape

2.10 Hillslope Soil Erosion Modeling


2.10.1 The Basis of Soil Erosion Modeling

2.10.2 Why Model Soil Erosion?

2.10.3 Classification of Soil Erosion Models

2.10.4 Empirical Models

2.10.5 Process-Based Models

2.10.6 Scales of Model Application

2.10.7 Temporal Scales

2.10.8 Spatial Scales

2.10.9 The Scaling Question

2.10.10 Hillslope-Scale Soil Erosion Models

2.10.11 An Example of a Hillslope Erosion Model – The WEPP

2.10.12 Erosion Model Implementation and Assessment

2.10.13 Sensitivity Analysis

2.10.14 Model Evaluation

2.10.15 The Future of Hillslope Soil Erosion Modeling


Relevant Websites

2.11 Process-Based Sediment Transport Modeling


2.11.1 Introduction

2.11.2 The Basis of a Process Sediment Transport Modeling System

2.11.3 The Concept of Mass and Momentum Equations in Sediment Transport Modeling

2.11.4 The Spatial Dimensionality of Different Process Sediment Transport Models

2.11.5 Using an Eulerian or Lagrangian Framework to Build a Sediment Transport Model

2.11.6 Discrete Particle Modeling

2.11.7 The Prescription of Boundary Conditions for Sediment Transport Models

2.11.8 The Assessment of a Sediment Transport Model: Considering the Concepts of Validation and Verification

2.11.9 Discussion


2.12 Morphodynamic Modeling of Rivers and Floodplains

2.12.1 Introduction

2.12.2 High Resolution Physics-Based River Models

2.12.3 Network Models of Meander Migration

2.12.4 Cellular Models of Braided Rivers

2.12.5 Models of River Long Profile Evolution

2.12.6 Floodplain Sedimentation Models

2.12.7 Coupled Models of Channel-Floodplain Evolution and Alluvial Architecture

2.12.8 Perspective



2.13 Quantitative Modeling of Landscape Evolution


2.13.1 Introduction

2.13.2 Recent Reviews of Quantitative Landscape Evolution Modeling

2.13.3 Quantitative Models of Landscape Evolution: Concepts and Definitions

2.13.4 Landscape Evolution Model Studies

2.13.5 The Future of Landscape Evolution Modeling


2.14 Modeling Ecogeomorphic Systems


2.14.1 Introduction

2.14.2 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Fluvial Channel Systems

2.14.3 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Catchments

2.14.4 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Semi-Arid Systems with Patterned Vegetation

2.14.5 Ecogeomorphological Modeling of Tidal Wetlands

2.14.6 Ecogeomorphological Models of Vegetated Dune Evolution

2.14.7 Conclusions


Volume 3: Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology

3.1 Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology: Introduction and Overview


3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Geospatial Technology and Fieldwork

3.1.3 Remote Sensing and Geomorphology

3.1.4 GIS and Geomorphology

3.1.5 Conclusions


3.2 Ground, Aerial, and Satellite Photography for Geomorphology and Geomorphic Change


3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Data Acquisition

3.2.3 Image Interpretation

3.2.4 Conclusions


Relevant Websites

3.3 Microwave Remote Sensing and Surface Characterization


3.3.1 Types of Microwave Sensors

3.3.2 Microwave Remote-Sensing Principles

3.3.3 Altimeters

3.3.4 Synthetic-Aperture Radars

3.3.5 Stereo SAR

3.3.6 Interferometric SAR

3.3.7 Summary


3.4 Remote Sensing of Land Cover Dynamics

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Remote Sensing of Land Cover

3.4.3 Case Studies

3.4.4 Land-Cover Change Modeling

3.4.5 Future Research Directions


3.5 Near-Surface Geophysics in Geomorphology


3.5.1 Introduction

3.5.2 Gravity

3.5.3 Magnetics

3.5.4 Resistivity and EM Methods

3.5.5 Ground-Penetrating Radar

3.5.6 Seismic Methods

3.5.7 Combining Geophysical Methods

3.5.8 Discussion and Conclusions


3.6 Digital Terrain Modeling


3.6.1 Introduction

3.6.2 Background

3.6.3 DTM Representation

3.6.4 Data Sources

3.6.5 Preprocessing

3.6.6 DTM Error Assessment

3.6.7 Geomorphological Applications

3.6.8 Conclusions


3.7 Geomorphometry


3.7.1 Introduction

3.7.2 Digital Terrain Modeling

3.7.3 Land-Surface Parameters

3.7.4 Land-Surface Objects and Landforms

3.7.5 Conclusions


3.8 Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphological Mapping


3.8.1 Introduction

3.8.2 Background

3.8.3 Glacial Landscapes and Landforms

3.8.4 Volcanic Terrain and Landforms

3.8.5 Landslide Mapping

3.8.6 Fluvial Landscapes and Landforms

3.8.7 Conclusion


3.9 GIS-Based Soil Erosion Modeling



3.9.1 Introduction

3.9.2 Background

3.9.3 Foundations in Erosion Modeling

3.9.4 Simplified Models of Erosion Processes

3.9.5 GIS Implementation

3.9.6 Case Studies

3.9.7 Conclusion and Future Directions



3.10 Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management


3.10.1 Introduction

3.10.2 Background

3.10.3 Hazard Assessment

3.10.4 Elements-At-Risk and Vulnerability

3.10.5 Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment

3.10.6 Conclusions



3.11 Geovisualization


3.11.1 Introduction

3.11.2 Background

3.11.3 Visual Processing

3.11.4 Visual Interaction

3.11.5 Visual Outputs

3.11.6 Conclusions


Volume 4: Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

4.1 Overview of Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

4.1.1 Previous Major Works in Weathering and Soils Geomorphology

4.1.2 What Constitutes Weathering Geomorphology?

4.1.3 Major Themes, Current Trends, and Overview of the Text

4.1.4 Conclusion


4.2 Synergistic Weathering Processes


4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Getting to the Heart of Weathering and Its Synergies

4.2.3 Scale Issues and Understanding Weathering Synergies

4.2.4 Concepts to Help Understand Weathering Synergies across Scales

4.2.5 Weathering Process Synergies


4.3 Pedogenesis with Respect to Geomorphology


4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Pedogenic Processes

4.3.3 Pedogenesis and Landscape Evolution

4.3.4 Soil Chronosequences

4.3.5 Soils as Indicators of Landscape Stability

4.3.6 Soils and Climate Change

4.3.7 Soil-Slope Relationships

4.3.8 Hillslope/Soil Process Interaction

4.3.9 Soils and Sedimentation

4.3.10 Conclusions


4.4 Nanoscale: Mineral Weathering Boundary


4.4.1 Introduction to Nanoscale Weathering

4.4.2 Nanoscale Techniques for Geomorphologists

4.4.3 Applying Nanoscale Strategies to Contemporary Issues in Geomorphic Weathering

4.4.4 Conclusion


4.5 Rock Coatings


4.5.1 Introduction to Rock Coatings

4.5.2 Interpreting Rock Coatings through a Landscape Geochemistry Approach

4.5.3 Importance of Rock Coatings in Geomorphology

4.5.4 Conclusion


4.6 Weathering Rinds: Formation Processes and Weathering Rates


4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Previous Research on Weathering Rinds

4.6.3 Temporal Changes in Rock Properties

4.6.4 Formation Processes of Weathering Rinds

4.6.5 A Porosity Concerned Model of Weathering Rind Development

4.6.6 Conclusions


4.7 Tafoni and Other Rock Basins


4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Morphological Classification and Rate of Development

4.7.3 Stages of Tafone Development

4.7.4 Stages of Gnamma Progression

4.7.5 Processes of Development

4.7.6 Summary


4.8 Weathering Mantles and Long-Term Landform Evolution

4.8.1 Introduction

4.8.2 Weathering Mantles and How They Form

4.8.3 Deep Weathering Through Geological Time

4.8.4 Etching and Stripping

4.8.5 Geomorphological Signatures of Etchsurfaces

4.8.6 Conclusions


4.9 Catenas and Soils


4.9.1 Introduction

4.9.2 The Catena Concept

4.9.3 Elements and Characteristics of Catenas

4.9.4 Soil Variation on Catenas – Why?

4.9.5 Soil Drainage Classes along Catenas

4.9.6 The Edge Effect

4.9.7 Summary


4.10 Weathering and Hillslope Development

4.10.1 Introduction

4.10.2 Fundamentals

4.10.3 Weathering and Rock Slope Evolution

4.10.4 Deep Weathering and Landslides

4.10.5 Weathering and Slope Landforms

4.10.6 Conclusions


4.11 Weathering in the Tropics, and Related Extratropical Processes


4.11.1 Overview

4.11.2 Weathering Processes and Their Relation to Tropical Conditions

4.11.3 Weathering-Related Landforms of the Tropics

4.11.4 Conclusion


4.12 Weathering in Arid Regions


4.12.1 Introduction

4.12.2 Climate and Weathering – Presumed Connections and Observed Disparities

4.12.3 Nature and Complexity of Weathering Processes

4.12.4 The Desert Weathering System

4.12.5 Inheritance and the Concept of Palimpsest

4.12.6 Conclusion


4.13 Coastal Weathering

4.13.1 Introduction

4.13.2 Marine Salt in the Coastal Environment

4.13.3 Weathering Processes Facilitated by the Coastal Environment

4.13.4 Coastal Landforms Associated with Weathering

4.13.5 Conclusion


4.14 Chemical Weathering in Cold Climates


4.14.1 Introduction

4.14.2 Chemical Weathering Processes

4.14.3 Bedrock Weathering

4.14.4 Rock Coatings

4.14.5 Soil Development in Cold Climates

4.14.6 Chemical Weathering in Glacial and Proglacial Environments

4.14.7 Chemical Denudation in Arctic and Alpine Environments

4.14.8 Conclusions


4.15 Mechanical Weathering in Cold Regions


4.15.1 Introduction

4.15.2 Weathering Processes in Cold Regions

4.15.3 Landforms

4.15.4 Where are We at and Where are We Going?


4.16 Soil Chronosequences


4.16.1 Introduction

4.16.2 Soil Characteristics Supporting Chronosequence Development

4.16.3 Issues Complicating the Development and Use of Chronosequences

4.16.4 Chronosequence Applications

4.16.5 Summary and Conclusion


4.17 Weathering and Sediment Genesis


4.17.1 Weathering, Sediments, and the Rock Cycle

4.17.2 Processes: Disintegration and Chemical Alteration

4.17.3 Factors of Weathering Relevant to Sediment Production

4.17.4 Sediment Maturity and Weathering in Transport

4.17.5 Types of Sediment

4.17.6 The Role of Weathering in Cementing Sediment

4.17.7 Summary


Volume 5: Tectonic Geomorphology

5.1 Dedication to Dr. Kurt Lang Frankel


5.2 Tectonic Geomorphology: A Perspective


5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Development of Tectonic Geomorphology and Advances Related to the Discipline

5.2.3 Recent Research Foci (Subdisciplines)

5.2.4 Future Advances



5.3 Continental–Continental Collision Zone


5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Southern Alps of New Zealand

5.3.3 Africa–Europe Collision

5.3.4 Arabia–Eurasia Collision

5.3.5 India–Asia Collision

5.3.6 Ancient Orogens

5.3.7 Conclusion


5.4 Transform Plate Margins and Strike–slip Fault Systems


5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 General Tectonic Setting

5.4.3 Advances in Studying Continental Transform Systems

5.4.4 Major Continental Transform Plate Boundaries and Strike–slip Fault Systems

5.4.5 Important Questions and Future Directions

5.4.6 Conclusions



5.5 Tectonic Geomorphology of Passive Margins and Continental Hinterlands

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 Igneous and Tectonic Processes Associated with Rifting

