Description

The use of model organisms together with the power of genetics has profoundly affected our understanding of the physiology of one organ, the skeleton, in two distinct but complementary ways. This is the first translational reference to focus on these major conceptual advances in bone biology and their development in the clinic. Several advances have already been translated into therapies and others are being tested for diseases as different as osteoporosis, type-2 diabetes, and hypo-fertility. This book is a timely reference for both basic and clinical researchers in bone biology and endocrinology.

Key Features

  • Summarizes the latest research and translational applications of how the varied growth and development of bone affects appetite, metabolism, reproduction, and a wide range of endocrine functions
  • Provides a common language for bone biologists, endocrinologists, osteologists, and other researchers, such as neuroscientists, who study appetite, fuel metabolism and diabetes, to discuss the development of translational research and new therapeutic strategies for bone, metabolic, and neuro-endocrine diseases.
  • Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the very latest details on a broad range of bone research and therapeutics, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles

Readership

Clinical and basic researchers in bone biology and clinician researchers in endocrinology, osteology, rheumatology, and orthopedic surgery.

Table of Contents

Contributors

Foreword

Chapter 1. Introduction: The Rational of the Work or the Overarching Hypothesis

The Two Faces of Physiology

The Unanticipated Influence of Bone on Whole-Organism Physiology

References

Chapter 2. Basic Principles of Bone Cell Biology

Introduction

The Osteoblast Lineage

Osteoclasts

Bone Remodeling

Coupling of Bone Formation to Resorption in the BMU

Bone as an Endocrine Organ

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3. The Central Control of Bone Mass

Introduction

Leptin

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

Serotonin

Neuromedin U

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY Receptors

Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcripts

Melanocortin and MC4R

The Cannabinoid System

Other Central Hormones and Neuropeptides Regulating Bone Remodeling

References

Chapter 4. Neuropeptide Y and Bone Formation

The Neuropeptide Y System

Neuropeptide Y and Bone Homeostasis

Other NPY Ligands

The NPY Receptors

NPY Interaction with Leptin in the Control of Bone Homeostasis

NPY’S Coordination of Body Weight and Bone Mass

Interactions Between NPY and Sex Hormones in the Control of Bone Homeostasis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 5. Serotonin: The Central Link between Bone Mass and Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism and its Regulation

Perturbations in Energy Metabolism and Bone Mass

Discovery of Leptin Regulation of Bone Mass

Gain of Function of Leptin Signaling and Bone Mass

Factors Downstream of Leptin Regulation of Bone Mass

Leptin Acts in the Brain to Regulate Bone Mass

Neurotransmitter Profiling in Leptin-Deficient Mice Brain Points to Serotonin as a Target of Leptin

Serotonin Uses Creb in Arc and Vmh Neurons to Regulate Two Diff

Details

No. of pages:
236
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124158597
Print ISBN:
9780124157842

About the editor

Gerard Karsenty

Gerard Karsenty received his MD and PhD from the University of Paris, France and completed his post-doctoral training at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in 1990. His laboratory has studied every aspect of skeletal biology ranging from cell differentiation to function. His laboratory was the first one to decipher the molecular bases of osteoblast-specific gene expression, work that culminated in the identification of Runx2 as the master gene of osteoblast differentiation. The overarching assumption of Dr. Karsenty’s work is that the appearance of bone during evolution has profoundly changed the physiology of animals because of the energetic cost that bone growth entails. Thus, over the last 10 years, his group has explored the hypothesis that the control of bone mass and energy metabolism must be coordinated and that this coordination is done, in large part, by hormones like leptin and osteocalcin that appear during evolution with bone. His lab has explored every aspect of this hypothesis through genetic and molecular means. Concurrent with this research, the Karsenty lab is exploring whether there are additional connections between bone physiology and the function of other organs such as fertility. This work culminated in the discovery that bone, via osteocalcin, regulates testosterone production.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair, Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University Medical School, New York, NY, USA

Reviews

"This is a valuable contribution to the field of bone biology. It is a must read for all researchers in the field of bone pathology. It is also a good book for physicians caring for patients with bone disorders as it provides a review of bone pathology in the context of other body systems." Rating: 4 Stars--Doody.com, May 2, 2014
"…17 articles…discuss the effects of bone on whole-organism physiology and how the study of this discipline aids in the understanding of the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases affecting several organs. Chapters address various hormones and neuromediators ranging from serotonin to osteocalcin, as well as knowledge about the ability of bone to regulate phosphate metabolism."--ProtoView.com, March 2014