Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments

Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments

1st Edition - December 7, 2012

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  • Editors: Dirk Knaust, Richard Bromley
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538130
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444538147

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Description

Integration of ichnological information into sedimentological models, and vice versa, is one of the main means by which we can improve our understanding of ancient depositional environments. Mainly intended for sedimentologists, this book aims to make ichnological methods as part of facies interpretation more popular, providing an analytical review of the ichnology of all major depositional environments and the use of ichnology in biostratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic analysis. It starts with an introduction to the historical aspect of ichnology, introducing common concepts and methods, and then continues with parts treating the main depositional systems from continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine siliciclastics, and marine carbonates. The last part is dedicated to the ichnology in hydrocarbon reservoir and aquifer characterization.

Key Features

  • First overview in 25 years of the status of ichnological studies in facies reconstructions of all major depositional environments
  • Written by a selected, well-experienced and specialized international authorship
  • Provides easy access to the comprehensive and widespread literature

Readership

Scientists in a wide range of disciplines, including sedimentology, stratigraphy and petroleum geology

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter Reviewers:

    Chapter 1. A History of Ideas in Ichnology

    1 Introduction

    2 The Ages of Ichnology

    3 From Paleolithic Times to Greco-Roman Antiquity

    4 The Age of Naturalists

    5 Seventeenth to Eighteenth Century: A Period of Transition

    6 The Age of Fucoids

    7 Period of Reaction

    8 Development of the Modern Approach

    9 Modern Era

    10 Conclusions and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 2. Ichnotaxonomy

    1 Introduction

    2 Observing Trace Fossils

    3 Describing Trace Fossils

    4 Stratinomic Classifications

    5 Biological Classifications

    6 Ethological Classification

    7 Systematic Classification

    8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Trace-Fossil Systematics

    1 Introduction

    2 Need of a Robust Ichnotaxonomy and Trace-Fossil Classification

    3 A Newly Proposed Nomenclature Key

    4 Way Forward

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Further reading

    Chapter 4. The Ichnofacies Paradigm

    1 Introduction

    2 Neoichnological Underpinning of Seilacherian Ichnofacies

    3 The Seilacherian Ichnofacies

    4 The Role of Seilacherian Ichnofacies

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 5. The Ichnofabric Concept

    1 Introduction

    2 Early Development of the Concept

    3 A Controversial Concept?

    4 Importance of Ichnofabric

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 6. Sequence Stratigraphy

    1 Introduction

    2 Overview of Sequence-Stratigraphic Frameworks

    3 Ichnological Applications to Sequence Stratigraphy (Case Studies)

    4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. Ichnostratigraphy

    1 Introduction

    2 Continental Environments

    3 Marginal-Marine Environments

    4 Shallow-Marine Environments

    5 Deep-Marine Environments

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8. Microbioerosion

    1 Introduction

    2 The Methodological Toolkit

    3 Microbioeroding Biota and Their Traces

    4 Paleoenvironmental Signatures

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Methodology and Techniques

    1 Introduction

    2 Field Techniques

    3 Laboratory Techniques

    4 Borehole Cores and Images

    5 Statistical Analysis

    6 Computer Modeling

    7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 10. Marine Invertebrate Neoichnology

    1 Introduction

    2 Major Infaunal Groups and their Common Traces

    3 Environmental Stresses and their Impact of Neoichnology

    4 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Glacial Environments

    1 Introduction

    2 Ecological and Environmental Constraints in Glacial Settings

    3 Trace-Fossil Assemblages from Ancient Glacial Environments

    4 Ichnology of Recent Glacial Environments

    5 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 12. Fluvial Environments

    1 Introduction

    2 Approach

    3 Ichnofacies

    4 Application of Ichnofacies and Ichnofabrics to the Interpretation of Fluvial Sedimentary Facies

    5 Depositional Environments

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 13. Lacustrine Environments