5.5.3 Prerifting Continental Topography and Elevation

5.5.4 Postrifting Evolution of Marginal Escarpments

5.5.5 Evolution of Continental Hinterlands

5.5.6 Concluding Remarks



Relevant Website

5.6 Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence


5.6.1 An Introduction to Surface and Deep Features of High Plateaus

5.6.2 Evidence for Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

5.6.3 Tectonic Mechanisms and Associated Surface Uplift Rates for Plateau Uplift, Regional Warping, and Subsidence

5.6.4 Plateau Uplift and Global Climate Change

5.6.5 Conclusion



5.7 Tectonic Geomorphology of Active Folding and Development of Transverse Drainages


5.7.1 Introduction

5.7.2 Lateral Propagation of Reverse Faults and Related Folds

5.7.3 Geomorphic Evidence of Lateral Fold Propagation

5.7.4 Geomorphic Methods to Analyze Laterally Propagating Folds

5.7.5 Santa Ynez Mountains

5.7.6 Complex Lateral Propagation

5.7.7 Development of Transverse Drainage

5.7.8 Directivity of Earthquake Energy and Lateral Fold Propagation: A Hypothesis of Tectonic Extrusion

5.7.9 Conclusions


5.8 Volcanic Landforms and Hazards


5.8.1 Introduction

5.8.2 Tectonic Settings

5.8.3 Variety of Volcanic Landforms

5.8.4 Evolving Volcanic Landforms

5.8.5 Ancient Volcanic Settings

5.8.6 Volcanic Hazards

5.8.7 Future Challenges in the Study of Volcanic Landforms and Hazards



5.9 Hot Spots and Large Igneous Provinces


5.9.1 Introduction

5.9.2 Hot Spot Volcanic Chains

5.9.3 Hot Spot Volcanoes

5.9.4 Conclusion



5.10 Tectonic Geomorphology of Normal Fault Scarps

Symbols and abbreviations


5.10.1 Introduction

5.10.2 Basin and Range Province

5.10.3 Slope Retreat Versus Recline

5.10.4 Modeling the Decay of Transport-Limited Scarps

5.10.5 Limitation of the Geometric Model for Normal Fault Scarp Decay

5.10.6 Summary


5.11 Landslides Generated by Earthquakes: Immediate and Long-Term Effects


5.11.1 Introduction

5.11.2 Overview of Landslide Occurrence in Earthquakes

5.11.3 Geomorphic and Postearthquake Effects of Earthquake-Induced Landslides

5.11.4 Conclusions


5.12 Paleoseismology


5.12.1 Introduction

5.12.2 Earthquake Recurrence Models

5.12.3 Recent Methodological Developments in Paleoseismology

5.12.4 On-Fault Paleoseismology

5.12.5 Off-Fault Paleoseismology

5.12.6 Contribution to Seismic Hazards

5.12.7 Challenges



5.13 Glacially Influenced Tectonic Geomorphology: The Impact of the Glacial Buzzsaw on Topography and Orogenic Systems

5.13.1 Introduction

5.13.2 Basics of Glacial Erosion

5.13.3 Glacial Erosion and Topography

5.13.4 Influence of Glaciers on Tectonics

5.13.5 Discussions and Conclusions


5.14 Tectonic Aneurysms and Mountain Building


5.14.1 Introduction

5.14.2 Tectonic Aneurysm: Conceptual Model

5.14.3 Physics and Boundary Conditions of the Tectonic Aneurysm

5.14.4 Geodynamics of the Tectonic Aneurysm

5.14.5 Conclusions



5.15 The Influence of Middle and Lower Crustal Flow on the Landscape Evolution of Orogenic Plateaus: Insights from the Himalaya and Tibet



5.15.1 Introduction

5.15.2 Development and Geophysical Characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau

5.15.3 Gravitational Potential Energy Gradients and the Dynamics of Middle Crustal Flow

5.15.4 Geomorphology and Tectonics of the Tibetan Plateau

5.15.5 A Self-Consistent Model of the Cenozoic Topographic Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, Assuming Lower and Middle Crustal Flow

5.15.6 Feedbacks among Middle-Lower Crustal Flow, Landscape Evolution, and Climate

5.15.7 Conclusions



5.16 Polygenetic Landscapes



5.16.1 Introduction

5.16.2 Early Conceptual Models for Landscape Evolution

5.16.3 System and Equilibrium Models

5.16.4 Models for Feedback between Climate and Tectonics

5.16.5 Relief Production

5.16.6 Landscape Evolution and Scale

5.16.7 Mathematical and Computational Modeling

5.16.8 Conclusion


Volume 6: Karst Geomorphology


6.1 New Developments of Karst Geomorphology Concepts


6.1.1 Introduction

6.1.2 Processes of Carbonate Karst

6.1.3 Rates, Dates, and Evolution of Carbonate Karst

6.1.4 Surface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Karst

6.1.5 Subsurface Processes and Landforms

6.1.6 Karst Variation over a Range of Environmental Settings

6.1.7 Noncarbonate Karst

6.1.8 Conclusion


Relevant Websites

6.2 Karst Landforms: Scope and Processes in the Early Twenty-First Century


6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.2 Historical Background

6.2.3 The Geologic Substrate and Chemical Weathering Mechanisms

6.2.4 Types of Karst

6.2.5 Telogenetic Karst and Ancillary Processes

6.2.6 Coastal Karst/Eogenetic Karst

6.2.7 Hypogenetic Karst

6.2.8 Conclusions


Processes and Features of Carbonate Karst

6.3 Sources of Water Aggressiveness – The Driving Force of Karstification


6.3.1 Introduction

6.3.2 Water Aggressiveness and Bedrock Contact

6.3.3 Sources of Aggressiveness


6.4 Karst Geomorphology: Sulfur Karst Processes


6.4.1 Introduction

6.4.2 Redox Cycling of Sulfur

6.4.3 Epigenic Processes

6.4.4 Hypogenic/Artesian Processes

6.4.5 Summary


6.5 Biospeleogenesis


6.5.1 Introduction

6.5.2 The Nature and Importance of Microorganisms

6.5.3 Redox Chemistry and Central Metabolism

6.5.4 Biospeleogenesis: Metabolism and the CO2 Factor

6.5.5 Established Biospeleogenesis: Sulfidic Systems

6.5.6 Postulated Respiratory Biospeleogenesis: Iron Systems

6.5.7 Morphological Implications of Postulated Iron Biospeleogenesis

6.5.8 Potential Metabolic Biospeleogenesis: Silicate Systems

6.5.9 Morphological Implications of Postulated Quartzite Biospeleogenesis

6.5.10 Conclusions


6.6 Karstification by Geothermal Waters


6.6.1 Introduction

6.6.2 Zonation and Settings of Hydrothermal Karst in the Earth’s Crust

6.6.3 Diagnostics of Thermal Water Caves

6.6.4 Macromorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

6.6.5 Mesomorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

6.6.6 Micromorphology of Hydrothermal Caves

6.6.7 Conclusions


Rates, Dates, and Ancient Carbonate Karst

6.7 Denudation and Erosion Rates in Karst

6.7.1 Introduction

6.7.2 Solutional Erosion Rates in Carbonate Karst – Theoretical Considerations

6.7.3 Solutional Erosion Rates in Carbonate Karst – Field Measurements

6.7.4 Temporal Variations in Carbonate Solutional Erosion Rates

6.7.5 Spatial Variations in Carbonate Solutional Erosion Rates

6.7.6 Surface Lowering in Karst – Denudation Sensu Stricto

6.7.7 Conclusions


6.8 Reconstructing Landscape Evolution by Dating Speleogenetic Processes


6.8.1 Introduction

6.8.2 Geochronologic Applications

6.8.3 Stable and Radiogenic Isotope Applications

6.8.4 Example Studies of Landscape Evolution from Chronology of Cave Sediments/Speleothems


6.9 Preservation and Burial of Ancient Karst


6.9.1 Introduction

6.9.2 The End of Karstification

6.9.3 Examples of Extreme Preservation

6.9.4 Conditions and Mechanisms for Survival

6.9.5 Filling and Burial

6.9.6 Exhumation

6.9.7 Difficulties with Recognizing Exhumation

6.9.8 Implications of Preservation, Burial, and Exhumation


Surface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Rocks

6.10 Classification of Closed Depressions in Carbonate Karst


6.10.1 Introduction

6.10.2 Doline

6.10.3 Uvala

6.10.4 Polje


6.11 Poljes, Ponors and Their Catchments

6.11.1 Definition and Classification of Polje

6.11.2 Description of Some Poljes

6.11.3 Hydrology and Hydrogeology of Polje

6.11.4 Definition of a Ponor and Its Swallow Capacity

6.11.5 Catchment Area

6.11.6 Anthropogenic Influences on Polje


6.12 Microsculpturing of Solutional Rocky Landforms


6.12.1 Introduction

6.12.2 Major Karren Forms

6.12.3 Karren Assemblages

6.12.4 Classification

6.12.5 The Future


Relevant Websites

6.13 Stone Forests and Their Rock Relief


6.13.1 Introduction

6.13.2 Lunan Stone Forests – Shilin

6.13.3 Stone Forest with Flat Tops

6.13.4 Stone Forests That Developed on Vertical Beds

6.13.5 Subsoil Stone Forests

6.13.6 Conclusion


6.14 Surface Roughness of Karst Landscapes


6.14.1 Introduction

6.14.2 Surface Roughness in Geomorphology

6.14.3 Surface Roughness in Karst

6.14.4 Roughness of Tropical Karst

6.14.5 Conclusion


Subsurface Processes and Landforms in Carbonate Rocks

6.15 Epikarst Processes


6.15.1 Epikarst: Definition and Main Characteristics

6.15.2 Behavior of Epikarst

6.15.3 Role of the Epikarst in the Development and Functioning of Karst Aquifers

6.15.4 Conclusion


6.16 Rock Features and Morphogenesis in Epigenic Caves

6.16.1 Rock Features and Rock Relief

6.16.2 Rock Features in Scientific Literature

6.16.3 Morphogenesis of Cave-Rock Features

6.16.4 Most Characteristic Cave-Rock Features

6.16.5 Conclusion


6.17 The Vertical Dimension of Karst: Controls of Vertical Cave Pattern


6.17.1 Introduction

6.17.2 Influence of Karst Hydrology on the Distribution of Caves

6.17.3 Concepts and Modeling of Cave Origin

6.17.4 Cave Levels: Records of Base-Level Position and Geomorphic Evolution

6.17.5 Controls on Vertical Cave Patterns

6.17.6 Conclusions


6.18 Large Epigenic Caves in High-Relief Areas


6.18.1 Introduction

6.18.2 General Characteristics of Caves in High-Relief Areas

6.18.3 Why Is It Important to Study Caves in High-Relief Areas?

6.18.4 The Relative Chronology

6.18.5 Examples of Caves

6.18.6 Conclusions


6.19 Hypogene Speleogenesis


6.19.1 Introduction

6.19.2 Basic Concept and Definitions

6.19.3 Hypogene Speleogenesis in the Framework of Hierarchical Flow Systems

6.19.4 Evolution of Hydrogeologic Settings

6.19.5 Dissolution Processes in Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.6 Distribution of Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.7 Hydrogeologic Control of Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.8 Solution Porosity Patterns Produced by Hypogene Speleogenesis

6.19.9 Mesomorphology Features of Hypogene Caves

6.19.10 Hypogene Speleogenesis and Paleokarst

6.19.11 Summary


6.20 Sulfuric Acid Caves: Morphology and Evolution


6.20.1 Introduction

6.20.2 Chemical and Hydrologic Processes in Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis

6.20.3 Examples of Sulfuric Acid Caves

6.20.4 Morphology of Sulfuric Acid Caves

6.20.5 Evolution of Sulfuric Acid Caves

6.20.6 Evidence for Sulfuric Acid Processes in Paleokarst

6.20.7 Conclusions


6.21 Glacial Processes in Caves


6.21.1 Introduction

6.21.2 Perennial Cave Ice Accumulation in Temperate Karst Areas

6.21.3 Seasonal Frost

6.21.4 Cryogenic Cave Calcite

6.21.5 Records of Paleoglacial Processes in Caves

6.21.6 Discussion


6.22 Morphology of Speleothems in Primary (Lava-) and Secondary Caves


Prelude Lava Speleothems

Prelude Carbonate Speleothems

6.22.1 Introduction: Speleothems

6.22.2 History of Speleothem Research

6.22.3 Formation of Caves

6.22.4 Speleothems

6.22.5 Conclusions



Relevant Websites

6.23 Micromorphology of Cave Sediments


6.23.1 Introduction

6.23.2 The Micromorphological Method

6.23.3 Processes Identified by Micromorphological Analysis

6.23.4 Micromorphology of Cave Sediments and Environmental Change


6.24 Cave Sediments as Geologic Tiltmeters


6.24.1 Introduction

6.24.2 Cave Sediments as Geologic Tiltmeters

6.24.3 Review of Existing Literature

6.24.4 Potential Future Applications


6.25 Atmospheric Processes in Caves


6.25.1 Introduction

6.25.2 Relative Humidity, Evaporation, and Condensation

6.25.3 Gas Composition of Cave Air

6.25.4 Condensation Corrosion

6.25.5 Particulates

6.25.6 Anthropogenic Impacts

6.25.7 Conclusions


Karst Variation Over a Range of Environmental Settings

6.26 Variations of Karst Geomorphology over Geoclimatic Gradients


6.26.1 Introduction: The Methodologies

6.26.2 Climatic Gradients on KFC in Mainland China

6.26.3 The Geological Modification

6.26.4 Plate Margins and Rifts

6.26.5 Global Perspectives


6.27 Tower Karst and Cone Karst


6.27.1 Introduction

6.27.2 Basic Types of Tower Karst and Cone Karst

6.27.3 Tower Karst and Cone Karst around the World

6.27.4 Controls on the Development of Fengcong-Fenglin Karst

6.27.5 Processes in Fengcong-Fenglin Karst Development

6.27.6 Stability and Age of Fengcong-Fenglin Karst

6.27.7 Genetic Relationship of Fenglin Karst and Fengcong Karst


6.28 Seawater and Biokarst Effects on Coastal Limestones


6.28.1 Introduction

6.28.2 Historical Perspective

6.28.3 Coastal Karst

6.28.4 Seawater Effects

6.28.5 Biokarst Effects

6.28.6 Resulting Morphologies

6.28.7 Conclusions


6.29 Flank Margin Caves in Carbonate Islands and the Effects of Sea Level


6.29.1 Introduction

6.29.2 The Bahamas and Flank Margin Caves

6.29.3 Syngenetic and Syndepositional Caves

6.29.4 Tectonics and Increasing Carbonate Island Complexity

6.29.5 Eogenetic Lithological Controls of Flank Margin Caves

6.29.6 Diagenetically Mature Carbonate Coasts

6.29.7 Coastal Conundrum: Differentiating Coastal Pseudokarst Caves from Karst Caves

6.29.8 Flank Margin Caves Relative to Other Cave Types

6.29.9 The Consequences of Coastal Cave Location

6.29.10 Summary


6.30 Glacier Ice-Contact Speleogenesis in Marble Stripe Karst


6.30.1 Introduction

6.30.2 Glaciology and Glacier Hydrology

6.30.3 Ice-contact Carbonate Dissolution Kinetics

6.30.4 Field Evidence

6.30.5 Conclusions


6.31 Karst in Deserts


6.31.1 Introduction

6.31.2 Karst in Hot Deserts

6.31.3 Discussion


Noncarbonate Karst

6.32 Salt Karst


6.32.1 Introduction

6.32.2 Salt Occurrence

6.32.3 Subaerial Denudation Rates

6.32.4 Features of Salt Karst in Various Settings

6.32.5 Caprock Subaerial Morphology and Associated Hydrology

6.32.6 Vadose Caves

6.32.7 Boundary Conditions

6.32.8 Intrastratal and Phreatic Salt Dissolution

6.32.9 Environmental Implications of Salt Karst

6.32.10 Secondary Chemical Deposits

6.32.11 Conclusions


6.33 Surface Morphology of Gypsum Karst


6.33.1 Introduction

6.33.2 Effects of Interstratal Gypsum Karst on Surface Morphology

6.33.3 Synsedimentary Subsidence in Alluvial Systems

6.33.4 Sinkholes

6.33.5 Poljes

6.33.6 Gypsum Karren

6.33.7 Gypsum Tumuli and Polygons

6.33.8 Gypsum Escarpments and Landslides



6.34 Evolution of Intrastratal Karst and Caves in Gypsum


6.34.1 Introduction

6.34.2 Geological Occurrence of Evaporites

6.34.3 Evolutionary Types of Gypsum Karst

6.34.4 Speleogenesis in Gypsum in Different Types of Karst

6.34.5 Evolution of Intrastratal Gypsum Karst

6.34.6 Other Evolutionary Types of Gypsum Karst: Open and Mantled

6.34.7 Regional Examples of Gypsum Karst Evolution: Inheritance and Zonality

6.34.8 Subsidence Hazards in Different Types of Gypsum Karst


6.35 Dealing with Gypsum Karst Problems: Hazards, Environmental Issues, and Planning


6.35.1 Introduction

6.35.2 Dealing with Dissolution and Subsidence Hazards

6.35.3 Water and Drainage

6.35.4 Surveying, Sinkhole Susceptibility, GIS, and Planning

6.35.5 Construction and Ground Investigation

6.35.6 Conclusions


Relevant Websites

6.36 Solutional Weathering and Karstic Landscapes on Quartz Sandstones and Quartzite


6.36.1 Introduction

6.36.2 The Suite of Sandstone Karst Landforms

6.36.3 Chemical Weathering of Quartz Arenites

6.36.4 Large-Scale Landscapes – Ruiniform, Stone Cities, Towers, Corridors, and Grikes

6.36.5 Caves, Shafts, and Dolines

6.36.6 Smaller Surface Forms – Rock Basins and Runnels

6.36.7 Speleothems

6.36.8 Conclusions


Volume 7: Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology

7.1 Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology: An Introduction

7.2 Regolith and Soils of Mountains and Slopes


7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Mountain Types

7.2.3 Summary


Relevant websites

7.3 Stress, Deformation, Conservation, and Rheology: A Survey of Key Concepts in Continuum Mechanics


7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Continuum

7.3.3 Force

7.3.4 Stress

7.3.5 Deformation

7.3.6 Rate of Deformation

7.3.7 Conservation

7.3.8 Constitutive Relations

7.3.9 Example Application

7.3.10 Concluding Remarks


7.4 Influence of Physical Weathering on Hillslope Forms

7.4.1 Introduction: Modes of Physical Weathering

7.4.2 Physical Weathering and Its Effect on Geomorphic Processes

7.4.3 Sheeting Joints from Unloading (Pressure Release)

7.4.4 Effect of Slaking on Structural Landforms and Mass Movement

7.4.5 Effect of Crystal Growth Weathering (Salt Fretting and Frost Shattering) on Landforms and Mass Movement

7.4.6 Conclusion


7.5 Influence of Chemical Weathering on Hillslope Forms


7.5.1 Introduction

7.5.2 A General Mass Balance Model of Hillslope Evolution Including Chemical Weathering

7.5.3 Feedbacks between Chemical Weathering and Geomorphic Processes

7.5.4 Conclusions


7.6 Rates of Denudation


7.6.1 Introduction

7.6.2 A Word about Nomenclature and Units

7.6.3 Techniques Used to Determine Spatially Averaged Denudation Rates

7.6.4 Controls of Denudation Rates

7.6.5 Temporal and Spatial Scales of Denudation Rate Measurements


7.7 Surface-Runoff Generation and Forms of Overland Flow


7.7.1 Introduction

7.7.2 Hillslope Hydrology, Overland Flow, and Surface Runoff

7.7.3 Processes That Generate Surface Runoff

7.7.4 Factors Affecting Surface-Runoff Generation

7.7.5 Importance of Scale and Hydrologic Connectivity

7.7.6 Conclusions


7.8 Flood Generation and Flood Waves

7.8.1 Introduction

7.8.2 The Concept of Hydrological Connectivity

7.8.3 Flood Generation in Drylands

7.8.4 Flood Generation in Temperate Regions

7.8.5 Flood Waves

7.8.6 Summary and Conclusion


7.9 Analysis of Flash-Flood Runoff Response, with Examples from Major European Events


7.9.1 Introduction

7.9.2 Runoff Generation under Intense Rainfall

7.9.3 Examination of Runoff Characteristics from Major Flash Floods Monitored in Europe

7.9.4 Location and Data Characterization

7.9.5 Characterizing Runoff Coefficient

7.9.6 Conclusions


7.10 Conceptualization in Catchment Modeling


7.10.1 Introduction

7.10.2 Models and Simulation

7.10.3 Scale and Scaling

7.10.4 Model Error and Model Testing

7.10.5 Concept-Development Simulation, What If

7.10.6 Coos Bay Case Study

7.10.7 Summary



7.11 Rill and Gully Development Processes


7.11.1 Concepts and Classifications

7.11.2 Rill Development and Erosion Processes

7.11.3 General Approaches on Rill Erosion

7.11.4 Gully Development and Erosion Processes

7.11.5 Gully Erosion Approaches

7.11.6 Conclusions


7.12 Land Use and Sediment Yield


7.12.1 Introduction

7.12.2 Human Impact and Land-Use Change

7.12.3 Field Evidence of Human-Induced Soil Erosion

7.12.4 Land Use and Sediment Yield at Different Spatial Scales

7.12.5 Quantification of Human-Induced Sediment Yield: Ways Forward

7.12.6 Conclusion


7.13 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Quantifying Creep


7.13.1 Introduction

7.13.2 Conceptual Models for Creep

7.13.3 Quantifying Creep

7.13.4 Conclusion



7.14 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Slides


7.14.1 Introduction

7.14.2 Types of Sliding

7.14.3 Initiation of Slides

7.14.4 Reactivation of Ancient Landslides

7.14.5 Concluding Remarks


7.15 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Flow


7.15.1 Introduction: Flow Processes on Hillslopes

7.15.2 Size Matters: Scale Issues

7.15.3 Flow Types

7.15.4 Flows on Hillslopes

7.15.5 Initiation of Flows

7.15.6 Flow Characteristics

7.15.7 Deposition and Entrainment in Slope Flows

7.15.8 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Debris Flows

7.15.9 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Earth Flows

7.15.10 Examples of Flows on Hillslopes: Peat Flows

7.15.11 Concluding Remarks


7.16 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Topple


7.16.1 Toppling


7.17 Processes, Transport, Deposition, and Landforms: Rockfall


7.17.1 Introduction

7.17.2 Distribution of Rockfalls

7.17.3 Rockfall Inventories

7.17.4 Rockfall Triggers

7.17.5 Rockfall Movement

7.17.6 Talus Slopes

7.17.7 Modeling of Rockfall Activity


7.18 Long-Runout Landslides


7.18.1 Introduction

7.18.2 Catastrophic Long-Runout Landslides

7.18.3 Causes and Triggers

7.18.4 Conclusions and Outlook


7.19 Mass-Movement Causes: Overloading


7.19.1 Introduction

7.19.2 Qualitative Case Study on Overloading with Water, Road Fill, and Landslide Debris

7.19.3 Incorporation of Surcharge in Quantitative Slope Stability Analysis

7.19.4 Importance of Overloading as a Parameter Influencing Slope Stability


7.20 Mass-Movement Causes: Water


7.20.1 Introduction

7.20.2 The Underground Material

7.20.3 Water and Plasticity of Soils

7.20.4 Pore-Water Pressure in the Void System

7.20.5 Water in Different Landslide Types


7.21 Mass-Movement Causes: Changes in Slope Angle


7.21.1 Introduction

7.21.2 Slow Changes in Slope Angle

7.21.3 Sudden Changes in Slope Angle

7.21.4 Changing Slope Angles in Landscape Evolution Models


7.22 Mass-Movement Causes: Glacier Thinning


7.22.1 Introduction

7.22.2 Landslides in Soil

7.22.3 Landslides in Rock

7.22.4 Conclusions


7.23 Mass-Movement Causes: Earthquakes


7.23.1 Introduction

7.23.2 Landslide Types and Triggering Characteristics

7.23.3 Geographic Distributions of Landslides

7.23.4 Characteristics of Landslide Distributions

7.23.5 Geomorphic Effects of Earthquake-Triggered Landslides

7.23.6 Summary and Conclusion


7.24 Mass-Movement Style, Activity State, and Distribution

7.24.1 Mass-Movement Style

7.24.2 Activity State

7.24.3 Mass-Movement Distribution


7.25 Lateral Spreading


7.25.1 Introduction

7.25.2 Morphological Description, Causes and Evolution

7.25.3 Hazard and Planning Implications


7.26 Mass-Movement Hazards and Risks


7.26.1 Introduction

7.26.2 The Physical Context

7.26.3 The Human Context

7.26.4 Social and Physical Environmental Change

7.26.5 Concepts: Hazard, Risk, and Susceptibility

7.26.6 Assessing Hazard and Risk

7.26.7 Conclusion


7.27 Avoidance and Protection Measures


7.27.1 Introduction

7.27.2 Risk Acceptance

7.27.3 Hazard Avoidance

7.27.4 Hazard Reduction Strategies

7.27.5 Strategies for Consequences Reduction

7.27.6 Concluding Remarks


7.28 Numerical Modeling of Flows and Falls


7.28.1 Introduction

7.28.2 Basic Model Principles

7.28.3 Modeling of Flows

7.28.4 Modeling of Rockfall

7.28.5 Future Challenges in Mass Movement Modeling



7.29 Changing Hillslopes: Evolution and Inheritance; Inheritance and Evolution of Slopes


7.29.1 Introduction

7.29.2 Hillslope Evolution

7.29.3 The Inheritance of Landforms Predating Plio–Pleistocene Climate Change

7.29.4 The Inheritance of Landforms during Glacial–Interglacial Fluctuations

7.29.5 Bedrock Landscapes

7.29.6 Soil-Mantled Landscapes

7.29.7 Discussion and Conclusions



7.30 Hillslope Processes and Climate Change


7.30.1 Introduction

7.30.2 Climate Change

7.30.3 Landslides and Climate Coupling

7.30.4 Landslides and Climate Change

7.30.5 Landslides as Inheritance of Global and Regional Climate Change, at Different Temporal Scales

7.30.6 Landslides and Long-Term Climate Changes

7.30.7 Landslides and Short-Term Climate Variability

7.30.8 Hazard Issues in a Changing Environment


7.31 Hillslope Processes in Cold Environments: An Illustration of High-Latitude Mountain and Hillslope Processes and Forms