    1 Introduction

    2 Ichnology

    3 An Integrated Lake-Type Basin and Lacustrine Ichnology Model

    4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Eolian Environments

    1 Introduction

    2 Ichnofacies

    3 Depositional Environments

    4 Ichnofabrics

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 15. Rocky Shorelines

    1 Introduction

    2 Modern Rocky-Shore Habitats and Inhabitants

    3 Main Bioerosion Ichnotaxa

    4 Trace-Fossil Assemblages and Ichnofacies

    5 Case Studies

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 16. Estuaries

    1 Introduction

    2 The Ichnological Identification of Estuaries

    3 Trace Distributions Within Wave- and Tide-Dominated Estuaries

    4 Ancient Examples—Trace-Fossil Distribution

    5 Discussion

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 17. Deltas

    1 Introduction

    2 Classification of Deltaic Systems

    3 Common Deltaic Trace Fossils

    4 Controls on Deltaic Ichnology

    5 Ichnology of Deltaic End Members

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 18. Tidal Flats and Subtidal Sand Bodies

    1 Introduction

    2 Supratidal and Intertidal Environments

    3 Subtidal Environments

    4 Ichnofacies Trends

    5 Sequence Stratigraphy

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 19. Shorefaces

    1 Introduction

    2 Shoreface Subenvironments

    3 Shoreface Variability

    4 Tidal Effects on the Shoreface

    5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 20. Slopes

    1 Introduction

    2 The Distribution of Infauna on Slopes: Insights from Modern Basin Margins

    3 Ichnofacies in Bathyal Settings

    4 Slope Depositional Environments—Case Studies

    5 Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 21. Deep-Sea Fans

    1 Introduction

    2 Classification of Deep-Sea Trace Fossils

    3 Pre-Depositional Trace Fossils

    4 Post-Depositional Trace Fossils

    5 Ichnofacies

    6 Trace-Fossil Assemblages

    7 Ichnofabrics

    8 Ichnology of Carbonate Turbidites

    9 Trace Fossils as Indicators of Ecological and Physical Sedimentary Parameters

    10 Cyclicity and Sequence Stratigraphy Aspects

    11 Evolutionary Aspects

    12 Perspectives and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 22. Hemipelagic and Pelagic Basin Plains

    1 Introduction

    2 Ichnology

    3 Depositional Environments and Trace Fossils

    4 Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 23. Shallow-Marine Carbonates

    1 Introduction

    2 Ichnological Characteristics of Shallow-Marine Carbonate Systems

    3 Ichnofacies

    4 Case Studies

    5 Neoichnological Approaches

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 24. Reefs and Mounds

    1 Introduction

    2 Traces and Tracemakers of the Reef

    3 Reef Ichnology Through Time

    4 Environmental Controls on Bioerosion

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 25. Chalk and Related Deep-Marine Carbonates

    1 Introduction

    2 Zoophycos Ichnofacies

    3 Cruziana Ichnofacies

    4 Glossifungites Ichnofacies

    5 Trypanites Ichnofacies

    6 Trace Fossils in Remobilized Substrates

    7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 26. Mixed Siliciclastic/Carbonate Systems

    1 Introduction

    2 Spatial Variability (Lateral Facies Mixing)

    3 Temporal Variability (Stratigraphic Mixing)

    4 Shell Debris in Clastic Successions

    5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 27. Porosity and Permeability in Bioturbated Sediments

    1 Introduction

    2 The Nature of Ichnological Permeability

    3 Framework for Assessing Burrow-Associated Permeability

    4 Analytical Methods

    5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28. Carbonate Aquifers

    1 Introduction

    2 Methods

    3 Application of Ichnology to Aquifer Characterization

    4 Conclusions

    References

    Epilogue

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 960
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: December 7, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538130
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444538147

About the Editors

Dirk Knaust

Affiliations and Expertise

Statoil ASA, Stavanger, Norway

Richard Bromley

Affiliations and Expertise

Geological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark

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