7.31.1 Introduction

7.31.2 Weathering Processes and Regolith Formation

7.31.3 Slow Mass Wasting

7.31.4 Rapid Mass Movement: Active Layer Detachment Failures

7.31.5 Impacts of Climate Change on Hillslope Processes and Forms

7.31.6 Conclusion



7.32 Hillslope Processes in Temperate Environments


7.32.1 Introduction

7.32.2 Overview of Hillslope Processes in Temperate Environments

7.32.3 Lithologic Controls

7.32.4 Competition between Processes on Hillslopes and in Channels

7.32.5 Upslope- and Downslope-Directed Coupling

7.32.6 To Thresholds and Beyond

7.32.7 From Hillslopes to Channels: Decreasing Sediment Discharge during the Holocene

7.32.8 Beneath Permafrost Elevations: Hillslope Processes in a Changing Climate



7.33 Semiarid Hillslope Processes


7.33.1 Introduction to the Semiarid Environment

7.33.2 Semiarid Hillslope Characteristics

7.33.3 Soil-Surface Characteristics and Geomorphological Processes on Semiarid Hillslopes

7.33.4 Effects of Plants and Geomorphological Processes

7.33.5 Scale Aspects of Semiarid Hillslope Processes


7.34 Hillslope Processes in Arid Environments


7.34.1 Introduction

7.34.2 Arid Hillslope Processes

7.34.3 Discussion

7.34.4 Conclusion


7.35 Hillslope Processes in Tropical Environments


7.35.1 Introduction

7.35.2 The Weathering Mantle and Its Origin

7.35.3 The Role of Mass Movements in the Landscape

7.35.4 Surface-Wash Processes on Hillslopes

7.35.5 Conclusion


7.36 Extraterrestrial Hillslope Processes


7.36.1 Introduction

7.36.2 The Effects of Gravity

7.36.3 The Effect of Climate

7.36.4 Summary



Volume 8: Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

8.1 The Development and History of Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology


8.1.1 Periglacial Geomorphology

8.1.2 Glacial Geomorphology


Glacials and Interglacials

8.2 Identifying Glacial and Interglacial Periods to Assess the Long-Term Climate History of Earth


8.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2 Direct and Indirect Glacial Evidence

8.2.3 Climate Models and Application to Geologic Time

8.2.4 Glacials and Interglacials in Gondwana

8.2.5 Hysteresis of Glaciations in the Permo-Carboniferous

8.2.6 Possibility of Glaciations in the Cretaceous

8.2.7 Summary


8.3 Quaternary-Pleistocene Glacial and Periglacial Environments


8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 North America

8.3.3 Europe

8.3.4 Asia

8.3.5 Australasia

8.3.6 Africa

8.3.7 Central and South America

8.3.8 Antarctica

8.3.9 Summary and Conclusions


Glacier Regimes and Dynamics

8.4 Classification of Ice Masses


8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Morphological Classification

8.4.3 Thermal Classification

8.4.4 Conclusions


Relevant Websites

8.5 Ice Properties and Glacier Dynamics


8.5.1 Deformation of Glacier Ice

8.5.2 Force Balance

8.5.3 Modeling Glacier Flow

8.5.4 Glacier Instability

8.5.5 Concluding Remarks


8.6 Water in Glaciers and Ice Sheets

8.6.1 Introduction

8.6.2 Sources of Glacial Meltwater

8.6.3 Storage of Water in Glaciers

8.6.4 Methods of Studying Glacier Hydrology

8.6.5 Glacier Hydrological Systems

8.6.6 Subglacial Water Pressure

8.6.7 Discharge Fluctuations

8.6.8 Glacial Meltwater Erosion

8.6.9 Hydrological Effects on Glacier Motion

8.6.10 Conclusions


Glacial Erosion – Process and Form

8.7 Glacial Erosion Processes and Rates


8.7.1 Introduction

8.7.2 Processes of Glacial Erosion

8.7.3 Plucking and Entrainment of Rock Fragments by Ice

8.7.4 Abrasion

8.7.5 Rates of Glacial Erosion

8.7.6 Conclusion


8.8 Erosional Features


8.8.1 Introduction

8.8.2 Small-Scale Erosional Forms

8.8.3 Intermediate-Scale Forms

8.8.4 Large-Scale Erosional Forms


8.9 Erosional Landscapes


8.9.1 Introduction

8.9.2 Landscapes of Local Glaciation

8.9.3 Landscapes of Regional and Continental Glaciation

8.9.4 Landscape Development and Interpretation


Glacial Transport and Deposition – Process and Form

8.10 Depositional Processes


8.10.1 Introduction

8.10.2 Glacial Transport

8.10.3 Glacial Deposition

8.10.4 Concluding Remarks


8.11 Depositional Features



8.11.1 Transport

8.11.2 Deposition

8.11.3 Future Perspectives


Fluvial Systems in Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology

8.12 Fluvial Processes in Proglacial Environments


8.12.1 Introduction

8.12.2 Fundamentals

8.12.3 Glacial Effects on Water and Sediment Supply to Rivers

8.12.4 Proglacial River Morphology

8.12.5 Extreme Events

8.12.6 Examples of Proglacial Environments

8.12.7 Summary and Concluding Remarks


8.13 Watershed Hydrology in Periglacial Environments


8.13.1 Why is Periglacial Hydrology Unique?

8.13.2 Unique Vulnerabilities


Permafrost and Cryostratigraphy

8.14 Ground Ice and Cryostratigraphy


8.14.1 Introduction

8.14.2 Description of Ice within Frozen Ground

8.14.3 Genetic Types of Ground Ice

8.14.4 Cryostratigraphy

8.14.5 Transition Zone

8.14.6 Massive Ice and Icy Sediments

8.14.7 Ice Wedges and Soil Wedges

8.14.8 Yedoma and Related Deposits

8.14.9 Summary and Future Research


8.15 Permafrost: Formation and Distribution, Thermal and Mechanical Properties


8.15.1 Introduction

8.15.2 Thermal Properties of Permafrost

8.15.3 Mechanical Properties of Permafrost

8.15.4 The Global Distribution of Permafrost

8.15.5 Permafrost and Climate Variability

8.15.6 Conclusion Remark


Landforms of the Periglacial Environment

8.16 Palsas and Lithalsas


8.16.1 Introduction

8.16.2 Segregation Ice

8.16.3 Palsas

8.16.4 Lithalsas

8.16.5 Conclusion


8.17 Rock Glaciers

8.17.1 Introduction

8.17.2 Definition

8.17.3 Objectives

8.17.4 Rock Glaciers as Part of the Mountain System

8.17.5 The Rock Glacier System

8.17.6 Form

8.17.7 Surface Morphology

8.17.8 Processes: Movement

8.17.9 Origin and Internal Structure

8.17.10 Fabric Analysis

8.17.11 Distribution and Climate

8.17.12 Rock Glacier Age

8.17.13 Geophysical Methods Applied to Rock Glaciers

8.17.14 Rates of Flow/Creep

8.17.15 Hydrology

8.17.16 Geospatial Techniques

8.17.17 Climate Change and Hazards

8.17.18 Martian Rock Glaciers

8.17.19 Future Research


8.18 Pingos


8.18.1 Terminology

8.18.2 Regional Distribution and Characteristics of Pingos

8.18.3 Geographic Characteristics of a Forming Pingo

8.18.4 Hydrology of the Pingo

8.18.5 Future Research


8.19 Patterned Ground and Polygons


8.19.1 Introduction and Scope

8.19.2 Background

8.19.3 Observation and Classification

8.19.4 Monitoring and Experimentation

8.19.5 Theory and Numerical Modeling

8.19.6 Conclusion



8.20 Thermokarst Terrains


8.20.1 Introduction

8.20.2 Thermokarst Landforms

8.20.3 Degradation Processes and Stages

8.20.4 Factors Affecting Permafrost Degradation

8.20.5 Conclusions


8.21 Thermokarst Lakes, Drainage, and Drained Basins


8.21.1 Permafrost and Thermokarst Lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic

8.21.2 Regional and Global Importance of Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.3 Distribution of Thermokarst Lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic

8.21.4 Thermokarst Lake Formation and Morphology

8.21.5 Hydrological Dynamics of Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.6 Oriented Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.7 Drainage of Thermokarst Lakes

8.21.8 Drained Thermokarst Lake Basins and Thermokarst Lake Cycle

8.21.9 Outlook



8.22 Thermokarst and Civil Infrastructure


8.22.1 Introduction

8.22.2 Active Layer

8.22.3 Transition Zone

8.22.4 Thermokarst

8.22.5 Engineering in Permafrost Regions

8.22.6 Conclusions


Slope and Aeolian Processes in the Periglacial Environment

8.23 Mass Movement Processes in the Periglacial Environment


8.23.1 Introduction

8.23.2 Slope Stability and Thaw Consolidation and their Role in Periglacial Mass Wasting

8.23.3 Classification and Processes of Mass Wasting

8.23.4 Mass Wasting Deposits in a Paleoenvironmental Context

8.23.5 The Role of Periglacial Mass Wasting as an Indicator of Global Environmental Change

8.23.6 Conclusion


8.24 Evolution of Slopes in a Cold Climate


8.24.1 Introduction

8.24.2 Cryoplanation Mechanism and Landforms

8.24.3 Talus Slopes, Including Stratified Slope Deposits

8.24.4 Blockfields

8.24.5 Block Streams

8.24.6 Research Perspectives


8.25 Aeolian Processes in Periglacial Environments


8.25.1 Introduction

8.25.2 Background

8.25.3 Why Is There Aeolian Activity In Periglacial Environments?

8.25.4 Cold-Climate Aeolian Features

8.25.5 Summary


Research Frontiers

8.26 Climate Change Impacts on Cold Climates


8.26.1 Introduction – Cold Climate Regions

8.26.2 Impact of Climate Change on the Glacial System

8.26.3 Climate Change and Sea Level in Cold Regions

8.26.4 Climate Change and Permafrost Dynamics

8.26.5 Biologic Bellwether of Climatic Changes in Cold Regions


8.27 Geomorphology and Retreating Glaciers


8.27.1 Introduction

8.27.2 Moraines and the Thermal Regime Process–Form Continuum

8.27.3 Glacifluvial Landform–Sediment Assemblages

8.27.4 Landsystems in Deglaciated Terrain

8.27.5 Landsystem Superimposition and Spatio-temporal Change


8.28 The Glacial and Periglacial Research Frontier: Where from Here?


8.28.1 Introduction

8.28.2 The Glacial Research Frontier – Status

8.28.3 The Periglacial Research Frontier – Status

8.28.4 Permafrost–Glacier Interactions

8.28.5 Comparing the Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology Research Frontiers – Focus and Scale

8.28.6 Where from Here?



Volume 9: Fluvial Geomorphology

9.1 Treatise on Fluvial Geomorphology

9.1.1 Introduction and Overview


Scales and Conceptual Models

9.2 A River Runs Through It: Conceptual Models in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.2.1 The Geomorphic Field Problem

9.2.2 Hierarchy of Analysis Frameworks

9.2.3 A Braided River of Conceptual Models in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.2.4 The Field Problem Revisited


Drainage Basin Processes and Analysis

9.3 Subsurface and Surface Flow Leading to Channel Initiation


9.3.1 Micro-Scale Flow Processes

9.3.2 Hillslope-Scale Flow Processes

9.3.3 Channel Initiation

9.3.4 Summary and Perspectives


9.4 Network-Scale Energy Distribution


9.4.1 Introduction

9.4.2 Energy Expenditure and OCNs

9.4.3 Global Energy Expenditure

9.4.4 Local Energy Expenditure


Channel Processes

9.5 Reach-Scale Flow Resistance


9.5.1 Introduction

9.5.2 Traditional Approaches to Reach-Scale Flow Resistance

9.5.3 Physics-Based Approaches to Resistance

9.5.4 How Well Do Standard Equations Predict Total Resistance?

9.5.5 Recent Developments

9.5.6 Summary and Research Directions


9.6 Turbulence in River Flows


9.6.1 Introduction

9.6.2 Defining and Measuring Turbulence

9.6.3 The Nature of Turbulence in River Flows

9.6.4 Concluding Comments


9.7 The Initiation of Sediment Motion and Formation of Armor Layers

9.7.1 Critical Shear Stress

9.7.2 Armor Formation

9.7.3 Conclusions and Future Directions


9.8 Bedload Kinematics and Fluxes


9.8.1 Introduction

9.8.2 The General Character of Bedload

9.8.3 Grain Kinematics

9.8.4 Fluxes

9.8.5 Future Directions


9.9 Suspended Load


9.9.1 Introduction

9.9.2 Suspension of Noncohesive Sediment

9.9.3 Suspension of Cohesive Sediment

9.9.4 Sampling of Suspended Sediment

9.9.5 Future Directions of Research


9.10 Bedforms in Sand-Bedded Rivers


9.10.1 Introduction

9.10.2 The Classical Concept of a Continuum of Bedforms

9.10.3 Bedform Typology and Classification

9.10.4 Bedforms and Flow Resistance

9.10.5 Flow over Bedforms

9.10.6 The Origin of Bedforms

9.10.7 Growth and Diminution

9.10.8 Bedform Kinematics and Sediment Transport

9.10.9 Preservation

9.10.10 Summary and Future Research Directions


9.11 Wood in Fluvial Systems


9.11.1 Introduction

9.11.2 Defining Wood

9.11.3 Wood Retention in Fluvial Systems

9.11.4 Wood Dynamics

9.11.5 Wood and Landforms

9.11.6 Conclusions



9.12 Influence of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Organisms on Channel Forms and Processes

9.12.1 Introduction

9.12.2 Boundary Conditions

9.12.3 Sediment Transport

9.12.4 Influence of Macroinvertebrates and Anadromous Fishes on Dissolved Load Transport

9.12.5 Aquatic Vegetation and Channel Hydraulics

9.12.6 Opportunities for Future Research



9.13 Geomorphic Controls on Hyporheic Exchange Across Scales: Watersheds to Particles


9.13.1 Introduction

9.13.2 The Effect of Geomorphology on HEFs

9.13.3 Discussion

9.13.4 Conclusion


9.14 Reciprocal Relations between Riparian Vegetation, Fluvial Landforms, and Channel Processes


9.14.1 Introduction

9.14.2 Approaches to Characterizing Riparian Vegetation

9.14.3 How Riparian Vegetation Affects Fluvial Geomorphic Processes

9.14.4 Conclusions


9.15 Landslides in the Fluvial System

9.15.1 Introduction

9.15.2 Landslides in the Fluvial System

9.15.3 Conclusions and Outlook



Channel Patterns

9.16 River Meandering

9.16.1 Introduction

9.16.2 Research Phases and Topics

9.16.3 Approaches and Methods

9.16.4 Empirical Evidence and Analysis

9.16.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Explanations

9.16.6 Perspective and Synthesis

9.16.7 Conclusions


9.17 Morphology and Dynamics of Braided Rivers


9.17.1 Introduction

9.17.2 Occurrence and Development of Braiding

9.17.3 Braided River Morphology and Morpho-Dynamics

9.17.4 Bedload Transport and Morpho-Dynamics

9.17.5 Conclusion


9.18 Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches


9.18.1 Introduction

9.18.2 Conceptual Basis for Hydraulic Geometry

9.18.3 Recent Research

9.18.4 Summary and Future Research


9.19 Anabranching and Anastomosing Rivers

9.19.1 Introduction

9.19.2 Why Do Rivers Anabranch?

9.19.3 Modeling and Theoretical Developments

9.19.4 Vegetation

9.19.5 Anabranching Longevity

9.19.6 Types of Anabranching River

9.19.7 Management of Anabranching Rivers

9.19.8 Conclusion


9.20 Step–Pool Channel Features



9.20.1 Introduction

9.20.2 Step–Pool Channel Morphology

9.20.3 The Formation of Step–Pool Units

9.20.4 The Frequency of Step–Pool Units and Their Morphology

9.20.5 Step–Pool Hydraulics and Flow Resistance

9.20.6 Sediment Transport and Channel Stability

9.20.7 Summary and Research Directions


9.21 Pool–Riffle


9.21.1 Pool–Riffle Morphology

9.21.2 Pool and Riffle Definitions

9.21.3 Pool Formation and Maintenance

9.21.4 Pool and Riffle Geometry

9.21.5 Pool–Riffle Spacing and Percent Area

9.21.6 Sediment Sorting

9.21.7 Future Directions in Pool and Riffle Research

9.21.8 Conclusions


Fluvial Landforms

9.22 Fluvial Terraces


9.22.1 Introduction

9.22.2 Fluvial Terrace Definition and General Description

9.22.3 Terrace Geochronology

9.22.4 Features and Processes of Rivers and Watersheds that Contain Terraces

9.22.5 Graded and Steady-State Stream Profiles and Their Relation to Rerraces

9.22.6 Strath Genesis

9.22.7 Terrace Genesis

9.22.8 Summary and Future Research Directions


9.23 Waters Divided: A History of Alluvial Fan Research and a View of Its Future


9.23.1 Introduction

9.23.2 Formative Boundary Conditions for Alluvial Fan

9.23.3 Processes that Supply Sediment to Alluvial Fans

9.23.4 Processes Observed on Fans

9.23.5 Hypotheses Guiding Field and Experimental Work

9.23.6 Morphometry

9.23.7 Hydraulic Geometry

9.23.8 Sedimentology

9.23.9 Geologic Record of Fans

9.23.10 Experimental Approaches

9.23.11 Models of Fan Evolution

9.23.12 The Record of Hazards on Alluvial Fans

9.23.13 Discussion




9.24 Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology

9.24.1 Introduction

9.24.2 Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology

9.24.3 A Paleoflood Case Study: The Llobregat River

9.24.4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives


9.25 Outburst Floods

9.25.1 Introduction

9.25.2 Flood Sources

9.25.3 Outburst Flood Magnitude and Behavior

9.25.4 Summary



Relevant Websites

9.26 Global Late Quaternary Fluvial Paleohydrology: With Special Emphasis on Paleofloods and Megafloods


9.26.1 Introduction

9.26.2 Types of Global Fluvial Paleohydrological Studies

9.26.3 Alluvial Chronologies

9.26.4 Paleofloods

9.26.5 Megafloods

9.26.6 Discussion



Specific Fluvial Environments

9.27 Steep Headwater Channels


9.27.1 Introduction: What Is a Steep Headwater Channel?

9.27.2 Morphological Types of Steep Headwater Channels

9.27.3 How Do Steep, Headwater Channels Function?

9.27.4 The Scale of Headwater Channels

9.27.5 Sediment Flux

9.27.6 Wood in Steep Headwater Channels

9.27.7 Summary: Current Research Directions



9.28 Bedrock Rivers

9.28.1 Introduction

9.28.2 Flow Hydraulics and Channel Morphology

9.28.3 Erosion Processes and Bedforms

9.28.4 River Profiles and Landscape Relief

9.28.5 Tectonic Interpretation of River Profiles

9.28.6 Concluding Remarks


9.29 Incised Channels: Disturbance, Evolution and the Roles of Excess Transport Capacity and Boundary Materials in Controlling Channel Response

9.29.1 Introduction

9.29.2 Temporal and Spatial Trends of Incision

9.29.3 Channelization

9.29.4 Channelization Programs in the Mid-Continent, USA

9.29.5 Case Studies: Incision by Channelization and Reduced Sediment Supply

9.29.6 Stream Power, Flow Energy, and Channel Adjustment

9.29.7 Simulation of the Effect of Bank Materials on Channel Incision

9.29.8 Discussion and Conclusions


9.30 Streams of the Montane Humid Tropics

9.30.1 Introduction

9.30.2 Hydrology and Aquatic Ecology of TMSs

9.30.3 Water Quality and Denudation

9.30.4 Channel Morphology of TMSs

9.30.5 Response to Anthropogenic Disturbances

9.30.6 Conclusions


9.31 Dryland Fluvial Environments: Assessing Distinctiveness and Diversity from a Global Perspective

9.31.1 Introduction

9.31.2 Growth of the Idea of a Distinct Fluvial Geomorphology of Drylands

9.31.3 Recognition of Greater Diversity in the Fluvial Geomorphology of Drylands

9.31.4 Dryland River Characteristics

9.31.5 Toward a Global Perspective on Dryland Rivers

9.31.6 Recent Trends in Dryland Fluvial Research and Future Research Directions

9.31.7 Conclusion



9.32 Large River Floodplains


9.32.1 Definition and Scale

9.32.2 Conditions for Creation of a Large River Floodplain

9.32.3 Distinctive Characteristics of Large Rivers and Floodplains

9.32.4 Sedimentation Processes and Forms of Large Floodplains

9.32.5 Floodplain Construction by Single-Thread Sinuous Rivers

9.32.6 Floodplain Construction by Single-Thread Braided Rivers

9.32.7 Floodplain Construction by Anabranching Rivers

9.32.8 Summary



Techniques of Study

9.33 Field and Laboratory Experiments in Fluvial Geomorphology


9.33.1 Background

9.33.2 Introduction to Field Experiments

9.33.3 Introduction to Flume Experiments


9.34 Numerical Modeling in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.34.1 Introduction

9.34.2 Examples of Models

9.34.3 Issues and Future Prospects

9.34.4 Conclusions


9.35 Remote Data in Fluvial Geomorphology: Characteristics and Applications

9.35.1 Introduction

9.35.2 Types and Brief History of Remote Data

9.35.3 Recent Applications of Remote Data in Fluvial Geomorphology

9.35.4 Problems and Future Perspectives



Management and Human Effects

9.36 Geomorphic Classification of Rivers

9.36.1 Introduction

9.36.2 Purpose of Classification

9.36.3 Types of Channel Classification

9.36.4 Use and Compatibility of Channel Classifications

9.36.5 The Rise and Fall of Classifications: Why Are Some Channel Classifications More Used Than Others?

9.36.6 Future Needs and Directions

9.36.7 Conclusion




9.37 Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on River Systems

9.37.1 Introduction

9.37.2 Landscape Sensitivity and Scale

9.37.3 Hydrogeomorphic Changes Caused by Land Use

9.37.4 Impacts on Fluvial Systems

9.37.5 Historical Perspective: Episodic Land-Use Change and Sediment Production

9.37.6 Conclusion


9.38 Flow Regulation by Dams

9.38.1 Introduction

9.38.2 Hydrologic Impacts of Flow Regulation

9.38.3 Geomorphic Impacts of Flow Regulation

9.38.4 Contribution of Dam Studies to Geomorphic and Ecological Theory

9.38.5 Conclusions



9.39 Urbanization and River Channels

9.39.1 Introduction

9.39.2 Approaches to Investigating Urbanization in River Systems

9.39.3 Nature of Urbanization

9.39.4 Effects on the Fluvial System

9.39.5 Implications, Opportunities, and Challenges for Management

9.39.6 Conclusion and Prospect



9.40 Impacts of Humans on River Fluxes and Morphology


9.40.1 Introduction

9.40.2 Human-Induced Drivers of Changing Rivers

9.40.3 Human Impacts and Integrated Management Responses


9.41 Geomorphologist’s Guide to Participating in River Rehabilitation


9.41.1 Introduction

9.41.2 Background

9.41.3 Context of River Rehabilitation

9.41.4 Dilemmas in Rehabilitation

9.41.5 Standard Rehabilitation Practice?

9.41.6 Final Thoughts



Volume 10: Coastal Geomorphology

10.1 Perspectives on Coastal Geomorphology: Introduction

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Nearshore Processes

10.1.3 Morphodynamic Systems

10.1.4 Coastal Environments


10.2 The Four Traditions of Coastal Geomorphology


10.2.1 Introduction

10.2.2 Concepts from the Distant Past

10.2.3 Questions of Time and Space

10.2.4 The Earth-Science Perspective – The Landlubbers

10.2.5 The Mathematical Theorists

10.2.6 The Ocean Science Perspective – The Seafarers

10.2.7 The Coastal Engineering Tradition

10.2.8 Conclusion: Welding Noble Traditions into Modern Practice


Nearshore Processes

10.3 Waves


10.3.1 Introduction

10.3.2 Linear Waves

10.3.3 Nonlinear Waves

10.3.4 Long-Period Waves

10.3.5 Summary and Conclusions


10.4 Sediment Transport


10.4.1 Introduction

10.4.2 Measuring Nearshore Sediment Transport

10.4.3 Sediment Mobilization and Suspension

10.4.4 Cross-Shore Sediment Transport

10.4.5 Longshore Sediment Transport

10.4.6 Swash Zone Sediment Transport

10.4.7 Concluding Remarks


Morphodynamic Systems

10.5 Beach Morphodynamics


10.5.1 Introduction

10.5.2 Beach Morphodynamics

10.5.3 Beach Morphodynamics – Status

10.5.4 Beach Morphodynamics – the Way Forward

10.5.5 Discussion and Conclusion


Relevant Websites

10.6 Nearshore Bars


10.6.1 Introduction

10.6.2 Nearshore Bar Morphology

10.6.3 What Mechanism(s) Related to Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport in the Nearshore Lead to the Formation of Nearshore Bars?

10.6.4 How Do Controls Such as Sediment Size, Nearshore Slope, and Wave Climate Determine Whether Nearshore Bars Form on a Sandy Coast?

10.6.5 What Are the Mechanisms Related to Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport That Control Morphological Change in Nearshore Bar Systems on a Time-Scale of Hours to Weeks and Months?

10.6.6 How Do Factors Such as Sediment Size, Nearshore Slope, and Wave Climate Interact with the Short-Term Morphodynamics to Control the Number, Size, and Spacing of Bars in the Nearshore and Intertidal Zones?

10.6.7 Summary and Conclusions


10.7 Tidal Inlets and Lagoons along Siliciclastic Barrier Coasts


10.7.1 Introduction

10.7.2 What is a Tidal Inlet?

10.7.3 Inlet Morphology

10.7.4 Tidal Inlet Formation

10.7.5 Tidal Inlet Relationships

10.7.6 Sand Transport Patterns

10.7.7 Tidal Inlet Effects on Adjacent Shorelines

10.7.8 Coastal Lagoons

10.7.9 Lagoon Inlet Response to Sea-Level Rise

10.7.10 Conclusions


10.8 Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: A Synthesis


10.8.1 Introduction

10.8.2 Trailing-Edge Coasts

10.8.3 Marginal Sea Coasts

10.8.4 Collision Coasts

10.8.5 Migration and Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: Primary Factors

10.8.6 Future Research Directions and Suggestions



10.9 Coastal Gravel Systems


10.9.1 Introduction

10.9.2 Difficulties in Undertaking Gravel-Beach Morphodynamic Analysis

10.9.3 Scale Differentiation of Coastal Gravel Systems

10.9.4 Short-Term Controls: Beachface Processes and Responses

10.9.5 Morpho-Sedimentary Approaches to Gravel-Beach Morphodynamic Domains

10.9.6 Tidal Modulation

10.9.7 Gravel-Beach Profile Variation

10.9.8 Extreme Events, Barrier Overtopping, and Overwashing: Bridging Short- to Long-Term Morphodynamic Processes

10.9.9 Barrier Resilience and the Morphodynamic Perspective

10.9.10 Morphodynamics and Long-Term Gravel Barrier Development

10.9.11 Morphodynamic Implications of Human Intervention on Gravel Systems

10.9.12 Conclusions


10.10 Beach and Dune Interaction

10.10.1 Introduction

10.10.2 Process-Scale Aeolian Transport from Beach to Dune

10.10.3 Beach–Dune Interaction at Tidal and Storm-Scales

10.10.4 Beach–Dune Interaction over the Holocene

10.10.5 Beach–Dune Interaction Models

10.10.6 Conclusions


Coastal Environments

10.11 Rock Coasts

10.11.1 Introduction

10.11.2 Processes

10.11.3 Rocky Coast Landforms

10.11.4 Rock Coast Modeling

10.11.5 Conclusions


10.12 Estuaries

10.12.1 Introduction

10.12.2 Definition and Distribution

10.12.3 Classification of Estuaries

10.12.4 Estuarine Morphodynamics: Physical Factors

10.12.5 Morphodynamics and Evolution

10.12.6 Estuarine Subenvironments

10.12.7 Future Issues


10.13 Coral Systems


10.13.1 Introduction

10.13.2 Reef Systems and Geomorphic Complexity

10.13.3 The Distribution and Evolution of Coral Reefs

10.13.4 Geomorphic Development of Holocene Coral Reefs

10.13.5 Rates of Reef Growth

10.13.6 Developments in Geomorphology of Sedimentary Landforms

10.13.7 Lagoon Sedimentation and Geomorphic Development of Reefs

10.13.8 Reef Island Morphology and Evolution

10.13.9 Summary and Conclusions


10.14 Mangrove Systems


10.14.1 Introduction

10.14.2 Large-Scale Controls on Mangroves

10.14.3 Regional Scale Dynamics of Mangrove Forests

10.14.4 Local-Scale Dynamics

10.14.5 Regional, Event-Based Dynamics

10.14.6 Mangroves and Global Environmental Change

10.14.7 Concluding Remarks: Geomorphology and Mangroves in the Twentieth Century


10.15 Developed Coasts

10.15.1 Introduction

10.15.2 The Impact of Humans through Time

10.15.3 Altering Landforms to Suit Human Needs

10.15.4 Nourishing Beaches

10.15.5 Building Dunes

10.15.6 Effects of Structures

10.15.7 Characteristics of Human-Altered Landforms

10.15.8 Distinguishing Natural from Human-Created Landforms

10.15.9 Cyclic Change versus Progressive Change

10.15.10 Maintaining or Restoring Natural Processes, Structure, and Functions

10.15.11 Dune-Management Options in Spatially Restricted Environments

10.15.12 Prognosis


10.16 Evolution of Coastal Landforms


10.16.1 Introduction

10.16.2 Role of Tectonics in Coastal Evolution

10.16.3 Sea Level Influence on Coastal Evolution

10.16.4 Evolution of Coastal Environments

10.16.5 Rocky Coasts

10.16.6 Glaciated Coasts

10.16.7 Rocky Carbonate Coasts

10.16.8 Case Histories of Coastal Evolution

10.16.9 Summary


Volume 11: Aeolian Geomorphology

11.1 Aeolian Geomorphology: Introduction

11.1.1 Introduction

11.1.2 Historical Development and Contemporary State

11.1.3 Future Trends



Aeolian Processes

11.2 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Boundary-Layer Processes


11.2.1 Introduction

11.2.2 Classic Boundary Layer Concepts

11.2.3 Velocity Profiles in Clean Air

11.2.4 Steady-State Boundary Layers with Saltation

11.2.5 Wind Unsteadiness and Turbulent Events

11.2.6 Summary and Conclusions


11.3 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Aeolian Sediments

11.3.1 Introduction

11.3.2 Measuring Aeolian Sediments

11.3.3 Characteristics of Aeolian Sediments

11.3.4 Concluding Comments


11.4. Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Dust Emissions and Transport – Near Surface

11.4.1 Introduction

11.4.2 Threshold of Entrainment for Dust

11.4.3 Dust Emissions by Saltation: Thresholds and Particle Flux

11.4.4 Controls on the Emission Process I: Particle Size, Moisture, Binding Energy (Crusting)

11.4.5 Controls on the Emission Process II: Roughness

11.4.6 Disturbance Effects on Dust Emissions

11.4.7 Electrostatic Effects and Dust Emissions

11.4.8 Conclusions


11.5 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Long-Range Transport of Dust


11.5.1 Introduction

11.5.2 Dust Transport Patterns and Pathways

11.5.3 Meteorological Processes Associated with Dust Long-Range Rransport Pattern and the Seasonal Cycle

11.5.4 Properties of Transported Dust

11.5.5 Impacts of Long-Range Transported Dust

11.5.6 Conclusion



11.6 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Wind-Blown Sand

11.6.1 Introduction

11.6.2 Historical Perspectives

11.6.3 Turbulent Boundary Layers

11.6.4 Modes of Aeolian Transport

11.6.5 Initiation of Grain Motion

11.6.6 Transport Models

11.6.7 Wind-Blown Sand in Natural Environments

11.6.8 Measuring Transport

11.6.9 Research Prospects


11.7 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Airflow Over Dunes


11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 Flow–Form–Sediment Transport Interactions in Dune Systems

11.7.3 Boundary Layer Flow over Complex Terrain

11.7.4 Airflow Dynamics Over and Around Dunes

11.7.5 Conclusions


11.8 Fundamentals of Aeolian Sediment Transport: Aeolian Abrasion


11.8.1 Introduction

11.8.2 Target Characteristics

11.8.3 Abrader Characteristics

11.8.4 Environmental Factors

11.8.5 Planetary Comparisons

11.8.6 Conclusions


Aeolian Landscapes

11.9 Loess and its Geomorphic, Stratigraphic, and Paleoclimatic Significance in the Quaternary


11.9.1 Introduction

11.9.2 Definition of Loess

11.9.3 Spatial Distribution of Loess

11.9.4 Sedimentology of Loess

11.9.5 Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loess

11.9.6 Genesis of Loess Deposits

11.9.7 Loess Stratigraphy

11.9.8 Loess Geochronology

11.9.9 Paleoclimatic and Paleoenvironmental Interpretation of Loess Deposits

11.9.10 Summary



11.10 Clay Deposits

11.10.1 Introduction

11.10.2 Clay Mineralogy and Geomorphic Processes

11.10.3 Clay Landforms and Landscapes

11.10.4 The Importance of Aeolian Clay Landscapes

11.10.5 Summary


11.11 Dune Morphology and Dynamics

11.11.1 Introduction

11.11.2 Classification and Key Controls

11.11.3 Dune Dynamics

11.11.4 Dune Morphology and Processes

11.11.5 Dune Interactions and Equilibrium

11.11.6 Conclusion and Research Requirements


11.12 Sand Seas and Dune Fields


11.12.1 Introduction

11.12.2 Fundamental Controls on the Formation of Sand Seas

11.12.3 Distribution of Sand Seas in Relation to Climate, Topography, and Sand Transport Systems

11.12.4 Sediments of Sand Seas

11.12.5 Dune Patterns in Sand Seas

11.12.6 The Importance of the Quaternary Legacy

11.12.7 Key Issues and Research Needs


11.13 Aeolian Stratigraphy

11.13.1 Introduction

11.13.2 Bounding Surfaces

11.13.3 Sedimentary Models for Dunes, Interdune, and Sandsheet Strata

11.13.4 Aeolian Stratigraphic Models

11.13.5 Conclusion


11.14 Abraded Systems


11.14.1 Introduction: Landscapes of Aeolian Abrasion

11.14.2 Ventifacts

11.14.3 Yardangs

11.14.4 Desert Depressions

11.14.5 Inverted Topography

11.14.6 Conclusions


11.15 Extraterrestrial Aeolian Landscapes


11.15.1 Overview

11.15.2 Creation of Aeolian Depositional Landscapes

11.15.3 Emergent Structures in Depositional Aeolian Landscapes

11.15.4 Erosional Landscapes

11.15.5 Unanswered Questions

11.15.6 Conclusions


11.16 Modeling Aeolian Landscapes


11.16.1 Introduction

11.16.2 Conceptual Models

11.16.3 Point Models: Dune Mobility

11.16.4 Transect Models

11.16.5 3D and Quasi-3D Models

11.16.6 Reflections and Prospective


Aeolian Environments

11.17 Coastal Dunes


11.17.1 Introduction

11.17.2 Foredunes

11.17.3 Foredune Plains

11.17.4 Blowouts

11.17.5 Parabolic Dunes

11.17.6 Transgressive Dune Sheets and Dunefields

11.17.7 Conclusion



11.18 Aeolian Paleoenvironments of Desert Landscapes


11.18.1 Introduction

11.18.2 Sandy Paleoenvironments

11.18.3 Chronologies of Paleo-Aeolian Systems

11.18.4 Future Prospects


11.19 Cold-Climate Aeolian Environments


11.19.1 Introduction

11.19.2 Winds in Cold-Climate Environments

11.19.3 Sediment Supply and Availability in Cold Environments

11.19.4 Cold-Climate Aeolian Processes and Features

11.19.5 Contemporary Cold-Climate Aeolian Environments

11.19.6 Relict Cold-Climate Aeolian Systems

11.19.7 Conclusions


11.20 Anthropogenic Environments


11.20.1 Introduction

11.20.2 Human-Induced Wind Erosion – A Global Perspective

11.20.3 Anthropogenic Factors that Influence Wind Erosion

11.20.4 Environmental Effects of Wind Erosion

11.20.5 Techniques for Studying Wind Erosion

11.20.6 Control of Anthropogenic Wind Erosion

11.20.7 Future Outlook and Perspectives


11.21 Critical Environments: Sand Dunes and Climate Change


11.21.1 Introduction

11.21.2 The Effect of Drought on Vegetation Cover – Conceptual Modeling

11.21.3 The Singularity of Dune Sand Texture and Its Effect on the Sand Moisture and Vegetation Cover

11.21.4 Drought and Mega-Drought and Its Effect on Sand Dunes Activation

11.21.5 Biocrust and Its Effect on the Stability of Sand Dunes

11.21.6 Past Climate Events and Their Effect on the Present Status of Fixed and Mobile Sand Dunes Fields

11.21.7 Vegetated Linear Dunes and Their Implications for the Sand Seas

11.21.8 Closing Remarks


11.22 Linked Aeolian-Vegetation Systems


11.22.1 Introduction

11.22.2 How Vegetation Impacts Sand Transport

11.22.3 How Aeolian Transport Impacts Soil and Vegetation

11.22.4 Feedbacks between Aeolian Transport and Vegetation

11.22.5 Managed Ecosystems

11.22.6 Summary


Volume 12: Ecogeomorphology

12.1 The Role of Biota in Geomorphology: Ecogeomorphology

12.1.1 Introduction to Ecogeomorphology

12.1.2 Chapter Sequence and Topics in this Volume


12.2 Riverine Habitat Dynamics

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 Habitat Dynamics of Selected Biota in Riverine Ecosystems

12.2.3 Implications and Applications of Habitat Dynamics

12.2.4 Conclusions


12.3 Wood Entrance, Deposition, Transfer and Effects on Fluvial Forms and Processes: Problem Statements and Challenging Issues


12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 Space–Time Framework of Wood Dynamics

12.3.3 LW Effects on Fluvial Processes, Channel Morphology, and Riparian Features

12.3.4 In-Channel Wood and River Management


12.4 River Processes and Implications for Fluvial Ecogeomorphology: A European Perspective

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 The Long-term Perspective: Past, Present, and Future Trends in Channel Adjustments

12.4.3 Progress in Understanding and Modeling Channel Processes Related to Fluvial Ecogeomorphology

12.4.4 River Processes and Ecogeomorphology


12.5 Riparian Vegetation and the Fluvial Environment: A Biogeographic Perspective


12.5.1 Introduction

12.5.2 Early History: Pattern and Process in Riparian Zones

12.5.3 Influence of Hydrogeomorphology on Vegetation: Evolution from Descriptive to Quantitative Studies

12.5.4 Specific Mechanisms of Hydrogeomorphic Impact

12.5.5 Influence of Vegetation on Geomorphology

12.5.6 Feedbacks between Vegetation and Hydrogeomorphology

12.5.7 Patterns in Published Literature

12.5.8 Patterns and Perceptions Revealed in the Literature


12.6 The Impacts of Vegetation on Roughness in Fluvial Systems


12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 In-Stream Emergent Vegetation

12.6.3 In-Stream Submerged Vegetation

12.6.4 Streambank Vegetation

12.6.5 Floodplain Vegetation

12.6.6 Future Directions


12.7 Vegetation Ecogeomorphology, Dynamic Equilibrium, and Disturbance


12.7.1 Introduction

12.7.2 Vegetation Patterns

12.7.3 Hillslopes

12.7.4 Riparian Vegetation, Fluvial Processes, and Landforms

12.7.5 Dynamic Equilibrium and the Erosional–Depositional Environment

12.7.6 Summary



12.8 The Reinforcement of Soil by Roots: Recent Advances and Directions for Future Research


12.8.1 Introduction

12.8.2 Calculating Root Reinforcement

12.8.3 Root-Reinforcement and Geomorphologic Processes at Different Spatial Scales

12.8.4 Conclusions and Direction of Future Research


12.9 Dendrogeomorphology: Dating Earth-Surface Processes with Tree Rings


12.9.1 Introduction

12.9.2 Tree Rings and Earth-Surface Processes

12.9.3 What Earth-Surface Processes Have Been Analyzed with Tree Rings?

12.9.4 Research Perspectives: Looking to Future Developments


12.10 Tree-Ring Records of Variation in Flow and Channel Geometry


12.10.1 Introduction

12.10.2 Tree-Ring Methods in the Riparian Setting

12.10.3 Using Establishment Dates of Riparian Pioneer Trees to Determine Flood History and Flood-Plain Dynamics

12.10.4 Forest Area–Age Distributions in Cottonwood-Dominated Systems: An Illustration of the Use of Tree Rings to Investigate Fluvial Dynamics


Relevant Websites

12.11 Peatland Geomorphology


12.11.1 Introduction

12.11.2 Definition of Peatlands

12.11.3 Geomorphology of Intact Peatlands

12.11.4 Geomorphology of Eroding Peatlands

12.11.5 Techniques in Peatland Geomorphology

12.11.6 Putting It All Together: Peatland Function and Ecosystem Services


12.12 Ecogeomorphology of Salt Marshes


12.12.1 Effects of Invertebrates and Vegetation on Marsh-Sediment Transport

12.12.2 Feedbacks between Salt-Marsh Vegetation and Platform Elevation

12.12.3 Long-Term Marsh Stability and Biogeochemical Cycling

12.12.4 Modeling Intertidal Ecogeomorphology



12.13 Ecogeomorphology of Tidal Flats


12.13.1 Physiography, Sedimentology, and Stratigraphy of Tidal Flats

12.13.2 Biofilms in Tidal Flat Sediments

12.13.3 Tidal Flats Vegetation and Sediment Transport Interactions



12.14 Valley Plugs, Land Use, and Phytogeomorphic Response


12.14.1 Introduction

12.14.2 Valley-Plug Formation

12.14.3 Fluvial-Geomorphic Responses

12.14.4 Vegetative Responses

12.14.5 Restoration

12.14.6 Summary


12.15 Fire as a Geomorphic Agent


12.15.1 Introduction

12.15.2 Soil

12.15.3 Weathering

12.15.4 Erosion

12.15.5 Hydrology

12.15.6 Prehistoric Fire

12.15.7 Geomorphic and Topographic Influences on Fire

12.15.8 Conclusion


12.16 The Faunal Influence: Geomorphic Form and Process


12.16.1 Introduction

12.16.2 Categories of Geomorphic Impacts by Animals

12.16.3 Geomorphic Impacts of Domesticated and Feral Animals

12.16.4 Zoogeomorphology at Ecotones

12.16.5 Conclusion


12.17 Microbioerosion and Bioconstruction


12.17.1 Introduction

12.17.2 What Are Microbes and Why Are They Important to Geomorphology?

12.17.3 What Do We Know about Microbial Contributions to Geomorphology? – a Brief Historical Review

12.17.4 State-of-the-Art of Microbial Contributions to Geomorphology – Case Study Environments

12.17.5 Current Key Questions in Microbial Geomorphology


12.18 The Geomorphic Impacts of Animal Burrowing and Denning


12.18.1 Introduction

12.18.2 Haplotaxida – Earthworms

12.18.3 Isoptera and Hymenoptera

12.18.4 Salmoniformes – Salmon and Trout

12.18.5 Testudines – Gopher Tortoises and Related Species

12.18.6 Procellariiformes – Wedge-tailed and Sooty Shearwaters

12.18.7 Lagomorphs (Lagomorpha) – Rabbits and Pikas

12.18.8 Rodents (Rodentia)

12.18.9 Carnivores (Carnivora)

12.18.10 Soricomorpha – Moles

12.18.11 Conclusions


12.19 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil and Geomorphological Processes


12.19.1 Introduction

12.19.2 Geographic Distribution and Diversity

12.19.3 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil Physical Properties

12.19.4 Effects of Ants and Termites on Soil Chemical Processes

12.19.5 Impacts of Alien Species: The Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) as an Example

12.19.6 Conclusions



12.20 Beaver Hydrology and Geomorphology


12.20.1 Introduction

12.20.2 History and Geographic Distribution of Beaver

12.20.3 Main Hydrologic Signatures of Beaver

12.20.4 Influence of Beaver Activities on the Water Cycle

12.20.5 Beaver Geomorphology – Landforms and Sedimentation

12.20.6 Conclusions and Future Challenges


12.21 Interactions among Hydrogeomorphology, Vegetation, and Nutrient Biogeochemistry in Floodplain Ecosystems


12.21.1 Floodplains and Their Essential Interactive Processes

12.21.2 The Template of Hydrogeomorphology in Floodplains

12.21.3 Controls of Vegetation in Floodplains

12.21.4 Controls of Nutrient Biogeochemistry in Floodplains

12.21.5 Case Studies

12.21.6 Conclusions


Volume 13: Geomorphology of Human Disturbances, Climate Change, and Natural Hazards

13.1 Geomorphology of Human Disturbances, Climate Change, and Hazards


13.1.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Background

13.1.3 Human Impacts on Geomorphic Systems

13.1.4 Impacts of Climate and Climate Change on Geomorphic Systems

13.1.5 Geomorphic Hazards

13.1.6 Nuclear Detonations as a Geomorphic Agent

13.1.7 Restoration, Stabilization, Rehabilitation, and Management

13.1.8 Conclusion


13.2 Impacts of Vegetation Clearance on Channel Change: Historical Perspective


13.2.1 Introduction

13.2.2 Historical Perspective on Observation and Research

13.2.3 Linking Vegetation Clearance to Channel Change: Recently Colonized Landscapes

13.2.4 The Mediterranean Region and Europe

13.2.5 Further Examples Linking Vegetation Clearance to Channel Change

13.2.6 Summary of Trends


13.3 Land-Use Impacts on the Hydrogeomorphology of Small Watersheds


13.3.1 Introduction

13.3.2 Hydrogeomorphic Systems in Small Watersheds

13.3.3 Land-Use Impacts on Hydrogeomorphic Systems: An Overview

13.3.4 Land-Use Impacts on Upland Areas of Small Watersheds

13.3.5 Land-Use Impacts on Stream Channels in Small Watersheds

13.3.6 Conclusions


13.4 Impacts of Early Agriculture and Deforestation on Geomorphic Systems


13.4.1 Introduction

13.4.2 Emergence and Geomorphic Impacts of Early Agriculture

13.4.3 Intensification of Agriculture in Eurasia

13.4.4 Introduction of European Agriculture to the New World

13.4.5 Modern Agricultural and Deforestation Impacts

13.4.6 Conclusion


13.5 Grazing Influences on Geomorphic Systems


13.5.1 Introduction

13.5.2 General Geomorphic Impacts of Grazing

13.5.3 Grazing Impacts of Restricted Native Populations of Animals

13.5.4 Grazing Impacts of Feral Animals

13.5.5 Grazing Impacts of Domesticated Animals

13.5.6 Conclusions


13.6 Impacts of Mining on Geomorphic Systems


13.6.1 Introduction

13.6.2 Types of Mines and Mining History

13.6.3 The Current Scenario

13.6.4 Mining and Geomorphic Hazards

13.6.5 Geomorphology and Mine Reclamation

13.6.6 Conclusion


Relevant Websites

13.7 Hydrogeomorphic Effects of Reservoirs, Dams, and Diversions

13.7.1 Introduction

13.7.2 Water Benefit – Environmental Impact Dilemma

13.7.3 Channel Changes Associated with Dams and Flow Regulation

13.7.4 The Future of River Regulation


13.8 Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.1 Introduction

13.8.2 The Dawning of Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.3 The Establishment of Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.4 The Development of Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.5 Climatic Geomorphology: Processes and Morphoclimatic Zonation

13.8.6 The Zonal Concept in Climatic Geomorphology

13.8.7 The Main Morphoclimatic Zones


13.9 Climate Change and Aeolian Processes


13.9.1 Introduction

13.9.2 Conceptual Framework

13.9.3 Dust Events and Climate Variability

13.9.4 Dune Systems

13.9.5 Modeling the Response of Aeolian Systems to Climate Change

13.9.6 Aeolian System Response to Future Climates

13.9.7 Conclusions


13.10 Glacial Responses to Climate Change


13.10.1 Introduction

13.10.2 Glaciers and the Cryosphere Components in the Climate System

13.10.3 The Development of Internationally Coordinated Glacier Observation

13.10.4 Documented Changes and Challenges for the Future

13.10.5 Scenarios, Impacts, and Adaptation


13.11 Response of Periglacial Geomorphic Processes to Global Change


13.11.1 Introduction

13.11.2 Permafrost

13.11.3 Periglacial Processes

13.11.4 Climate Change and Permafrost

13.11.5 Geomorphic Responses to Global Change

13.11.6 Conclusions


13.12 Natural Hazards, Landscapes, and Civilizations


13.12.1 Introduction

13.12.2 Slow Change or a Series of Disasters

13.12.3 Past Great Disasters

13.12.4 Recent Disasters

13.12.5 Discussion

13.12.6 Conclusions


13.13 Tsunami


13.13.1 Introduction

13.13.2 Tsunamis as a Natural Process

13.13.3 Historic Records

13.13.4 Hybrid Records

13.13.5 Geological Records

13.13.6 Geomorphological Records

13.13.7 Conclusions


13.14 Factors Influencing Volcanic Hazards and the Morphology of Volcanic Landforms


13.14.1 Prologue/Introduction

13.14.2 Volcanic Phenomena

13.14.3 Global Volcanic Features

13.14.4 Regional Features (>100 km)

13.14.5 Local Features (<100 km)

13.14.6 Conclusion


13.15 Hazardous Processes: Flooding

13.15.1 Introduction

13.15.2 Flood Causes and Their Magnitude

13.15.3 Flood Hazards in Fluvial Environments

13.15.4 Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers of Flood Hazard Variability

13.15.5 Concluding Remarks


13.16 Wildfire and Landscape Change


13.16.1 Introduction

13.16.2 Physical Changes Brought About by Wildfire

13.16.3 Process Changes Brought About by Wildfire

13.16.4 Landform Changes Brought About by Wildfire

13.16.5 Applications of Geomorphology in Burned Areas

13.16.6 Summary


13.17 Landslide Hazards and Climate Change in High Mountains

13.17.1 Introduction

13.17.2 Background

13.17.3 Detecting Climate Change Impacts in Landslide Frequency–Magnitude Distributions

13.17.4 Temperature and Stability in Bedrock Permafrost

13.17.5 Catastrophic Rock and Ice Avalanches – Growing Evidence of Climate Change Effects?

13.17.6 Debris Flows and Other Landslides in Proglacial Environments

13.17.7 Dynamic Interactions Among Landslide, Glacial, and River Processes

13.17.8 Assessment and Modeling of Slope Stability in the Context of Climate Change

13.17.9 Conclusions


Volume 14: Methods in Geomorphology

14.1 Methods and Techniques for the Modern Geomorphologist: An Introduction to the Volume


14.2 Fundamental Classic and Modern Field Techniques in Geomorphology: An Overview


14.2.1 Introduction

14.2.2 Classic Field Techniques in Geomorphology Revisited

14.2.3 Modern Field Techniques in Geomorphology

14.2.4 Conclusions

14.2.5 Disclaimer


14.3 Geomorphometry: Quantitative Land-Surface Analysis


14.3.1 Introduction

14.3.2 Basics: Altitude and Slope Gradient

14.3.3 Geomorphometric Field Variables: Local and Regional

14.3.4 Linear Objects

14.3.5 Areal Objects

14.3.6 Scaling and Scale Specificity

14.3.7 Conclusions: The Future


Relevant Websites

14.4 The Modern Geomorphological Map


14.4.1 Introduction

14.4.2 Methods and Geomorphological Maps

14.4.3 Modern Geomorphological Mapping and Geoconservation

14.4.4 Conclusions and Closing Remarks



Relevant Websites

14.5 Google Earth™ in Geomorphology: Re-Enchanting, Revolutionizing, or Just another Resource?


14.5.1 Introduction

14.5.2 Recent Feature Developments to Google Earth™

14.5.3 Use of Google Earth™ in Geomorphology

14.5.4 Discussion

14.5.5 Possible Future Developments in the Use of Google Earth™ in Geomorphology

14.5.6 Conclusions


Relevant Websites

14.6 Methods in Geomorphology: Numerical Modeling of Drainage Basin Development


14.6.1 Background

14.6.2 Defining the Numerical Modeling Exercise

14.6.3 Geomorphic Process Equations

14.6.4 Constructing and Running the Model

14.6.5 Model Confirmation

14.6.6 Final Comments


14.7 Methods in Geomorphology: Investigating River Channel Form


14.7.1 Introduction

14.7.2 History/Background

14.7.3 Methods

14.7.4 Case Studies

14.7.5 Future Work and Direction

14.7.6 Conclusions


Relevant Websites

14.8 Methods in Geomorphology: Mapping Glacial Features

14.8.1 Introduction

14.8.2 Types of Maps

14.8.3 Identification of Features

14.8.4 Production of a Base Map or Image

14.8.5 Field Mapping

14.8.6 Mapping in Different Glacial Settings – Case Studies

14.8.7 Map Production/Cartography



Techniques and Methods for the Field

14.9 Techniques and Methods for the Field: An Introduction and Commentary

14.9.1 Introduction

14.9.2 What’s on Top? – Studying the Surface

14.9.3 What Lies Beneath? – Subsurface Investigations in the Field

14.9.4 Back in the Laboratory

14.9.5 Never Ignore Safety

14.9.6 Value of Fieldwork in Educational Aspects of Geomorphology

14.9.7 Conclusions


14.10 Topographic Field Surveying in Geomorphology

14.10.1 Introduction

14.10.2 Basic Survey Principles

14.10.3 Common Types of Instruments

14.10.4 Summary and Conclusions


14.11 Coring and Augering


14.11.1 Introduction

14.11.2 The Principles of Coring

14.11.3 Corer Types: Designs and Operation

14.11.4 Corers for Taking Long Cores

14.11.5 Core Handling and Contamination Control

14.11.6 Conclusion


14.12 Trenching and Exposed Faces


14.12.1 The Purpose of Trenching and Mapping Exposed Faces

14.12.2 Creating an Exposed Face (Trenching)

14.12.3 Preparing the Exposed Face for Mapping (Logging)

14.12.4 Logging the Exposed Face

14.12.5 Applications of Trenching in Geomorphology

14.12.6 Summary


14.13 Working with Gravel and Boulders


14.13.1 Introduction

14.13.2 Background

14.13.3 Methodology

14.13.4 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

14.13.5 Case Studies

14.13.6 Future Work and Direction

14.13.7 Conclusions


14.14 The Micro and Traversing Erosion Meter

14.14.1 Introduction

14.14.2 The Microerosion Meter

14.14.3 The Traversing Microerosion Meter

14.14.4 Rates of Erosion and Swelling

14.14.5 Comparisons with other Methods

14.14.6 Conclusions


14.15 Soil Description Procedures for Use in Geomorphological Studies


14.15.1 Introduction

14.15.2 A Brief History of Soil Survey and Descriptions

14.15.3 Methodology

14.15.4 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

14.15.5 Case Study

14.15.6 Future Work and Directions

14.15.7 Conclusions


Relevant Websites

14.16 Ground Penetrating Radar

14.16.1 History of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

14.16.2 GPR Principles

14.16.3 Equipment

14.16.4 Processing

14.16.5 Survey Design

14.16.6 Radar Profiles as Cross-Sections and Ground Truth

14.16.7 Radar Facies

14.16.8 Radar Stratigraphy

14.16.9 3-D Date and 2.5D Grids

14.16.10 Problems, Pitfalls, and Limitations

14.16.11 Side Swipes and Airwaves

14.16.12 Examples: Fluvial Geomorphology

14.16.13 Sand Dunes


14.17 Electronic Measurement Techniques for Field Experiments in Process Geomorphology


14.17.1 Introduction

14.17.2 Monitoring Geomorphic Systems Controlled by Hydrodynamic Processes

14.17.3 Monitoring Geomorphic Systems Controlled by Aeolian Processes

14.17.4 Interpreting the Signal

14.17.5 Conclusions


Techniques in the Laboratory

14.18 Laboratory Techniques for Geomorphologists: An Introduction

14.18.1 Investigating the Size and Shape of Particles

14.18.2 Chemical Techniques for Geomorphological Investigations

14.18.3 Micropaleontology: Sometimes it’s the Little Things that Count

14.18.4 Dates and Rates: Dating Geomorphic Processes


14.19 Measuring and Analyzing Particle Size in a Geomorphic Context


14.19.1 Introduction

14.19.2 Sample Preparations: A General Note on Labeling and the Selection of Materials for Particle-Size Analysis

14.19.3 Grain (Particle) Size Scales: The Udden–Wentworth Scale

14.19.4 Analytical Techniques

14.19.5 Interpretation of Particle-Size Data

14.19.6 The Same but Different: A Concluding Note on Comparing Different Techniques


14.20 Examining Particle Shape

14.20.1 Introduction

14.20.2 Background

14.20.3 Methodology

14.20.4 Limitations

14.20.5 Conclusions


14.21 The Scanning Electron Microscope in Geomorphology


14.21.1 Introduction

14.21.2 Methodology

14.21.3 Case Studies

14.21.4 Conclusions


14.22 Determining Organic and Carbonate Content in Sediments

14.22.1 Introduction

14.22.2 Basic Analytical Principle

14.22.3 Measurement Methodologies

14.22.4 Summary and Conclusions


14.23 Wet Chemical Methods (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Ion-Selective Electrodes, Colorimetric Analysis, Ion Chromatography, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, and Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry)


14.23.1 Introduction

14.23.2 Pretreatment of Samples

14.23.3 Water for Analytical Methods

14.23.4 pH

14.23.5 Electrical Conductivity

14.23.6 Ion-Selective Electrodes

14.23.7 Colorimetric Analysis

14.23.8 Ion Chromatography

14.23.9 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

14.23.10 Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometries

14.23.11 Summary


14.24 Use of Sedimentary-Metal Indicators in Assessment of Estuarine System Health

14.24.1 Introduction

14.24.2 Methodology

14.24.3 Magnitude of Human-Induced Change

14.24.4 Benthic Risk

14.24.5 Use of Sedimentary-Metal Indicators in Estuarine Health Assessment

14.24.6 Lake Macquarie – A Case Study

14.24.7 Conclusions


14.25 Microfossils in Tidal Settings as Indicators of Sea-Level Change, Paleoearthquakes, Tsunamis, and Tropical Cyclones


14.25.1 Introduction

14.25.2 Microfossils and Intertidal Environments

14.25.3 Microfossil-Based Reconstructions of Sea-Level Change

14.25.4 Microfossils and Land-Level Change

14.25.5 Microfossils as Indicators of Paleotsunamis and Storms

14.25.6 Summary



14.26 Palynology and Its Application to Geomorphology


14.26.1 Introduction

14.26.2 Palynological Analysis

14.26.3 Palynology and Its Applications to Geomorphology

14.26.4 Conclusion

14.26.5 Use of Exotic Markers


Investigating the Strength of Materials Introduction

14.27 Investigating the Strength of Materials: Introduction


14.28 Direct Shear Testing in Geomorphology

14.28.1 Introduction

14.28.2 The Importance of Shear Strength in Geomorphology

14.28.3 Direct Shear Testing in Geomorphology

14.28.4 Data Analysis

14.28.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of Direct Shear Tests in Geomorphology

14.28.6 The Principles of the Back-Pressured Shearbox

14.28.7 Direct Shear Testing of Fine Sand

14.28.8 Discussion

14.28.9 Conclusions


14.29 The Schmidt Hammer and Related Devices in Geomorphological Research

14.29.1 Introduction

14.29.2 Operation of the SH

14.29.3 The Equotip and Piccolo

14.29.4 The Uses of the SH and Equotip

14.29.5 Conclusions


An Introduction to Dating Techniques: A Guide for Geomorphologists

14.30 An Introduction to Dating Techniques: A Guide for Geomorphologists


14.30.1 Introduction

14.30.2 Dating Issues

14.30.3 Dating Methods

14.30.4 Sidereal or Incremental Dating

14.30.5 Isotopic: Change in Isotopic Composition

14.30.6 Radiocarbon Dating

14.30.7 Radiogenic: Luminescence Dating

14.30.8 Time Dependent Chemical Reactions

14.30.9 Amino Acid Racemization

14.30.10 Conclusion


14.31 Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils from Tidal-Marsh Sediment

14.31.1 Introduction

14.31.2 Growth, Deposition, and Decay of Tidal-Marsh Plants

14.31.3 Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils

14.31.4 Building Chronologies by Interpreting Ages

14.31.5 Examples of Radiocarbon Dating of Plant Macrofossils in Coastal Sequences

14.31.6 Recommendations for Selection of Plant Macrofossil Samples

14.31.7 Recommendations for Sample Preparation



Relevant Websites


Author Index


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© Academic Press 2013
20th March 2013
Academic Press
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About the Editor in Chief

John Shroder

John Shroder

John (Jack) F. Shroder graduated from Union College’s Geology Program in 1961, received a Masters degree at the University of Massachusetts – Amherst in 1963, and a doctorate at the University of Utah in 1967. His first academic job was two years at the University of Malawi in Africa, before he joined the faculty at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) in 1969, where he remained for most of the next four decades. In the late 1970s he also spent several years on an NSF grant and a Fulbright at Kabul University in Afghanistan and then in 1983-84 he had another Fulbright to Peshawar University in Pakistan. These experiences led to many years of research in the Hindu Kush and western Himalaya which continued through a host of grants and the thick and thin of the interminable war years and terrorist threats over there. Finally in the post 9/11 world, the difficulties of dealing with the increasing terrorism and avoidance of problems in the field forced a cessation of further work in those difficult countries. Also the declining US economy led to so many other problems at UNO that in summer of 2011, Dr. Shroder stopped teaching his required geology major courses and attempted to retire to his and his wife Susie’s new house in Crested Butte, Colorado. This lasted barely a month before UNO pressured him to return at a vastly reduced part-time salary to once again cover his geomorphology class for the fall semester, 2011. But in the interim, Jack had begun a new editing career for the Elsevier publishing company so that he was spending more of his time producing new volumes of work in geomorphology and hazards analysis. With 30 volumes written or edited by 2012, and 9 more deep into the planning stages, the future of such work for him in his retirement years seems certain. These books go together with the more than 150 other scientific papers he is continuing to publish. Dr. Shroder is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The Board of Trustees of the Foundation of the Geological Society of America also asked Jack to join them for the next six years as well, so his deep interests in geology will be maintained. The Association of American Geographers has given Dr. Shroder distinguished career awards twice, once for their Mountain Specialty Group in 2001, and again for their Geomorphology Specialty Group in 2010.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Nebraska at Omaha, NE, USA


"…the information is comprehensive, and the set successfully pulls together an overview of existing geomorphic knowledge. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the field, this resource will be useful to students in geology, geography, and environmental sciences."Summing Up: Highly recommended. --CHOICE Reviews Online, June 2014

"…the readership is expected to range from undergraduates looking for material for their term papers to professionals seeking pointers to productive future research directions…it should be an invaluable source of information on the geomorphological processes that Holocene scientists encounter and often need to know more about." --The Holocene, April 2014

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